A bibliography of publications on llama and llama related topics up to 31/12/2016. These are in reverse chronological order. Note URL to copies of the full article or further information on-line. This bibliography is held in EndNote which can be searched on many items- title, author, date of publication and used to cite in written , etc. I am prepared to share this EndNote with interested parties if you care to contact me personally via this website.

Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 728
Author: Krahn, N.; Spearman, M.; Meier, M.; Dorion-Thibaudeau, J.; McDougall, M.; Patel, T. R.; De Crescenzo, G.; Durocher, Y.; Stetefeld, J.; Butler, M. DA - Jan DO - 10.1016/j.ejps.2016.09.040
Year: 2017
Title: Inhibition of glycosylation on a camelid antibody uniquely affects its FcγRI binding activity
Journal: Eur J Pharm Sci
Volume: 96
Pages: 428-439 ST - Inhibition of glycosylation on a camelid antibody uniquely affects its FcγRI binding activity
Label: 1565
Abstract: Glycoengineering of mAbs has become common practice in attempts to generate the ideal mAb candidate for a wide range of therapeutic applications. The effects of these glycan modifications on the binding affinity of IgG mAbs for FcγRIIIa and their cytotoxicity are well known. However, little is understood about the effect that these modifications have on binding to the high affinity FcγRI receptor. This study analyzed the effect of variable N-glycosylation on a human-llama hybrid mAb (EG2-hFc, 80kDa) binding to FcγRI including a comparison to a full-sized IgG1 (DP-12, 150kDa). This was achieved by the addition of three glycosylation inhibitors (swainsonine, castanospermine, and kifunensine) independently to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures to generate hybrid and high mannose glycan structures. Biophysical analysis by circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and analytical ultra-centrifugation confirmed that the solution-behaviour of the mAbs remained constant over multiple concentrations and glycan treatments. However, changes were observed when studying the interaction of FcγRI with variously glycosylated mAbs. Both mAbs were observed to have a decreased binding affinity upon treatment with swainsonine which produced hybrid glycans. Following de-glycosylation the binding affinity for EG2-hFc was only marginally reduced (6-fold) compared to a drastic (118-fold) decrease for DP-12. In summary, our data suggest that the relatively low molecular weight of chimeric EG2-hFc may contribute to its enhanced stability against glycan changes making it a highly suitable mAb candidate for therapeutic applications. AN - 27721040
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27721040


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 1
Author: Zampini, R; Argañaraz, ME; Miceli, DC; Apichela, SA
Year: 2016
Title: Detection of the Matrix Metalloproteinases MMP‐2 and MMP‐9 and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases TIMP‐1 and TIMP‐2 in Llama (Lama glama) Oviduct
Journal: Reproduction in domestic animals
Keywords: [semen, complementary DNA, messenger RNA, llamas, nucleotide sequences, gelatinase A, gelatin]
Notes: English
URL: http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201400070333


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 729
Author: Yan, S.; Yu, Z.; Ning, L.; Hai-Dong, W.; Jian-Shan, X.; Shu-Yuan, G.; Jia-Qi, C.; Xiu-Ju, Y.; Ting, W.; Chang-Sheng, D.; Xiao-Yan, H. DA - Feb DO - 10.1016/j.gene.2015.11.022
Year: 2016
Title: Let-7b promotes alpaca hair growth via transcriptional repression of TGFβR I
Journal: Gene
Volume: 577
Issue: 1
Pages: 32-6 ST - Let-7b promotes alpaca hair growth via transcriptional repression of TGFβR I
Label: 1617
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Down-Regulation Fibroblasts Gene Expression Regulation Hair Male MicroRNAs Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases RNA, Messenger Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta Skin LA - eng
Abstract: The young male alpaca ear and the back skins were used to investigate the effect of transforming growth factor receptor-β I (TGFβR I) on alpaca hair follicles and hair growth. The expression level and location of TGFβR I in alpaca ear and dorsal skin were detected through real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and paraffin section immunohistochemical technique (ICC-P). The results shown TGFβR I was lower expression in back skin compared to ear skin and the mean density of the positive reaction in ear skin was significantly higher than back skin. The targeted relationship with let-7b was detected using the dual-luciferase reporter vector of TGFβR I, which showed a significant target relationship between let-7b and TGFβR I. After transfection with let-7b eukaryotic expression vector, the relative mRNA expression of TGFβR I in alpaca skin fibroblasts did not differ, while the relative protein level was significantly decreased. In summary, a higher TGFβR I expression level in the ear skin suggests that TGFβR I may inhibit coat hair elongation. Further studies showed TGFβR I protein was downregulated by let-7b through transcriptional repression. AN - 26611528
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611528


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 730
Author: van Lith, S. A.; Roodink, I.; Verhoeff, J. J.; Mäkinen, P. I.; Lappalainen, J. P.; Ylä-Herttuala, S.; Raats, J.; van Wijk, E.; Roepman, R.; Letteboer, S. J.; Verrijp, K.; Leenders, W. P. DA - Sep DO - 10.18632/oncotarget.12261
Year: 2016
Title: In vivo phage display screening for tumor vascular targets in glioblastoma identifies a llama nanobody against dynactin-1-p150Glued
Journal: Oncotarget
Label: 1566
Abstract: Diffuse gliomas are primary brain cancers that are characterised by infiltrative growth. Whereas high-grade glioma characteristically presents with perinecrotic neovascularisation, large tumor areas thrive on pre-existent vasculature as well. Clinical studies have revealed that pharmacological inhibition of the angiogenic process does not improve survival of glioblastoma patients. Direct targeting of tumor vessels may however still be an interesting therapeutic approach as it allows pinching off the blood supply to tumor cells. Such tumor vessel targeting requires the identification of tumor-specific vascular targeting agents (TVTAs).Here we describe a novel TVTA, C-C7, which we identified via in vivo biopanning of a llama nanobody phage display library in an orthotopic mouse model of diffuse glioma. We show that C-C7 recognizes a subpopulation of tumor blood vessels in glioma xenografts and clinical glioma samples. Additionally, C-C7 recognizes macrophages and activated endothelial cells in atherosclerotic lesions. By using C-C7 as bait in yeast-2-hybrid (Y2H) screens we identified dynactin-1-p150Glued as its binding partner. The interaction was confirmed by co-immunostainings with C-C7 and a commercial anti-dynactin-1-p150Glued antibody, and via co-immunoprecipitation/western blot studies. Normal brain vessels do not express dynactin-1-p150Glued and its expression is reduced under anti-VEGF therapy, suggesting that dynactin-1-p150Glued is a marker for activated endothelial cells.In conclusion, we show that in vivo phage display combined with Y2H screenings provides a powerful approach to identify tumor-targeting nanobodies and their binding partners. Using this combination of methods we identify dynactin-1-p150Glued as a novel targetable protein on activated endothelial cells and macrophages. AN - 27689404
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27689404


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 731
Author: Turner, K. B.; Naciri, J.; Liu, J. L.; Anderson, G. P.; Goldman, E. R.; Zabetakis, D. C2 - PMC4760936 DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0149393
Year: 2016
Title: Next-Generation Sequencing of a Single Domain Antibody Repertoire Reveals Quality of Phage Display Selected Candidates
Journal: PLoS One
Volume: 11
Issue: 2
Pages: e0149393 ST - Next-Generation Sequencing of a Single Domain Antibody Repertoire Reveals Quality of Phage Display Selected Candidates
Label: 1604
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Antibody Affinity Cell Surface Display Techniques Cloning, Molecular Gene Dosage Gene Expression Gene Library High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing Humans Molecular Sequence Data Peptide Library Phylogeny Protein Binding Protein Stability Sequence Alignment Single-Domain Antibodies LA - eng
Abstract: Next-Generation Sequencing and bioinformatics are powerful tools for analyzing the large number of DNA sequences present in an immune library. In this work, we constructed a cDNA library of single domain antibodies from a llama immunized with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. The resulting library was sequenced, resulting in approximately 8.5 million sequences with 5.4 million representing intact, useful sequences. The sequenced library was interrogated using sequences of known SEB-binding single domain antibodies from the library obtained through phage display panning methods in a previous study. New antibodies were identified, produced, and characterized, and were shown to have affinities and melting temperatures comparable to those obtained by traditional panning methods. This demonstrates the utility of using NGS as a complementary tool to phage-displayed biopanning as a means for rapidly obtaining additional antibodies from an immune library. It also shows that phage display, using a library of high diversity, is able to select high quality antibodies even when they are low in frequency. AN - 26895405
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26895405


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 732
Author: Tu, Z.; Chen, Q.; Li, Y.; Xiong, Y.; Xu, Y.; Hu, N.; Tao, Y. DA - Jan DO - 10.1016/j.ab.2015.09.023
Year: 2016
Title: Identification and characterization of species-specific nanobodies for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in milk
Journal: Anal Biochem
Volume: 493
Pages: 1-7 ST - Identification and characterization of species-specific nanobodies for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in milk
Label: 1626
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Animals Camelids, New World Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Humans Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains Listeria monocytogenes Listeriosis Milk Molecular Sequence Data Peptide Library Sequence Alignment Single-Domain Antibodies Species Specificity LA - eng
Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes (LM), one of the eight species belonging to the genus Listeria, is pathogenic for both humans and animals. In this study, two novel LM-specific clones, designated L5-78 and L5-79, were isolated from a phage display antibody library that was derived from the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHHs) of non-immunized alpaca. These two clones were expressed, purified, and characterized. Results showed that both isolated VHHs recognize three serotypes (1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b), which are responsible for more than 95% of documented human listeriosis cases. The recombinant VHHs possess high thermal stability, pH tolerance, and urea resistance. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the VHH clone L5-79 and a monoclonal antibody was developed to detect LM in pasteurized milk, with a detection limit of 1 × 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. These findings indicated that the species-specific VHHs could be directly isolated from the non-immunized library with a properly designed panning strategy and VHH could be a new source for possible diagnosis/detection of foodborne pathogens in food because it was shown to be highly specific and stable. AN - 26456330
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26456330


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 733
Author: Thompson, M. K.; Fridy, P. C.; Keegan, S.; Chait, B. T.; Fenyö, D.; Rout, M. P. C2 - PMC4769958 DA - Mar DO - 10.1016/j.jim.2016.01.006
Year: 2016
Title: Optimizing selection of large animals for antibody production by screening immune response to standard vaccines
Journal: J Immunol Methods
Volume: 430
Pages: 56-60 ST - Optimizing selection of large animals for antibody production by screening immune response to standard vaccines
Label: 1610
Keywords: Animals Antibodies, Viral Antibody Formation Camelids, New World Female Green Fluorescent Proteins Luminescent Proteins Male Rabies Vaccines Rabies virus Sheep Vaccination LA - eng
Abstract: Antibodies made in large animals are integral to many biomedical research endeavors. Domesticated herd animals like goats, sheep, donkeys, horses and camelids all offer distinct advantages in antibody production. However, their cost of use is often prohibitive, especially where poor antigen response is commonplace; choosing a non-responsive animal can set a research program back or even prevent experiments from moving forward entirely. Over the course of production of antibodies from llamas, we found that some animals consistently produced a higher humoral antibody response than others, even to highly divergent antigens, as well as to their standard vaccines. Based on our initial data, we propose that these "high level responders" could be pre-selected by checking antibody titers against common vaccines given to domestic farm animals. Thus, time and money can be saved by reducing the chances of getting poor responding animals and minimizing the use of superfluous animals. AN - 26775851
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26775851


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 734
Author: Stieger-Vanegas, S. M.; Scollan, K. F.; Meadows, L.; Sisson, D.; Schlipf, J.; Riebold, T.; Löhr, C. V. DA - Mar DO - 10.1016/j.jvc.2015.09.005
Year: 2016
Title: Cardiac-gated computed tomography angiography in three alpacas with complex congenital heart disease
Journal: J Vet Cardiol
Volume: 18
Issue: 1
Pages: 88-98 ST - Cardiac-gated computed tomography angiography in three alpacas with complex congenital heart disease
Label: 1609
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Coronary Angiography Electrocardiography Female Heart Defects, Congenital Male Tomography LA - eng
Abstract: The prevalence of congenital heart disease is higher in camelids than in other domestic species and complex defects, often involving the great vessels, are more frequently encountered in llamas and alpacas than in other species. Some of these complex defects can be difficult to accurately characterize via echocardiography, the most commonly used diagnostic imaging technique to evaluate the heart in veterinary patients. Contrast-enhanced, electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated computed tomography (CT) has proven utility for the evaluation of human patients with certain congenital heart defects, including those with conotruncal septation defects and other abnormalities involving the formation of the great vessels.|Three alpaca crias, 4 days, 5 weeks and 14 months of age were clinically evaluated and subjected to a complete color-flow Doppler echocardiogram and a contrast-enhanced ECG-gated CT.|These alpacas exhibited a variety of clinical findings including lethargy, failure to thrive, exercise intolerance, heart murmur, and/or respiratory difficulty. All three crias were subsequently diagnosed with complex cardiac defects including pulmonary atresia with a ventricular septal defect (VSD), a truncus arteriosus with a large VSD, and a double outlet right ventricle with a large VSD and aortic hypoplasia. In each case, the diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem examination.|Color flow echocardiographic evaluation identified all of the intra-cardiac lesions and associated flow anomalies but contrast-enhanced ECG-gated CT permitted more accurate assessment of the morphology of the extracardiac structures and permitted a more precise determination of the exact nature and anatomy of the great vessels. AN - 26803197
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26803197


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 2
Author: Soare, T.; Rizac, R.I.; Gal, C.; Constantinescu, C.M.; Gagniuc, E.; Ciobotaru, E.
Year: 2016
Title: Primary Bacterial Pneumonia in Captive Llama glama.
City: [Place of publication not identified]
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Number of Pages: 1 online resource LA - English NT - In: Journal of comparative pathology, Vol. 154, no. 1 ( 2016), p.119-.
Keywords: Veterinary pathology.
Veterinary therapeutics.
Pathology, Comparative.
Therapeutics.
Pathology, Veterinary. HL - National Library of Scotland DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - SER
URL: https://nls.ldls.org.uk/welcome.html?ark:/81055/vdc_100030622920.0x000036


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 735
Author: Smith, M. A.; Bush, R. D.; van de Ven, R. J.; Hopkins, D. L. DA - Jan DO - 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.08.013
Year: 2016
Title: Effect of electrical stimulation and ageing period on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat and eating quality
Journal: Meat Sci
Volume: 111
Pages: 38-46 ST - Effect of electrical stimulation and ageing period on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat and eating quality
Label: 1639
Keywords: Animals Animals, Domestic Camelids, New World Electric Stimulation Female Food Handling Food Quality Food Storage Hardness Humans Hydrogen-Ion Concentration Male Meat Muscle, Skeletal New South Wales Orchiectomy Pigments, Biological Sensation Shear Strength Taste LA - eng
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of using medium voltage (~300 V) electrical stimulation (ES) and ageing on alpaca meat. A total of 50 huacaya alpacas were distributed across three age groups (18, 24 and 36 months) and two genders (females and castrated males). At 24h post mortem the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed and aged for either 5 or 10 days. In comparison to non-ES samples, ES significantly reduced: LL purge values by 3.0% and LL shear force (SF) at 5 and 10 days (by 21.6N and ageing further reduced tenderness by 6.6N), and SM SF by 5.8 N with significant age effects observed in both ES and non-ES SM samples, such that SF increased by 0.53 N with each month increase in animal age. Consumers rated ES samples higher on tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall rating. ES and ageing of alpaca carcasses are recommended. AN - 26331964
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26331964


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 3
Author: Sanz-Robinson, Josue.; University., Princeton; Engineering., Department of Electrical
Year: 2016
Title: Llamas : large-area microphone arrays and sensing systems.
Label: 961826919 LA - English
Abstract: Large-area electronics (LAE) provides a platform to build sensing systems, based on distributing large numbers of densely spaced sensors over a physically-expansive space. Due to their flexible, "wallpaper-like" form factor, these systems can be seamlessly deployed in everyday spaces. They go beyond just supplying sensor readings, but rather they aim to transform the wealth of data from these sensors into actionable inferences about our physical environment. This requires vertically integrated systems that span the entirety of the signal processing chain, including transducers and devices, circuits, and signal processing algorithms. To this end we develop hybrid LAE / CMOS systems, which exploit the complementary strengths of LAE, enabling spatially distributed sensors, and CMOS ICs, providing computational capacity for signal processing. To explore the development of hybrid sensing systems, based on vertical integration across the signal processing chain, we focus on two main drivers: (1) thin-film diodes, and (2) microphone arrays for blind source separation: 1) Thin-film diodes are a key building block for many applications, such as RFID tags or power transfer over non-contact inductive links, which require rectifiers for AC-to-DC conversion. We developed hybrid amorphous / nanocrystalline silicon diodes, which are fabricated at low temperatures (<200 °C) to be compatible with processing on plastic, and have high current densities (5 A/cm2 at 1 V) and high frequency operation (cutoff frequency of 110 MHz). 2) We designed a system for separating the voices of multiple simultaneous speakers, which can ultimately be fed to a voice-command recognition engine for controlling electronic systems. On a device level, we developed flexible PVDF microphones, which were used to create a large-area microphone array. On a circuit level we developed localized a-Si TFT amplifiers, and a custom CMOS IC, for system control, sensor readout and digitization. On a signal processing level we developed an algorithm for blind source separation in a real, reverberant room, based on beamforming and binary masking. It requires no knowledge about the location of the speakers or microphones. Instead, it uses cluster analysis techniques to determine the time delays for beamforming; thus, adapting to the unique acoustic environment of the room.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 736
Author: Santa Cruz, R.; Giuliano, S. M.; Gambarotta, M. C.; Morrell, J. M.; Abraham, M. C.; Miragaya, M. H.; Carretero, M. I. DA - Oct DO - 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2016.08.001
Year: 2016
Title: Comparison of differents methods of sperm selection of llama raw semen
Journal: Anim Reprod Sci
Volume: 173
Pages: 8-12 ST - Comparison of differents methods of sperm selection of llama raw semen
Label: 1575
Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of different sperm selection methods applied to the same llama ejaculate. Four treatments were compared: two variants of the swim up technique (with and without seminal plasma), and two different colloids, Androcoll-E-Large and Percoll(®). Using electroejaculation, 21 semen samples were obtained from 7 llama males (n=7, r=3). The ejaculates were incubated in a solution of 0.1% collagenase, to decrease thread formation, and then split into 4 aliquots: one aliquot was layered over a column of Androcoll-E-Large (SLC) and the second over a column of Percoll (45%). The third aliquot was deposited in a tube with culture medium and was incubated at a 45° angle for 30min at 37°C (SU1). The last aliquot was centrifuged to separate the spermatozoa and seminal plasma. The sperm pellet obtained was resuspended, and transferred to a tube with culture medium which was incubated at an angle of 45° for 30min at 37°C (SU2). Both aliquots SLC and P showed higher proportions of progressive motility and plasma membrane functionality (p≤0.05) than raw semen. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in sperm viability and in normal spermatozoa between raw semen and treatments. Nevertheless, only SLC did not have a significant increase of bent tails. In conclusion SLC centrifugation would be the method of choice for selecting llama spermatozoa. AN - 27523254
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27523254


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 737
Author: Salgado, M.; Sevilla, I.; Rios, C.; Crossley, J.; Tejeda, C.; Manning, E. DA - Mar DO - 10.1638/2012-0255.1
Year: 2016
Title: PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO
Journal: J Zoo Wildl Med
Volume: 47
Issue: 1
Pages: 12-6 ST - PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO
Label: 1594
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Chile Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Paratuberculosis LA - eng
Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises. AN - 27010259
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27010259


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 738
Author: Rojas, M.; Manchego, A.; Rocha, C. B.; Fornells, L. A.; Silva, R. C.; Mendes, G. S.; Dias, H. G.; Sandoval, N.; Pezo, D.; Santos, N. DA - Mar
Year: 2016
Title: Outbreak of diarrhea among preweaning alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in the southern Peruvian highland
Journal: J Infect Dev Ctries
Volume: 10
Issue: 3
Pages: 269-74 ST - Outbreak of diarrhea among preweaning alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in the southern Peruvian highland
Label: 1591
Keywords: Animals Bacteria Camelids, New World Diarrhea Disease Outbreaks Parasites Peru Viruses LA - eng
Abstract: Infections, particularly diarrheal infections, are a major cause of neonatal death in South American camelids. The aim of this study was to identify the pathogens that could have caused the recent diarrhea outbreak among the alpacas in Silli, Cusco, located in the southern Peruvian highland.|Spleen, kidney, and intestine tissue along with fecal and intestinal lavage samples were obtained from 50 one- to five-week-old alpacas and analyzed for the presence of parasites, bacteria, and viruses.|Laboratory testing of the 50 crias included in this study revealed that 80% were infected with Eimeria spp., 40% with coronavirus, 34% with E. coli, 32% with rotavirus, 22% with Clostridium spp., and 20% with Cryptosporidium spp. Of these 50 alpaca crias, 20 presented with a single infection (19 positive for Eimeria spp. and 1 positive for rotavirus). Co-infections with up to four pathogens occurred in 60% of the samples. The significance of such infections is not clear, but it is noteworthy that the animals suffering from necrotic and/or hemorrhagic enteritis presented with quadruple infections. It is likely that co-infections increase the severity of the disease.|These data show that multiple pathogens circulate among young alpaca crias and could be associated with diarrheal disease in these animals. The findings from this study warrant the provision of subsidies for future assessment of the potential economic impact of these infections on the productivity of the Peruvian alpaca industry. AN - 27031459
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27031459


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 739
Author: Raila, J.; Schweigert, F. J.; Stanitznig, A.; Lambacher, B.; Franz, S.; Baldermann, S.; Wittek, T. DA - Nov DO - 10.1111/jpn.12638
Year: 2016
Title: No detectable carotenoid concentrations in serum of llamas and alpacas
Journal: J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl)
Label: 1563
Abstract: Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments and important for a variety of physiological functions. They are major dietary vitamin A precursors and act as lipophilic antioxidants in a variety of tissues and are associated with important health benefits in humans and animals. All animals must acquire carotenoids from their diet, but to our knowledge, there are no studies investigating the intestinal carotenoid absorption and their blood concentrations in New World camelids. The present study aimed to assess the serum concentrations of selected carotenoids in llamas (n = 13) and alpacas (n = 27). Serum carotenoids as well as retinol (vitamin A) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and these were unable to detect any carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, α- and β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene) in the samples. The concentrations of retinol in alpacas (2.89 ± 1.13 μmol/l; mean ± SD) were higher (p = 0.024) than those found in llamas (2.05 ± 0.87 μmol/l); however, the concentrations of α-tocopherol were not significantly (p = 0.166) different (llamas: 3.98 ± 1.83 μmol/l; alpacas: 4.95 ± 2.14 μmol/l). The results show that both llamas and alpacas are not able to absorb intact carotenoids, but efficiently convert provitamin A carotenoids to retinol. AN - 27862386
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27862386


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 740
Author: Prado, N. D.; Pereira, S. S.; da Silva, M. P.; Morais, M. S.; Kayano, A. M.; Moreira-Dill, L. S.; Luiz, M. B.; Zanchi, F. B.; Fuly, A. L.; Huacca, M. E.; Fernandes, C. F.; Calderon, L. A.; Zuliani, J. P.; Pereira da Silva, L. H.; Soares, A. M.; Stabeli, R. G. C2 - PMC4814101 DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0151363
Year: 2016
Title: Inhibition of the Myotoxicity Induced by Bothrops jararacussu Venom and Isolated Phospholipases A2 by Specific Camelid Single-Domain Antibody Fragments
Journal: PLoS One
Volume: 11
Issue: 3
Pages: e0151363 ST - Inhibition of the Myotoxicity Induced by Bothrops jararacussu Venom and Isolated Phospholipases A2 by Specific Camelid Single-Domain Antibody Fragments
Label: 1592
Keywords: Animals Antivenins Bothrops Camelids, New World Crotalid Venoms Group II Phospholipases A2 Male Mice Molecular Docking Simulation Single-Chain Antibodies LA - eng
Abstract: Antivenoms, produced using animal hyperimmune plasma, remains the standard therapy for snakebites. Although effective against systemic damages, conventional antivenoms have limited efficacy against local tissue damage. Additionally, the hypersensitivity reactions, often elicited by antivenoms, the high costs for animal maintenance, the difficulty of producing homogeneous lots, and the instability of biological products instigate the search for innovative products for antivenom therapy. In this study, camelid antibody fragments (VHH) with specificity to Bothropstoxin I and II (BthTX-I and BthTX-II), two myotoxic phospholipases from Bothrops jararacussu venom, were selected from an immune VHH phage display library. After biopanning, 28 and 6 clones recognized BthTX-I and BthTX-II by ELISA, respectively. Complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and immunoglobulin frameworks (FRs) of 13 VHH-deduced amino acid sequences were identified, as well as the camelid hallmark amino acid substitutions in FR2. Three VHH clones (KF498607, KF498608, and KC329718) were capable of recognizing BthTX-I by Western blot and showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range against both toxins. VHHs inhibited the BthTX-II phospholipase A2 activity, and when tested for cross-reactivity, presented specificity to the Bothrops genus in ELISA. Furthermore, two clones (KC329718 and KF498607) neutralized the myotoxic effects induced by B. jararacussu venom, BthTX-I, BthTX-II, and by a myotoxin from Bothrops brazili venom (MTX-I) in mice. Molecular docking revealed that VHH CDRs are expected to bind the C-terminal of both toxins, essential for myotoxic activity, and to epitopes in the BthTX-II enzymatic cleft. Identified VHHs could be a biotechnological tool to improve the treatment for snake envenomation, an important and neglected world public health problem. AN - 27028872
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27028872


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 741
Author: Porcel R, Ricardo Enrique
Year: 2016
Title: Comparative histological study of reproductive mechanism of female llama (Lama glama). Ovary and oviduct
Date: 2016 ST - Comparative histological study of reproductive mechanism of female llama (Lama glama). Ovary and oviduct
Label: 455
Keywords: [genital system, tissu animal, systeme genital, ovaries, structure cellulaire, cows, oviducte, brebis, oviducts, ewes, ovaire, llamas, vache, cell structure, lama, animal tissues] LA - Spanish
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=CL9700515


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 742
Author: Poggio, T. V.; Jensen, O.; Mossello, M.; Iriarte, J.; Avila, H. G.; Gertiser, M. L.; Serafino, J. J.; Romero, S.; Echenique, M. A.; Dominguez, D. E.; Barrios, J. R.; Heath, D. DA - Aug DO - 10.1111/pim.12325
Year: 2016
Title: Serology and longevity of immunity against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep and llama induced by an oil-based EG95 vaccine
Journal: Parasite Immunol
Volume: 38
Issue: 8 LA - eng
Pages: 496-502 ST - Serology and longevity of immunity against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep and llama induced by an oil-based EG95 vaccine
Label: 1587
Abstract: An oil-based formulation of the EG95 vaccine to protect grazing animals against infection with Echinococcus granulosus was formulated in Argentina. The efficacy of the vaccine was monitored by serology in sheep and llama (Lama glama) and was compared to the serology in sheep previously published using a QuilA-adjuvanted vaccine. Long-term efficacy was also tested in sheep by challenging with E. granulosus eggs of the G1 strain 4 years after the beginning of the trial. The serological results for both sheep and llama were similar to those described previously, except that there was a more rapid response after the first vaccination. A third vaccination given after 1 year resulted in a transient boost in serology that lasted for about 12 months, which was similar to results previously described. Sheep challenged after 4 years with three vaccinations presented 84·2% reduction of live cysts counts compared with control group, and after a fourth vaccination prior to challenge, this reduction was 94·7%. The oil-based vaccine appeared to be bio-equivalent to the QuilA vaccine. AN - 27104482
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27104482


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 743
Author: Peyrassol, X.; Laeremans, T.; Gouwy, M.; Lahura, V.; Debulpaep, M.; Van Damme, J.; Steyaert, J.; Parmentier, M.; Langer, I. DA - Mar DO - 10.4049/jimmunol.1500888
Year: 2016
Title: Development by Genetic Immunization of Monovalent Antibodies (Nanobodies) Behaving as Antagonists of the Human ChemR23 Receptor
Journal: J Immunol
Volume: 196
Issue: 6
Pages: 2893-901 ST - Development by Genetic Immunization of Monovalent Antibodies (Nanobodies) Behaving as Antagonists of the Human ChemR23 Receptor
Label: 1605
Keywords: Animals Antibodies, Monoclonal Calcium Signaling Camelids, New World Cell Surface Display Techniques Cells, Cultured Chemokines DNA Dendritic Cells Genetic Engineering Humans Immunization Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins Macrophages Mice Peptide Fragments Protein Binding Receptors, Chemokine Single-Domain Antibodies LA - eng
Abstract: The generation of Abs that recognize the native conformation of G protein-coupled receptors can be a challenging task because, like most multimembrane-spanning proteins, they are extremely difficult to purify as native protein. By combining genetic immunization, phage display, and biopanning, we identified two functional monovalent Abs (nanobodies) targeting ChemR23. The two nanobodies (CA4910 and CA5183) were highly specific for the human receptor and bind ChemR23 with moderate affinity. Binding studies also showed that they share a common binding site that overlaps with that of chemerin, the natural ligand of ChemR23. Consistent with these results, we found that the nanobodies were able to antagonize chemerin-induced intracellular calcium increase. The inhibition was partial when chemerin was used as agonist and complete when the chemerin(149-157) nonapeptide was used as agonist. Engineering of a bivalent CA4910 nanobody resulted in a relatively modest increase in affinity but a marked enhancement of efficacy as an antagonist of chemerin induced intracellular calcium mobilization and a much higher potency against the chemerin(149-157) nonapeptide-induced response. We also demonstrated that the fluorescently labeled nanobodies detect ChemR23 on the surface of human primary cell populations as efficiently as a reference mouse mAb and that the bivalent CA4910 nanobody behaves as an efficient antagonist of chemerin-induced chemotaxis of human primary cells. Thus, these nanobodies constitute new tools to study the role of the chemerin/ChemR23 system in physiological and pathological conditions. AN - 26864035
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26864035


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 744
Author: Pauciullo, A.; Gauly, M.; Cosenza, G.; Wagner, H.; Erhardt, G. DA - Dec DO - 10.3168/jds.2016-11918
Year: 2016
Title: Lama glama αS1-casein: Identification of new polymorphisms at the CSN1S1 gene
Journal: J Dairy Sci
Label: 1560
Abstract: South American camelids have been poorly genetically investigated and little information is available in llamas (Lama glama) regarding the diversity of the caseins at the protein and gene level. Exon skipping and duplication events previously reported in the αS1-casein gene (CSN1S1) led us to investigate the genetic variability at this locus. Seventy-two positive clones for the αS1-casein transcripts were analyzed and randomly sequenced. The comparative analysis of the sequences revealed 2 transitions, c.366A>G and c.690T>C, at the 10th nucleotide of exon 12 and 94 bp of exon 19, respectively. These SNP are responsible for 2 amino acid changes, Ile→Val in position 86 and Tyr→His in position 194 of the mature protein. Both polymorphisms clarify the genetic events behind the protein variants A and B. This result was confirmed by isoelectric focusing analysis of llama milk samples. Quick methods based on PCR-RFLP and allele-specific PCR were set up for allelic discrimination in a population of 128 animals. Based on genotyping results, 4 haplotypes were observed and the estimated frequencies indicated B as the most common haplotype (0.629) in the investigated population. These data add knowledge to the genetic variability of a species little investigated, and open opportunity for new investigation in the field of milk protein for South American camelids, including the possibility, in the future, to select alleles with favorable characteristics. AN - 27939542
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939542


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 745
Author: Padula, A. M.; Winkel, K. D. DA - May DO - 10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.02.018
Year: 2016
Title: Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog
Journal: Toxicon
Volume: 114
Pages: 59-64 ST - Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog
Label: 1602
Abstract: This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (<0.015 ng/mL), consistent with complete binding of venom antigens by the alpaca antivenom. Coagulation parameters had begun to improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective. AN - 26930223
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26930223


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 746
Author: Oatley, M. J.; Kaucher, A. V.; Yang, Q. E.; Waqas, M. S.; Oatley, J. M. DA - Jul DO - 10.1095/biolreprod.116.139832
Year: 2016
Title: Conditions for Long-Term Culture of Cattle Undifferentiated Spermatogonia
Journal: Biol Reprod
Volume: 95
Issue: 1 LA - eng
Pages: 14 ST - Conditions for Long-Term Culture of Cattle Undifferentiated Spermatogonia
Label: 1584
Abstract: Continual and robust spermatogenesis relies on the actions of an undifferentiated spermatogonial population that contains stem cells. A remarkable feature of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is the capacity to regenerate spermatogenesis following isolation from a donor testis and transplantation into a permissive recipient testis. This capacity has enormous potential as a tool for enhancing the reproductive capacity of livestock, which can improve production efficiency. Because SSCs are a rare subset of the undifferentiated spermatogonial population, a period of in vitro amplification in number following isolation from donor testicular tissue is essential. Here, we describe methodology for isolation of a cell fraction from prepubertal bull testes that is enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia and long-term maintenance of the cells in both the feeder cell coculture and the feeder-free format. To achieve this method, we derived bovine fetal fibroblasts (BFF) to serve as feeders for optimizing medium conditions that promote maintenance of bovine undifferentiated spermatogonia for at least 2 mo. In addition, we devised a feeder-free system with BFF-conditioned medium that sustained bovine undifferentiated spermatogonia for at least 1 mo in vitro. The methodologies described could be optimized to provide platforms for exponential expansion of bovine SSCs that will provide the numbers needed for transplantation into recipient testes. AN - 27251094
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27251094


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 747
Author: Moutel, S.; Bery, N.; Bernard, V.; Keller, L.; Lemesre, E.; de Marco, A.; Ligat, L.; Rain, J. C.; Favre, G.; Olichon, A.; Perez, F. C2 - PMC4985285 DA - Jul DO - 10.7554/eLife.16228
Year: 2016
Title: NaLi-H1: A universal synthetic library of humanized nanobodies providing highly functional antibodies and intrabodies
Journal: Elife
Volume: 5
Label: 1579
Abstract: In vitro selection of antibodies allows to obtain highly functional binders, rapidly and at lower cost. Here, we describe the first fully synthetic phage display library of humanized llama single domain antibody (NaLi-H1: Nanobody Library Humanized 1). Based on a humanized synthetic single domain antibody (hs2dAb) scaffold optimized for intracellular stability, the highly diverse library provides high affinity binders without animal immunization. NaLi-H1 was screened following several selection schemes against various targets (Fluorescent proteins, actin, tubulin, p53, HP1). Conformation antibodies against active RHO GTPase were also obtained. Selected hs2dAb were used in various immunoassays and were often found to be functional intrabodies, enabling tracking or inhibition of endogenous targets. Functionalization of intrabodies allowed specific protein knockdown in living cells. Finally, direct selection against the surface of tumor cells produced hs2dAb directed against tumor-specific antigens further highlighting the potential use of this library for therapeutic applications. AN - 27434673
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27434673


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 5
Author: Morin, D.E. (University of Illinois, Urbana.); Rowan, L.L.; Hurley, W.L.; Braselton, W.E.
Year: 2016
Title: Composition of milk from llamas in the United States
Journal: Journal of dairy science (USA)
Keywords: [calcio, proteine du lait, potassium, lactosa, azufre, lactose, teneur en proteines, contenido de lipidos, llama, cloruros, lait, magnesio, rendement laitier, phosphore, potasio, grasa de la leche, calcium, etats unis, leche, sodio, chlorure, rendimiento lechero, magnesium, contenido proteico, soufre, eua, diferencias biologicas, teneur en lipides, sodium, matiere grasse du lait, proteinas de la leche, fosforo, lama, difference biologique]
Notes: English
URL: http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US9564497


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 6
Author: MORÉ, GASTÓN.; REGENSBURGER, CRISTIAN.; GOS, M. LAURA.; PARDINI, LAIS.; VERMA, SHIV K.; CTIBOR, JULIANA.; SERRANO-MARTÍNEZ, MARCOS ENRIQUE.; DUBEY, JITENDER P.; VENTURINI, M. CECILIA.
Year: 2016
Title: Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos).
City: Cambridge
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Number of Pages: 1 online resource LA - English NT - In: Parasitology, Vol. 143, no. 5 (Apr. 2016), p.617-626. NT - Summary: SUMMARYThere is considerable confusion concerning the species ofSarcocystisin South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst formingSarcocystis aucheniaeand describe and propose a new name,Sarcocystis masonifor the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts ofS. masoniwere up to 800µm long and 35–95µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5–3·5µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95–96% identity with otherSarcocystisspp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts ofS. aucheniaewere macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98–99% of sequence homology with otherS. aucheniaesequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly differentSarcocystisspecies,S. masoni(microscopic cysts) andS. aucheniae(macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru.
Keywords: Parasitology. HL - National Library of Scotland DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - SER
URL: https://nls.ldls.org.uk/welcome.html?ark:/81055/vdc_100031417705.0x00004e


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 7
Author: Moonens, Kristof; Van den Broeck, Imke; Okello, Emmanuel; Pardon, Els; De Kerpel, Maia; Remaut, Han; De Greve, Henri
Year: 2016
Title: Structural insight in the inhibition of adherence of F4 fimbriae producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by llama single domain antibodies
Journal: Veterinary research
Keywords: [piglets, receptors, bacteria, adhesins, seeds, immunoglobulin A, lactose, diarrhea, Arabidopsis thaliana, epitopes, fimbriae, llamas, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, antibodies]
Notes: English
URL: http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201500139689


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 750
Author: Mitchell, S.; Hopkins, B.; Corfield, C. DA - Mar DO - 10.1136/vr.i1411
Year: 2016
Title: Nematodirus lamae identified in an alpaca in the UK
Journal: Vet Rec
Volume: 178
Issue: 11
Pages: 271-2 ST - Nematodirus lamae identified in an alpaca in the UK
Label: 1597
Keywords: Animals Autopsy Camelids, New World Feces Nematodirus Parasitic Diseases, Animal United Kingdom LA - eng
Notes: TY - JOUR AN - 26966307
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966307


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 751
Author: Martin, M.; Decker Franco, C.; Romero, S.; Carletti, T.; Schnittger, L.; Florin-Christensen, M. DA - 2016 Jul - Sep DO - 10.1016/j.ram.2016.03.009
Year: 2016
Title: Molecular detection of Sarcocystis aucheniae in the blood of llamas from Argentina
Journal: Rev Argent Microbiol
Volume: 48
Issue: 3 LA - eng
Pages: 200-205 ST - Molecular detection of Sarcocystis aucheniae in the blood of llamas from Argentina
Label: 1569
Abstract: Sarcocystis aucheniae are apicomplexan protozoa that infect South American camelids (SACs), giving rise to macroscopic cysts similar to rice grains in skeletal muscles. Visual detection of macrocysts in slaughtered animals hampers commercialization of SAC meat, a highly relevant economic exploitation for Andean rural families. Importantly, the consumption of undercooked S. aucheniae-infested meat causes gastroenteritis. A carnivore definitive host, possibly the dog, acquires the parasite when feeding on infected SAC meat, and later eliminates infective oocysts in its feces. The parasite cycle is completed when SACs ingest contaminated water or pastures. We hypothesized that parasite DNA can be detected in SAC blood using molecular methods. In order to test this hypothesis, a seminested PCR format was specifically designed to target the hypervariable 18S rRNA gene region of S. aucheniae. PCR conditions were optimized using genomic DNA extracted from macrocyst bradyzoites. A detection limit of up to 1 parasite in 10μl of llama blood was established based on DNA samples extracted from aliquots of S. aucheniae bradyzoite-spiked non-infected llama blood. The seminested PCR allowed to detect natural infections of S. aucheniae in llama blood samples originating in the Andean flatlands of Argentina. Specific amplification of S. aucheniae DNA was corroborated by amplicon sequencing. This is the first report of S. aucheniae detection in llama blood, which provides a valuable diagnostic tool for epidemiological studies and for the evaluation of the efficacy of control measures for this parasitosis. AN - 27615713
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27615713


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 752
Author: Martínez Pastur, G.; Soler, R.; Ivancich, H.; Lencinas, M. V.; Bahamonde, H.; Peri, P. L. DA - Mar DO - 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.11.051
Year: 2016
Title: Effectiveness of fencing and hunting to control Lama guanicoe browsing damage: Implications for Nothofagus pumilio regeneration in harvested forests
Journal: J Environ Manage
Volume: 168
Pages: 165-74 ST - Effectiveness of fencing and hunting to control Lama guanicoe browsing damage: Implications for Nothofagus pumilio regeneration in harvested forests
Label: 1613
Keywords: Analysis of Variance Angiosperms Animal Culling Animals Camelids, New World Chile Conservation of Natural Resources Forestry Forests Seedlings LA - eng
Abstract: Browsing damage by native ungulates is often to be considered one of the reasons of regeneration failure in Nothofagus pumilio silvicultural systems. Fencing and hunting in forests at regeneration phase have been proposed to mitigate browsing effects. This study aims to determine effectiveness of these control methods in harvested forests, evaluating browsing damage over regeneration, as well as climate-related constraints (freezing or desiccation). Forest structure and regeneration plots were established in two exclosures against native ungulates (Lama guanicoe) by wire fences in the Chilean portion of Tierra del Fuego island, where tree regeneration density, growth, abiotic damage and quality (multi-stems and base/stem deformation) were assessed. Exclosures did not influence regeneration density (at the initial stage with < 1.3 m high, and at the advanced stage with >1.3 m high). However, sapling height at 10-years old was significantly lower outside (40-50 cm high) than inside exclosures (80-100 cm), and also increased their annual height growth, probably as a hunting effect. Likewise, quality was better inside exclosures. Alongside browsing, abiotic conditions negatively influenced sapling quality in the regeneration phase (20%-28% of all seedlings), but greatly to taller plants (as those from inside exclosure). This highlights the importance of considering climatic factors when analysing browsing effects. For best results, control of guanaco in recently harvested areas by fencing should be applied in combination with a reduction of guanaco density through continuous hunting. The benefits of mitigation actions (fencing and hunting) on regeneration growth may shorten the regeneration phase period in shelterwood cutting forests (30-50% less time), but incremental costs must be analysed in the framework of management planning by means of long-term studies. AN - 26708647
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26708647


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 8
Author: M.A., Memon; D.K., Stevens
Year: 2016
Title: Termination of unwanted pregnancy in a llama with cloprostenol and subsequent pregnancy: a case report.
Journal: Theriogenology
Keywords: [aborto, hormone synthetique, progesterona, abortion, females, hormonas sinteticas, fertility, progesterone, suero sanguineo, synthetic hormones, fertilidad, etude de cas, femelle, case studies, llama, estudios de casos practicos, llamas, blood serum, lama, fertilite, hembra, avortement, serum sanguin]
Notes: English
URL: http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US19970163554


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 754
Author: Longo, F.; Finotti, L.; Bellini, L.; Zavan, B.; Busetto, R.; Isola, M. DA - May DO - 10.1080/00480169.2015.1125810
Year: 2016
Title: Bovine xenograft application for treatment of a metatarsal nonunion fracture in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)
Journal: N Z Vet J
Volume: 64
Issue: 3
Pages: 188-92 ST - Bovine xenograft application for treatment of a metatarsal nonunion fracture in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)
Label: 1616
Keywords: Animals Bone Transplantation Camelids, New World Cattle Female Fractures, Ununited Heterografts Hindlimb Internal Fixators LA - eng
Abstract: A 15-year-old female huacaya alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was referred because of a non-weight-bearing lameness (4/4) in the left pelvic limb caused by a grade three open metatarsal fracture. The referring veterinarian treated the fracture with conservative management using bandages, but it progressively evolved to a non-union.|Clinical examination revealed external wounds on the medial and lateral surfaces of the metatarsus. Radiographs confirmed an open, nonarticular, displaced, diaphyseal fracture of the left metatarsus.|Cancellous bone was sourced from bovine proximal and distal femur epiphyses, followed by a thermal shock procedure to achieve decellularisation, to produce a xenograft. Open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture using locking plates was performed. Alignment of the fracture fragments was corrected and the xenograft was placed at the debrided fracture site to stimulate and harness osteogenesis in situ. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed up to 40 weeks postoperatively. Clinical evaluations revealed that the alpaca gradually increased weight bearing following bandage removal 10 days after surgery. Serial radiographs showed correct alignment of the left metatarsus, progressive bone modelling and, complete bone union at 12 weeks. Ten months postoperatively the alpaca showed no signs of lameness and resumed normal activity.|For management of a metatarsal non-union, a combination of bovine xenograft application and angular stable internal fixation progressed toward an excellent long-term recovery. AN - 26617346
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26617346


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 755
Author: Liu, L.; Wang, W.; Matz, J.; Ye, C.; Bracq, L.; Delon, J.; Kimata, J. T.; Chen, Z.; Benichou, S.; Zhou, P. C2 - PMC5110191 DA - Dec DO - 10.1128/JVI.01559-16
Year: 2016
Title: The Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Variable Region of Llama Heavy Chain-Only Antibody JM4 Efficiently Blocks both Cell-Free and T Cell-T Cell Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1
Journal: J Virol
Volume: 90
Issue: 23 LA - eng
Pages: 10642-10659 ST - The Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Variable Region of Llama Heavy Chain-Only Antibody JM4 Efficiently Blocks both Cell-Free and T Cell-T Cell Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1
Label: 1567
Abstract: The variable regions (VHHs) of two heavy chain-only antibodies, JM2 and JM4, from llamas that have been immunized with a trimeric gp140 bound to a CD4 mimic have been recently isolated (here referred to as VHH JM2 and VHH JM4, respectively). JM2 binds the CD4-binding site of gp120 and neutralizes HIV-1 strains from subtypes B, C, and G. JM4 binds gp120 and neutralizes HIV-1 strains from subtypes A, B, C, A/E, and G in a CD4-dependent manner. In the present study, we constructed glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored VHH JM2 and JM4 along with an E4 control and transduced them into human CD4(+) cell lines and primary CD4 T cells. We report that by genetically linking the VHHs with a GPI attachment signal, VHHs are targeted to the lipid rafts of the plasma membranes. Expression of GPI-VHH JM4, but not GPI-VHH E4 and JM2, on the surface of transduced TZM.bl cells potently neutralizes multiple subtypes of HIV-1 isolates, including tier 2 or 3 strains, transmitted founders, quasispecies, and soluble single domain antibody (sdAb) JM4-resistant viruses. Moreover, transduction of CEMss-CCR5 cells with GPI-VHH JM4, but not with GPI-VHH E4, confers resistance to both cell-free and T cell-T cell transmission of HIV-1 and HIV-1 envelope-mediated fusion. Finally, GPI-VHH JM4-transduced human primary CD4 T cells efficiently resist both cell-free and T cell-T cell transmission of HIV-1. Thus, we conclude that VHH JM4, when targeted to the lipid rafts of the plasma membrane, efficiently neutralizes HIV-1 infection via both cell-free and T cell-T cell transmission. Our findings should have important implications for GPI-anchored antibody-based therapy against HIV-1.|Lipid rafts are specialized dynamic microdomains of the plasma membrane and have been shown to be gateways for HIV-1 budding as well as entry into T cells and macrophages. In nature, many glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins localize in the lipid rafts. In the present study, we developed GPI-anchored variable regions (VHHs) of two heavy chain-only antibodies, JM2 and JM4, from immunized llamas. We show that by genetically linking the VHHs with a GPI attachment signal, VHHs are targeted to the lipid rafts of the plasma membranes. GPI-VHH JM4, but not GPI-VHH JM2, in transduced CD4(+) cell lines and human primary CD4 T cells not only efficiently blocks diverse HIV-1 strains, including tier 2 or 3 strains, transmitted founders, quasispecies, and soluble sdAb JM4-resistant strains, but also efficiently interferes T cell-T cell transmissions of HIV-1 and HIV-1 envelope-mediated fusion. Our findings should have important implications in GPI-anchored antibody-based therapy against HIV-1. AN - 27654286
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27654286


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 756
Author: Kwok, K.; Ghrear, S.; Li, V.; Haddock, T.; Coleman, P.; Birch, S. A. C2 - PMC5078753 DO - 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01603
Year: 2016
Title: Children Can Learn New Facts Equally Well From Interactive Media Versus Face to Face Instruction
Journal: Front Psychol
Volume: 7
Pages: 1603 ST - Children Can Learn New Facts Equally Well From Interactive Media Versus Face to Face Instruction
Label: 1564
Abstract: Today's children have more opportunities than ever before to learn from interactive technology, yet experimental research assessing the efficacy of children's learning from interactive media in comparison to traditional learning approaches is still quite scarce. Moreover, little work has examined the efficacy of using touch-screen devices for research purposes. The current study compared children's rate of learning factual information about animals during a face-to-face instruction from an adult female researcher versus an analogous instruction from an interactive device. Eighty-six children ages 4 through 8 years (64% male) completed the learning task in either the Face-to-Face condition (n = 43) or the Interactive Media condition (n = 43). In the Learning Phase of the experiment, which was presented as a game, children were taught novel facts about animals without being told that their memory of the facts would be tested. The facts were taught to the children either by an adult female researcher (Face-to-Face condition) or from a pre-recorded female voice represented by a cartoon Llama (Interactive Media condition). In the Testing Phase of the experiment that immediately followed, children's memory for the taught facts was tested using a 4-option forced-choice paradigm. Children's rate of learning was significantly above chance in both conditions and a comparison of the rates of learning across the two conditions revealed no significant differences. Learning significantly improved from age 4 to age 8, however, even the preschool-aged children performed significantly above chance, and their performance did not differ between conditions. These results suggest that, interactive media can be equally as effective as one-on-one instruction, at least under certain conditions. Moreover, these results offer support for the validity of using interactive technology to collect data for research purposes. We discuss the implications of these results for children's learning from interactive media, parental attitudes about interactive technology, and research methods. AN - 27826263
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27826263


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 757
Author: Kofler, J.; Eberspächer, E.; Fischl, K.; Vidoni, B. DA - May DO - 10.1080/00480169.2015.1128857
Year: 2016
Title: Surgical treatment of scapulohumeral subluxation in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) using osteotomy of the acromion, open reduction and extracapsular tension sutures
Journal: N Z Vet J
Volume: 64
Issue: 3
Pages: 193-7 ST - Surgical treatment of scapulohumeral subluxation in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) using osteotomy of the acromion, open reduction and extracapsular tension sutures
Label: 1614
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Forelimb Male Osteotomy Shoulder Dislocation Suture Techniques LA - eng
Abstract: A 3.3-year-old male alpaca, weighing 60 kg was referred for investigation of a severe left forelimb lameness of 4 weeks duration. A scapulohumeral subluxation had been diagnosed radiographically by the referring veterinarian.|Based on clinical, ultrasonographic and radiographic findings the diagnosis of cranio-lateral subluxation of the left humeral head was confirmed. In addition, a full thickness lesion (approximately 1×1 cm) of the articular cartilage on the caudomedial aspect of the humeral head was diagnosed by arthroscopy.|Treatment included open reduction with internal fixation. Severe muscle contraction and local tissue fibrosis around the scapulohumeral joint (SHJ) required osteotomy of the acromion 3 cm proximal to the distal acromial edge, to allow adequate access. Internal stabilisation was achieved by placing tension band sutures between one cortical screw in the scapular neck and two cortical screws, with washers, craniolaterally on the greater tubercle of the humerus. Post-surgery, a carpal flexion sling was applied with the carpus maintained in 70° flexion for 4 weeks to avoid postoperative weight-bearing. An exercise programme was started 8 days after surgery and continued for 12 weeks. The alpaca had an uneventful postsurgical recovery and showed no lameness after 8 weeks. The long-term outcome was excellent; 21 months after surgery the alpaca was sound and the range of movement of the left SHJ was equal to the right SHJ.|Even in this chronic case of subluxation of the SHJ of 4 weeks duration, surgical treatment using osteotomy of the acromion, open reduction and internal fixation with extracapsular scapulohumeral tension sutures resulted in an excellent long-term outcome in this alpaca, despite the presence of a cartilage lesion. AN - 26667785
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26667785


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 758
Author: Klarenbeek, A.; Blanchetot, C.; Schragel, G.; Sadi, A. S.; Ongenae, N.; Hemrika, W.; Wijdenes, J.; Spinelli, S.; Desmyter, A.; Cambillau, C.; Hultberg, A.; Kretz-Rommel, A.; Dreier, T.; De Haard, H. J.; Roovers, R. C. DA - Apr DO - 10.1093/protein/gzw003
Year: 2016
Title: Combining somatic mutations present in different in vivo affinity-matured antibodies isolated from immunized Lama glama yields ultra-potent antibody therapeutics
Journal: Protein Eng Des Sel
Volume: 29
Issue: 4
Pages: 123-33 ST - Combining somatic mutations present in different in vivo affinity-matured antibodies isolated from immunized Lama glama yields ultra-potent antibody therapeutics
Label: 1600
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Animals Antibody Affinity Camelids, New World Humans Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments Interleukin-6 Models, Immunological Models, Molecular Mutation Peptide Library Recombinant Proteins Sequence Alignment LA - eng
Abstract: Highly potent human antibodies are required to therapeutically neutralize cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) that is involved in many inflammatory diseases and malignancies. Although a number of mutagenesis approaches exist to perform antibody affinity maturation, these may cause antibody instability and production issues. Thus, a robust and easy antibody affinity maturation strategy to increase antibody potency remains highly desirable. By immunizing llama, cloning the 'immune' antibody repertoire and using phage display, we selected a diverse set of IL-6 antagonistic Fabs. Heavy chain shuffling was performed on the Fab with lowest off-rate, resulting in a panel of variants with even lower off-rate. Structural analysis of the Fab:IL-6 complex suggests that the increased affinity was partly due to a serine to tyrosine switch in HCDR2. This translated into neutralizing capacity in an in vivo model of IL-6 induced SAA production. Finally, a novel Fab library was designed, encoding all variations found in the natural repertoire of VH genes identified after heavy chain shuffling. High stringency selections resulted in identification of a Fab with 250-fold increased potency when re-formatted into IgG1. Compared with a heavily engineered anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody currently in clinical development, this IgG was at least equally potent, showing the engineering process to have had led to a highly potent anti-IL-6 antibody. AN - 26945588
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26945588


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 759
Author: Keleman Saxena, A.; Cadima Fuentes, X.; Gonzales Herbas, R.; Humphries, D. L. C2 - PMC4776077 DO - 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00020
Year: 2016
Title: Indigenous Food Systems and Climate Change: Impacts of Climatic Shifts on the Production and Processing of Native and Traditional Crops in the Bolivian Andes
Journal: Front Public Health
Volume: 4
Pages: 20 ST - Indigenous Food Systems and Climate Change: Impacts of Climatic Shifts on the Production and Processing of Native and Traditional Crops in the Bolivian Andes
Label: 1595
Abstract: Inhabitants of the high-mountain Andes have already begun to experience changes in the timing, severity, and patterning of annual weather cycles. These changes have important implications for agriculture, for human health, and for the conservation of biodiversity in the region. This paper examines the implications of climate-driven changes for native and traditional crops in the municipality of Colomi, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Data were collected between 2012 and 2014 via mixed methods, qualitative fieldwork, including participatory workshops with female farmers and food preparers, semi-structured interviews with local agronomists, and participant observation. Drawing from this data, the paper describes (a) the observed impacts of changing weather patterns on agricultural production in the municipality of Colomi, Bolivia and (b) the role of local environmental resources and conditions, including clean running water, temperature, and humidity, in the household processing techniques used to conserve and sometimes detoxify native crop and animal species, including potato (Solanum sp.), oca (Oxalis tuberosa), tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis), papalisa (Ullucus tuberosus), and charke (llama or sheep jerky). Analysis suggests that the effects of climatic changes on agriculture go beyond reductions in yield, also influencing how farmers make choices about the timing of planting, soil management, and the use and spatial distribution of particular crop varieties. Furthermore, household processing techniques to preserve and detoxify native foods rely on key environmental and climatic resources, which may be vulnerable to climatic shifts. Although these findings are drawn from a single case study, we suggest that Colomi agriculture characterizes larger patterns in what might be termed, "indigenous food systems." Such systems are underrepresented in aggregate models of the impacts of climate change on world agriculture and may be under different, more direct, and more immediate threat from climate change. As such, the health of the food production and processing environments in such systems merits immediate attention in research and practice. AN - 26973824
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26973824


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 761
Author: Henry, K. A.; Hussack, G.; Collins, C.; Zwaagstra, J. C.; Tanha, J.; MacKenzie, C. R. DA - Oct DO - 10.1093/protein/gzw043
Year: 2016
Title: Isolation of TGF-β-neutralizing single-domain antibodies of predetermined epitope specificity using next-generation DNA sequencing
Journal: Protein Eng Des Sel
Volume: 29
Issue: 10 LA - eng
Pages: 439-43 ST - Isolation of TGF-β-neutralizing single-domain antibodies of predetermined epitope specificity using next-generation DNA sequencing
Label: 1570
Abstract: The epitope specificity of therapeutic antibodies is often critical to their efficacy and mode of action. Here, we report the isolation of single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) against a pre-specified epitope of TGF-β3: namely, the site of interaction between the cytokine and its cell-surface type II receptor. By panning a phage-displayed immune llama VhH library against TGF-β3 using competitive elution with soluble dimeric type II receptor ectodomain in tandem with next-generation DNA sequencing, we identified several sdAbs that competed with the receptor for TGF-β3 binding and neutralized TGF-β3 in in vitro cellular assays. In contrast, all other sdAbs identified using conventional panning approaches (i.e., without regard to epitope specificity) did not target the site of receptor:cytokine interaction. We expect this strategy to be generally applicable for identifying epitope-specific sdAbs when binding reagents directed against the epitope of interest are available. The sdAbs identified here are of potential interest as cancer immunotherapeutics. AN - 27613412
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27613412


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 760
Author: Henry, K. A.; Sulea, T.; van Faassen, H.; Hussack, G.; Purisima, E. O.; MacKenzie, C. R.; Arbabi-Ghahroudi, M. C2 - PMC5025174 DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0163113
Year: 2016
Title: A Rational Engineering Strategy for Designing Protein A-Binding Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies
Journal: PLoS One
Volume: 11
Issue: 9 LA - eng
Pages: e0163113 ST - A Rational Engineering Strategy for Designing Protein A-Binding Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies
Label: 1568
Abstract: Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) and streptococcal protein G (SpG) affinity chromatography are the gold standards for purifying monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapeutic applications. However, camelid VHH single-domain Abs (sdAbs or VHHs) are not bound by SpG and only sporadically bound by SpA. Currently, VHHs require affinity tag-based purification, which limits their therapeutic potential and adds considerable complexity and cost to their production. Here we describe a simple and rapid mutagenesis-based approach designed to confer SpA binding upon a priori non-SpA-binding VHHs. We show that SpA binding of VHHs is determined primarily by the same set of residues as in human mAbs, albeit with an unexpected degree of tolerance to substitutions at certain core and non-core positions and some limited dependence on at least one residue outside the SpA interface, and that SpA binding could be successfully introduced into five VHHs against three different targets with no adverse effects on expression yield or antigen binding. Next-generation sequencing of llama, alpaca and dromedary VHH repertoires suggested that species differences in SpA binding may result from frequency variation in specific deleterious polymorphisms, especially Ile57. Thus, the SpA binding phenotype of camelid VHHs can be easily modulated to take advantage of tag-less purification techniques, although the frequency with which this is required may depend on the source species. AN - 27631624
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27631624


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 762
Author: Franz, S.; Spergser, J.; Schwendenwein, I.; Stanitznig, A.; Lambacher, B.; Tichy, A.; Wittek, T. DA - 2016 Jul-Aug
Year: 2016
Title: [The occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic South American Camelids in Austria]
Journal: Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr
Volume: 129
Issue: 7-8
Pages: 318-22 ST - [The occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic South American Camelids in Austria]
Label: 1573
Keywords: Age Distribution Animals Austria Camelids, New World DNA, Bacterial Disease Reservoirs Female Male Mycoplasma Mycoplasma Infections Polymerase Chain Reaction Sex Distribution LA - ger
Abstract: Reports of CMhl infections in South American Camelids in Europe are only available from the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Knowing that CMhl infections can lead to severe disease resulting in death if combined with other diseases or stress, it was the aim of this study to assess prevalence data from camelids in Austria. In comparison to the previous studies a representative number of camelids was investigated nationwide. Data were assessed due to differences in geographical region, age, sex, species, and origin. A relatively high prevalence of 25.8% was recorded. CMhl was detected significantly more often in alpacas (Vicunja pacos) than in llamas (Lama glama) and more frequently in animals younger than 2 years. Additionally regional differences have been observed, which might be due to climatic differences and/or variations in insect vectors. In this study apperantly clinical healthy animals were shown to be infected with CMhl. Camelids infected with CMhl are a pathogen reservoir. The results of this study indicate different risk levels of infection between llamas and alpacas and between younger and older animals. The data presented underline the necessity of further studies on CMhlI infections in South American Camelids. AN - 27529994
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27529994


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 763
Author: Fontana, C.; Bassi, D.; López, C.; Pisacane, V.; Otero, M. C.; Puglisi, E.; Rebecchi, A.; Cocconcelli, P. S.; Vignolo, G. DA - Nov DO - 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.07.002
Year: 2016
Title: Microbial ecology involved in the ripening of naturally fermented llama meat sausages. A focus on lactobacilli diversity
Journal: Int J Food Microbiol
Volume: 236
Pages: 17-25 ST - Microbial ecology involved in the ripening of naturally fermented llama meat sausages. A focus on lactobacilli diversity
Label: 1580
Abstract: Llama represents for the Andean regions a valid alternative to bovine and pork meat and thanks to the high proteins and low fat content; it can constitute a good product for the novel food market. In this study, culture-dependent and independent methods were applied to investigate the microbial ecology of naturally fermented llama sausages produced in Northwest Argentina. Two different production technologies of llama sausage were investigated: a pilot-plant scale (P) and an artisanal one (A). Results obtained by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) of 16S rRNA amplicons showed that the production technologies influenced the development of microbial communities with a different composition throughout the entire fermentation process. Both sequencing and microbiological counts demonstrated that Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) contributed largely to the dominant microbiota. When a total of 230 isolates were approached by RAPD-PCR, presumptive LAB strains from P production exhibited an initial variability in RAPD fingerprints switching to a single profile at the final of ripening, while A production revealed a more heterogeneous RAPD pattern during the whole fermentation process. The constant presence of Lactobacillus sakei along the fermentation in both productions was revealed by HTS and confirmed by species-specific PCR from isolated strains. The technological characterization of Lb. sakei isolates evidenced their ability to grow at 15°C, pH4.5 and 5% NaCl (95%). Most strains hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Bacteriocins encoding genes and antimicrobial resistance were found in 35% and 42.5% of the strains, respectively. An appropriate choice of a combination of autochthonous strains in a starter formulation is fundamental to improve and standardize llama sausages safety and quality. AN - 27434177
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27434177


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 9
Author: Flores, Gustavo E.; Aballay, Fernando H.
Year: 2016
Title: Two Evaniosomini Species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Associated with Decaying Carcasses in Argentina, with Remarks on the Tribal Assignment of Achanius Erichson
Journal: Coleopterists' bulletin
Keywords: [new species, scanning electron microscopy, female genitalia, coasts, females, dry environmental conditions, fauna, forensic sciences, Tenebrionidae, swine, eating habits, photographs, llamas, microhabitats, redescriptions]
Notes: English
URL: http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201600044676


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 764
Author: Fleck, K.; Erhardt, G.; Lühken, G. DA - 2016 Jul-Aug
Year: 2016
Title: From single nucleotide substitutions up to chromosomal deletions: genetic pause of leucism-associated disorders in animals
Journal: Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr
Volume: 129
Issue: 7-8
Pages: 269-81 ST - From single nucleotide substitutions up to chromosomal deletions: genetic pause of leucism-associated disorders in animals
Label: 1574
Keywords: Animals Cats Cattle Chromosome Deletion Dogs Enteric Nervous System Hearing Loss, Sensorineural Horses Humans Mice Neural Crest Point Mutation Rabbits Rats Sheep Waardenburg Syndrome LA - eng
Abstract: Leucism is characterized by a complete or partial white skin and hair in combination with pigmented irides, which can be vivid blue or heterochromatic. This is due to a complete or partial lack of melanocytes. The underlying pathogenesis is a disturbed emigration or differentiation of neural crest-derived cells. Therefore, leucistic phenotypes can be associated with defects, which mainly impair sensory organs and nerves. In humans, a well-known example is the Waardenburg syndrome. Leucism-associated disorders were also described in mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, mink, cat, dog, pig, sheep, llama, alpaca, cattle and horse. In some of these species already identified causal mutations affect the genes EDN3, EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3, SILV and SOX10. Defect alleles represent different types of genetic variation, ranging from single nucleotide substitutions up to larger chromosomal deletions. Some of the defect alleles produce desired coat color patterns. In some but not all cases, available genetic tests enable breeders to avoid production of animals affected by a leucism-associated disorder. AN - 27529988
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27529988


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 10
Author: Flannery, Kent V. [author]; Marcus, Joyce [author]; Reynolds, Robert G. (Robert Gene) [author]
Year: 2016
Title: The flocks of the wamani : a study of llama herders on the Punas of Ayacucho, Peru
City: London
Publisher: Routledge
Number of Pages: 1 online resource. LA - English
ISBN: 9781315418513 (ePub ebook)
9781315418506 (Mobipocket ebook)
9781315418520 (PDF ebook)
9781315418537 (ebook)
Stock no.: 9781315418513 Ingram Content Group NT - Description based on CIP data; resource not viewed.
Keywords: Wamani Indians -- Domestic animals.
Llamas -- Peru -- Ayacucho (Department)
Indians of South America -- Domestic animals -- Peru -- Ayacucho (Department)
Indians of South America -- Peru -- Ayacucho (Department) -- Antiquities.
Peru -- Antiquities. HL - National Library of Scotland DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK
URL: https://nls.ldls.org.uk/welcome.html?ark:/81055/vdc_100034799869.0x000001


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 765
Author: Erdoğan, S.; Villar Arias, S.; Pérez, W. DA - Feb DO - 10.1002/jemt.22604
Year: 2016
Title: Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama
Journal: Microsc Res Tech
Volume: 79
Issue: 2
Pages: 61-71 ST - Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama
Label: 1621
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Microscopy Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Taste Buds Tongue LA - eng
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants. AN - 26572928
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572928


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 766
Author: Edwards, E. E.; Garner, B. C.; Williamson, L. H.; Storey, B. E.; Sakamoto, K. DA - Mar DO - 10.1177/1040638716628587
Year: 2016
Title: Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review
Journal: J Vet Diagn Invest
Volume: 28
Issue: 2
Pages: 105-9 ST - Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review
Label: 1598
Keywords: Animals Autopsy Camelids, New World Feces Haemonchiasis Haemonchus Retrospective Studies Southeastern United States LA - eng
Abstract: Most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by Haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. Heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. Haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in New World camelids as well, namely llamas (Llama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. Herein, we present a retrospective review of llamas and alpacas that were admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2002 and 2013. Antemortem fecal egg count (FEC) estimates performed on 30 alpacas were negatively correlated with hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Total protein was not significantly correlated with FEC. On postmortem examination, 55 of 198 camelids, including 2 from the aforementioned antemortem review, were infected with H. contortus, with llamas (42.6%) having a significantly higher infection rate than alpacas (22.2%). In 15.7% of the total cases, the parasite was the major cause of death. Common gross lesions included peritoneal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions, visceral pallor, subcutaneous edema, and serous atrophy of fat. Histologic lesions included centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatic atrophy, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the mucosa of the third gastric compartment (C3), extramedullary hematopoiesis in both the liver and spleen, and the presence of nematodes in C3. Our study emphasizes the importance of H. contortus diagnosis and herd monitoring in New World camelids, particularly llamas. AN - 26965230
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965230


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 11
Author: Dubey, J. P.; Newell, T. K.; Verma, S. K.; Calero-Bernal, R.; Stevens, E. L.
Year: 2016
Title: Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Llama (Llama glama): Acute Visceral Disseminated Lesions, Diagnosis, and Development of Tissue Cysts
Journal: Journal of parasitology
Keywords: [tachyzoites, death, rabbits, bradyzoites, thyroid gland, myocardium, stomach, kidneys, restriction fragment length polymorphism, toxoplasmosis, Neospora caninum, antibodies, immunohistochemistry, loci, polymerase chain reaction, alleles, liver, spleen, myocarditis, diaphragm, Camelidae, brain, adrenal glands, hepatocytes, genotype, Toxoplasma gondii, necrosis, llamas, DNA, blood serum, epithelium, intestines]
Notes: English
URL: http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201500226822


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 767
Author: Díaz, P.; Panadero, R.; López, R.; Cordero, A.; Pérez-Creo, A.; López, C. M.; Fernández, G.; Díez-Baños, P.; Morrondo, P. DA - Jan DO - 10.1515/ap-2016-0008
Year: 2016
Title: Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru
Journal: Acta Parasitol
Volume: 61
Issue: 1
Pages: 74-8 ST - Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru
Label: 1612
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Coccidiosis Coinfection Eimeria Feces Female Geography Male Microbiological Techniques Parasitic Diseases, Animal Parasitology Peru Prevalence Risk Factors Sex Factors LA - eng
Abstract: A total of 350 faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Southern Peru and to identify the risk factors associated to Eimeria infection in young alpacas. Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Sixty four percent of the examined animals shed Eimeria oocysts; herd prevalence was 96%, with an intra-herd prevalence of 60% (range 5.9-100%). Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E. lamae (91%), E. alpacae (87%) and E. punoensis (78%) the most prevalent; E. macusaniensis (35%) and E. ivitaensis (13%) were less common. Mixed-species infections were more frequent (78%) than single infections (22%). E. lamae was the most common monospecific infection and E. lamae/E. alpacae the most frequent association. The geographical area has a significant effect on Eimeria infection rates (74.9% wet Puna vs 37.4% dry Puna) as well as the breeding system (65.1% traditional vs 63.8% modern). In contrast, the sex of the animals (64.6% males vs 64.0% females) showed no influence on the prevalence of infection by Eimeria. The high prevalence found at both individual and herd level and the common presence of highly pathogenic Eimeria species may lead to important economic losses for alpaca breeders and could require the implementation of suitable control measures. AN - 26751874
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26751874


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 768
Author: Czibener, C.; Del Giudice, M. G.; Spera, J. M.; Fulgenzi, F. R.; Ugalde, J. E. DA - Mar DO - 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.02.025
Year: 2016
Title: Delta-pgm, a new live-attenuated vaccine against Brucella suis
Journal: Vaccine
Volume: 34
Issue: 13
Pages: 1524-30 ST - Delta-pgm, a new live-attenuated vaccine against Brucella suis
Label: 1603
Keywords: Animals Antibodies, Bacterial Brucella Vaccine Brucella suis Brucellosis Cell Line Female Gene Deletion Gene Knockdown Techniques HeLa Cells Humans Mice Mice, Inbred BALB C Phosphoglucomutase Vaccines, Attenuated beta-Glucans LA - eng
Abstract: Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonosis in the world affecting many domestic and wild animals including bovines, goats, pigs and dogs. Each species of the Brucella genus has a particular tropism toward different mammals being the most relevant for human health Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis that infect bovines, goats/camelids and swine respectively. Although for B. abortus and B. melitensis there are vaccines available, there is no efficient vaccine to protect swine from B. suis infection so far. We describe here the construction of a novel vaccine strain that confers excellent protection against B. suis in a mouse model of infection. This strain is a clean deletion of the phosphoglucomutase (pgm) gene that codes for a protein that catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-P to glucose-1-P, which is used as a precursor for the biosynthesis of many polysaccharides. The Delta-pgm strain lacks a complete lipopolysaccharide, is unable to synthesize cyclic beta glucans and is sensitive to several detergents and Polymyxin B. We show that this strain replicates in cultured cells, is completely avirulent in the mouse model of infection but protects against a challenge of the virulent strain inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This novel strain could be an excellent candidate for the control of swine brucellosis, a disease of emerging concern in many parts of the world. AN - 26899373
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26899373


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 12
Author: Cristofanelli, S.; Antonini, M.; Torres, D.; Polidori, P.; Renieri, C.
Year: 2016
Title: Meat and carcass quality from Peruvian llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos)
Journal: Meat science
Keywords: [meat quality, ash content, alpacas, dressing percentage, age at slaughter, alternative livestock, lipid content, carcass weight, body weight, longissimus dorsi, protein content, water holding capacity, animal growth, llamas, carcass quality, water content, pH, postmortem changes, cholesterol, camel meat]
Notes: English
URL: http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201300939454


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 770
Author: Colomer, I.; Empson, C. J.; Craven, P.; Owen, Z.; Doveston, R. G.; Churcher, I.; Marsden, S. P.; Nelson, A. DA - Jun DO - 10.1039/c6cc03244c
Year: 2016
Title: A divergent synthetic approach to diverse molecular scaffolds: assessment of lead-likeness using LLAMA, an open-access computational tool
Journal: Chem Commun (Camb)
Volume: 52
Issue: 45 LA - eng
Pages: 7209-12 ST - A divergent synthetic approach to diverse molecular scaffolds: assessment of lead-likeness using LLAMA, an open-access computational tool
Label: 1586
Abstract: Complementary cyclisation reactions of hex-2-ene-1,6-diamine derivatives were exploited in the synthesis of alternative molecular scaffolds. The value of the synthetic approach was analysed using LLAMA, an open-access computational tool for assessing the lead-likeness and novelty of molecular scaffolds. AN - 27145833
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27145833


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 771
Author: Cocquyt, C. M.; Van Amstel, S.; Cox, S.; Rohrbach, B.; Martín-Jiménez, T. DA - Apr DO - 10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.12.011
Year: 2016
Title: Pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in alpacas following administration of an oral or subcutaneous formulation
Journal: Res Vet Sci
Volume: 105
Pages: 160-4 ST - Pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in alpacas following administration of an oral or subcutaneous formulation
Label: 1590
Keywords: Administration, Oral Animals Antinematodal Agents Biological Availability Camelids, New World Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid Haemonchiasis Haemonchus Half-Life Injections, Subcutaneous Macrolides Male LA - eng
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in alpacas after single subcutaneous injection of a non-aqueous formulation or oral administration of an aqueous drench at 0.2 mg∗kg(-1). Plasma moxidectin concentrations were measured with reverse phase HPLC, and data analyzed using non-compartmental methods. Half-life was longer (p=0.02) after subcutaneous administration than oral (292+/-170 vs 33+/-39 h). The area under the concentration-time curve was greater (p=0.04) following subcutaneous administration (1484.8+/-1049.5 h∗ng∗ml(-1)) than oral (157.6+/-85.9 h∗ng∗ml(-1)). The peak concentration (Cmax) was higher and the after subcutaneous administration, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.18). The relative bioavailability of the oral moxidectin to the subcutaneous moxidectin was 11%. The data suggest a higher relative bioavailability following subcutaneous compared to oral administration. Further studies are needed to determine the therapeutic concentrations of moxidectin in alpacas. AN - 27033926
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27033926


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 772
Author: Cockcroft, P. D.; Mackie, I.; Perry, J.; Caraguel, C.; Townsend, K.; Reichel, M. P. DA - Apr DO - 10.1111/avj.12421
Year: 2016
Title: Cross-sectional observational survey of serum biochemistry values in a population of 69 adult female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in South Australia
Journal: Aust Vet J
Volume: 94
Issue: 4
Pages: 125-6 ST - Cross-sectional observational survey of serum biochemistry values in a population of 69 adult female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in South Australia
Label: 1593
Keywords: Age Distribution Animals Blood Chemical Analysis Blood Specimen Collection Camelids, New World Cross-Sectional Studies Female Hemolysis Potassium Reference Values South Australia Specimen Handling LA - eng
Abstract: Blood samples were collected from 69 'healthy' female alpacas aged ≥12 months from 11 properties in South Australia. The 10-90 percentile ranges of the 16/19 analytes measured in this sample population were within the published ranges of four healthy alpaca populations from other geographic locations. Marginal exceptions were glutamate dehydrogenase and bicarbonate. Potassium was notably elevated, probably because of haemolysis of some samples. The sample size was insufficient to provide the appropriate statistical power to define diagnostic references ranges according to international standards. The health status of the sample population of alpacas was presumptive based on a physical examination. AN - 27021895
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27021895


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 773
Author: Chen, J.; He, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Fu, J. H.; Li, Y. P.; Tu, Z.; Wang, D.; Shu, M.; Qiu, Y. L.; Yang, H. W.; Liu, Y. Y. DA - Jan DO - 10.1016/j.talanta.2015.10.027
Year: 2016
Title: Nanobody medicated immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein
Journal: Talanta
Volume: 147
Pages: 523-30 ST - Nanobody medicated immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein
Label: 1618
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Cell Surface Display Techniques Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Humans Male Polymerase Chain Reaction Reproducibility of Results Serum Single-Domain Antibodies alpha-Fetoproteins LA - eng
Abstract: Immunoassay for cancer biomarkers plays an important role in cancer prevention and early diagnosis. To the development of immunoassay, the quality and stability of applied antibody is one of the key points to obtain reliability and high sensitivity for immunoassay. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) based on nanobody against AFP. Two nanobodies which bind to AFP were selected from a phage display nanobody library by biopanning strategy. The prepared nanobodies are clonable, thermally stable and applied in both sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) and immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP. The limit detection of sandwich ELISA setup with optimized nanobodies was 0.48ng mL(-1), and the half of saturation concentration (SC50) value was 6.68±0.56ng mL(-1). These nanobodies were also used to develop an immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP, its limit detection values was 0.005ng mL(-1), and the linear range was 0.01-10,000ng mL(-1). These established immunoassays based on nanobodies were highly specific to AFP and with negligible cross reactivity with other tested caner biomarkers. Furthermore, this novel concept of nanobodies mediated immunoassay may provide potential applications in a general method for the ultrasensitive detection of various cancer biomarkers. AN - 26592642
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26592642


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 774
Author: Carretero, M. I.; Giuliano, S. M.; Arraztoa, C. C.; Santa Cruz, R. C.; Fumuso, F. G.; Neild, D. M. DA - Aug DO - 10.1111/and.12691
Year: 2016
Title: Comparison of two cooling protocols for llama semen: with and without collagenase and seminal plasma in the medium
Journal: Andrologia
Label: 1572
Abstract: Seminal plasma (SP) of South American Camelids could interfere with the interaction of spermatozoa with the extenders; therefore it becomes necessary to improve semen management using enzymatic treatment. Our objective was to compare two cooling protocols for llama semen. Twelve ejaculates were incubated in 0.1% collagenase and then were divided into two aliquots. One was extended in lactose and egg yolk (LEY) (Protocol A: collagenase and SP present). The other aliquot was centrifuged, and the pellet was resuspended in LEY (Protocol B: collagenase and SP absent). Both samples were maintained at 5°C during 24 hr. Routine and DNA evaluations were carried out in raw and cooled semen. Both cooling protocols maintained sperm viability, membrane function and DNA fragmentation, with Protocol A showing a significantly lowered total and progressive motility (p < .05) and Protocol B showing a significant increase in chromatin decondensation (p < .05). Protocol A avoids centrifugation, reducing processing times and making application in the field simpler. However, as neither protocol showed a significant superiority over the other, studies should be carried out in vivo to evaluate the effect on pregnancy rates of the presence of collagenase and SP in semen samples prior to either cooling or freeze-thawing. AN - 27561901
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27561901


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 775
Author: Calpe, S.; Correia, A. C.; Sancho-Serra, M.el C; Krishnadath, K. K. C2 - PMC4966848 DA - 2016 May-Jun DO - 10.1080/19420862.2016.1158380
Year: 2016
Title: Comparison of newly developed anti-bone morphogenetic protein 4 llama-derived antibodies with commercially available BMP4 inhibitors
Journal: MAbs
Volume: 8
Issue: 4 LA - eng
Pages: 678-88 ST - Comparison of newly developed anti-bone morphogenetic protein 4 llama-derived antibodies with commercially available BMP4 inhibitors
Label: 1596
Abstract: Due to improved understanding of the role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in an increasing number of diseases, the development of selective inhibitors of BMP4 is an attractive therapeutic option. The currently available BMP4 inhibitors are not suitable as therapeutics because of their low specificity and low effectiveness. Here, we compared newly generated anti-BMP4 llama-derived antibodies (VHHs) with 3 different types of commercially available BMP4 inhibitors, natural antagonists, small molecule BMPR inhibitors and conventional anti-BMP4 monoclonal antibodies. We found that the anti-BMP4 VHHs were as effective as the natural antagonist or small molecule inhibitors, but had higher specificity. We also showed that commercial anti-BMP4 antibodies were inferior in terms of both specificity and effectiveness. These findings might result from the fact that the VHHs C4C4 and C8C8 target a small region within the BMPR1 epitope of BMP4, whereas the commercial antibodies target other areas of the BMP4 molecule. Our results show that the newly developed anti-BMP4 VHHs are promising antibodies with better specificity and effectivity for inhibition of BMP4, making them an attractive tool for research and for therapeutic applications. AN - 26967714
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26967714


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 776
Author: Burger, P. A. C2 - PMC4884201 DA - Jun DO - 10.1007/s11250-016-1032-7
Year: 2016
Title: The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics
Journal: Trop Anim Health Prod
Volume: 48
Issue: 5 LA - eng
Pages: 905-13 ST - The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics
Label: 1588
Abstract: Old World camels have come into the focus as sustainable livestock species, unique in their morphological and physiological characteristics and capable of providing vital products even under extreme environmental conditions. The evolutionary history of dromedary and Bactrian camels traces back to the middle Eocene (around 40 million years ago, mya), when the ancestors of Camelus emerged on the North American continent. While the genetic status of the two domestic species has long been established, the wild two-humped camel has only recently been recognized as a separate species, Camelus ferus, based on molecular genetic data. The demographic history established from genome drafts of Old World camels shows the independent development of the three species over the last 100,000 years with severe bottlenecks occurring during the last glacial period and in the recent past. Ongoing studies involve the immune system, relevant production traits, and the global population structure and domestication of Old World camels. Based on the now available whole genome drafts, specific metabolic pathways have been described shedding new light on the camels' ability to adapt to desert environments. These new data will also be at the origin for genome-wide association studies to link economically relevant phenotypes to genotypes and to conserve the diverse genetic resources in Old World camelids. AN - 27048619
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27048619


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 777
Author: Bozorgmanesh, R.; Magdesian, K. G.; Estell, K. E.; Stern, J. A.; Swain, E. A.; Griffiths, L. G. C2 - PMC4913670 DA - 2016 Jan-Feb DO - 10.1111/jvim.13798
Year: 2016
Title: Atrial Fibrillation in Eight New World Camelids
Journal: J Vet Intern Med
Volume: 30
Issue: 1
Pages: 335-8 ST - Atrial Fibrillation in Eight New World Camelids
Label: 1615
Keywords: Animals Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Atrial Fibrillation Camelids, New World Electric Countershock Female Male Nerium Quinidine LA - eng
Abstract: There is limited information on the incidence of clinical signs, concurrent illness and treatment options for atrial fibrillation (AF) in New World Camelids (NWC).|Describe clinical signs and outcome of AF in NWC.|Eight New World Camelids admitted with AF.|A retrospective observational study of camelids diagnosed with AF based on characteristic findings on electrocardiogram (ECG).|All animals had an irregularly irregular heart rhythm detected on physical examination and 4 cases had obtunded mentation on admission. Three camelids were diagnosed with AF secondary to oleander intoxication, 3 animals had underlying cardiovascular disease, 1 was diagnosed with lone AF and 1 had AF diagnosed on examination for a urethral obstruction. Five of eight animals survived to discharge and nonsurvivors consisted of animals which died or were euthanized as a result of cardiovascular disease (2/8) or extra-cardiac disease unrelated to the AF (1/8).|Atrial fibrillation occurs in NWC in association with cardiovascular disease, extra-cardiac disease or as lone AF. Amiodarone and transthoracic cardioversion were attempted in one llama with lone AF, but were unsuccessful. Atrial fibrillation was recorded in 0.1% of admissions. AN - 26647783
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26647783


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 778
Author: Baud, L. G.; Manning, M. A.; Arkless, H. L.; Stephens, T. C.; Unsworth, W. P. DA - Dec DO - 10.1002/chem.201605615
Year: 2016
Title: Ring expansion approach to medium-sized lactams and analysis of their medicinal lead-like properties
Journal: Chemistry
Label: 1561
Abstract: Medium-sized rings are widely considered to be under-represented in biological screening libraries for lead identification in medicinal chemistry. To help address this, a library of medium-sized lactams has been generated using a simple, scalable and versatile ring expansion protocol. Analysis of the library using open access computational tool LLAMA suggests that these lactams and their derivatives have highly promising physicochemical and 3D spatial properties and thus have much potential in drug discovery. AN - 27935197
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27935197


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 14
Author: Baskin, Jon.; Thomas, Ronny.
Year: 2016
Title: A review of Camelops (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Camelidae), a giant llama from the Middle and Late Pleistocene (Irvingtonian and Rancholabrean) of North America.
City: London
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Number of Pages: 1 online resource LA - English NT - In: Historical biology, Vol. 28, no. 1/2 ( 2016), p.120-127. NT - Summary: AbstractCamelopsis a giant llama from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of western North America. Of the 17 species (most, if not all, from the Irvingtonian and Rancholabrean North American Land Mammal Ages) that have been referred toCamelops, only 6 are currently recognised as valid. This review examinesCamelopsfrom the Irvingtonian and Rancholabrean (Middle and Late Pleistocene) and describes for the first time material from the latest Wisconsinan of the Nueces River valley of South Texas. During this interval, there are two valid previously named species: the smaller mainly IrvingtonianCamelops minidokaeand the larger, mainly RancholabreanCamelopshesternus.Camelops hesternus,Camelops sulcatus,Camelops huerfanensisandCamelopstraviswhiteiare junior synonyms ofCamelopshesternus. In addition, there are possibly two additional species: one with short, broad metapodials and one with short, slender metapodials.
Keywords: Paleobiology.
Biology.
Evolution.
Paleontology. HL - National Library of Scotland DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - SER
URL: https://nls.ldls.org.uk/welcome.html?ark:/81055/vdc_100028618998.0x000006


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 779
Author: Anello, M.; Daverio, M. S.; Romero, S. R.; Rigalt, F.; Silbestro, M. B.; Vidal-Rioja, L.; Di Rocco, F. DA - Feb DO - 10.1007/s10709-015-9880-z
Year: 2016
Title: Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina
Journal: Genetica
Volume: 144
Issue: 1
Pages: 85-97 ST - Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina
Label: 1607
Keywords: Alleles Animals Argentina Bayes Theorem Breeding Camelids, New World Conservation of Natural Resources DNA, Mitochondrial Genetic Variation Genetics, Population Haplotypes Microsatellite Repeats Models, Genetic LA - eng
Abstract: The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) was indiscriminately hunted for more than 400 years and, by the end of 1960s, it was seriously endangered. At that time, a captive breeding program was initiated in Argentina by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) with the aim of preserving the species. Nowadays, vicuñas are managed in captivity and in the wild to obtain their valuable fiber. The current genetic status of Argentinean vicuña populations is virtually unknown. Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers, we assessed levels of genetic diversity of vicuña populations managed in the wild and compared it with a captive population from INTA. Furthermore, we examined levels of genetic structure and evidence for historical bottlenecks. Overall, all populations revealed high genetic variability with no signs of inbreeding. Levels of genetic diversity between captive and wild populations were not significantly different, although the captive population showed the lowest estimates of allelic richness, number of mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplotype diversity. Significant genetic differentiation at microsatellite markers was found between free-living populations from Jujuy and Catamarca provinces. Moreover, microsatellite data also revealed genetic structure within the Catamarca management area. Genetic signatures of past bottlenecks were detected in wild populations by the Garza Williamson test. Results from this study are discussed in relation to the conservation and management of the species. AN - 26842726
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842726


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 780
Author: Akazawa-Ogawa, Y.; Uegaki, K.; Hagihara, Y. C2 - PMC4882646 DA - Jan DO - 10.1093/jb/mvv082
Year: 2016
Title: The role of intra-domain disulfide bonds in heat-induced irreversible denaturation of camelid single domain VHH antibodies
Journal: J Biochem
Volume: 159
Issue: 1
Pages: 111-21 ST - The role of intra-domain disulfide bonds in heat-induced irreversible denaturation of camelid single domain VHH antibodies
Label: 1643
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Animals Bacillus cereus Bacterial Proteins Camelids, New World Chorionic Gonadotropin Hot Temperature Humans Molecular Sequence Data Mutagenesis Protein Denaturation Protein Engineering Protein Folding Protein Stability Single-Domain Antibodies Thermodynamics beta-Lactamases LA - eng
Abstract: Camelid-derived single domain VHH antibodies are highly heat resistant, and the mechanism of heat-induced VHH denaturation predominantly relies on the chemical modification of amino acids. Although chemical modification of disulfide bonds has been recognized as a cause for heat-induced denaturation of many proteins, there have been no mutagenesis studies, in which the number of disulfide bonds was controlled. In this article, we examined a series of mutants of two different VHHs with single, double or no disulfide bonds, and scrutinized the effects of these disulfide bond modifications on VHH denaturation. With the exception of one mutant, the heat resistance of VHHs decreased when the number of disulfide bonds increased. The effect of disulfide bonds on heat denaturation was more striking if the VHH had a second disulfide bond, suggesting that the contribution of disulfide shuffling is significant in proteins with multiple disulfide bonds. Furthermore, our results directly indicate that removal of a disulfide bond can indeed increase the heat resistance of a protein, irrespective of the negative impact on equilibrium thermodynamic stability. AN - 26289739
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26289739


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 781
Author: Abraham, M. C.; Puhakka, J.; Ruete, A.; Al-Essawe, E. M.; de Verdier, K.; Morrell, J. M.; BÃ¥ge, R. C2 - PMC4736141 DA - Feb DO - 10.1186/s13028-016-0191-x
Year: 2016
Title: Testicular length as an indicator of the onset of sperm production in alpacas under Swedish conditions
Journal: Acta Vet Scand
Volume: 58
Pages: 10 ST - Testicular length as an indicator of the onset of sperm production in alpacas under Swedish conditions
Label: 1608
Keywords: Aging Animals Body Composition Camelids, New World Male Spermatogenesis Spermatozoa Sweden Testis LA - eng
Abstract: The popularity of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) is increasing in Sweden as well as in other countries; however, knowledge about optimal management practices under Swedish conditions is still limited. The wide age range reported when the onset of puberty can occur, between 1 and 3 years of age, makes management decisions difficult and may be influenced by the conditions under which the alpacas are kept. The aim of this study was to find out when Swedish alpacas can be expected to start producing sperm, by using testicular length and body condition score as a more precise indirect indicator than age.|This study suggests that animals with a testicular length ≥3.8 cm would be producing sperm; however, if it is crucial to know that there is no sperm production for management purposes, the threshold level for testicular length used to differentiate between sperm-producing and non-sperm producing animals should be ≤1.6 cm instead. If only one variable is considered, testicular length appears to better than age alone to predict sperm production. Body condition score together with testicular length explains the individual onset of puberty and better guide management recommendations.|Using a combination of these parameters (testicular length, body condition score and age) as a tool for decision making for alpaca husbandry under Swedish conditions is suggested. AN - 26829925
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26829925


Reference Type: Generic
Record Number: 783
Year: 2016
Title: Animal Health: Fecal Egg Counts (FEC)
Date: 2016 ST - Animal Health: Fecal Egg Counts (FEC)
Label: 25
Abstract: By Leona Grearson Bizzozero This spring I attended a conference on gastrointestinal parasitology hosted by a SARE Research & Education ...
Notes: TY - WEB
URL: http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.com/2012/04/animal-health-fecal-egg-counts-fec.html


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 782
Year: 2016
Title: Disease surveillance in England and Wales, March 2016
Journal: Vet Rec
Volume: 178
Issue: 14
Pages: 335-8 ST - Disease surveillance in England and Wales, March 2016
Label: 1589
Keywords: Abortion, Veterinary Animals Camelids, New World Cattle Cattle Diseases Disease Outbreaks England Female Government Agencies Internationality Poultry Poultry Diseases Pregnancy Sentinel Surveillance Sheep Sheep Diseases Swine Swine Diseases Wales LA - eng
Abstract: â–  Current and emerging issue â–  Highlights from the scanning surveillance network â–  Abortion in sheep--an update â–  Update on international disease threats. These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) March disease surveillance report. AN - 27034297 DA - Apr DO - 10.1136/vr.i1749
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27034297


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 15
Year: 2016
Title: A Whole Farm Approach to Parasite Management
Abstract: By Karen Nicholson of Stepping Stone Farm Alpacas Internal parasites are a part of most every livestock producer's farm. Regardless of wh...
URL: http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.com/2012/04/whole-farm-approach-to-parasite.html


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 785
Author: Yu, X.; He, X.; Jiang, J.; He, J.; Fan, R.; Wang, H.; Geng, J.; Dong, C. DA - Sep DO - 10.1016/j.acthis.2015.06.002
Year: 2015
Title: Expression and tissue distribution of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (c-Met) in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) skins associated with white and brown coat colors
Journal: Acta Histochem
Volume: 117
Issue: 7
Pages: 624-8 ST - Expression and tissue distribution of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (c-Met) in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) skins associated with white and brown coat colors
Label: 1661
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Color Gene Expression Regulation Hepatocyte Growth Factor Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met Skin Tissue Distribution LA - eng
Abstract: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling has been considered as a key pathway in both melanocyte development and melanogenesis. To understand better the expression patterns and tissue distribution characterization of HGF and its receptor c-Met in skin of white versus brown alpaca (Vicugna pacos), we detected the tissue distribution of HGF and c-Met using immunohistochemistry and analyzed the expression patterns by using Western blot and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that HGF staining robustly increased in the dermal papilla and mesenchymal cells of white alpaca skin compared with that of brown. However, c-Met staining showed strongly positive result, particularly inhair matrix and root sheath in brown alpaca skin. Western blot and qPCR results suggested that HGF and c-Met were expressed at significantly high levels in white and brown alpaca skins, respectively, and protein and transcripts possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. The results suggested that HGF/c-Met signaling functions in alpaca coat color formation offer essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of HGF/c-Met signaling in pigment formation. AN - 26099836
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26099836


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 786
Author: Yang, S.; Fan, R.; Shi, Z.; Ji, K.; Zhang, J.; Wang, H.; Herrid, M.; Zhang, Q.; Yao, J.; Smith, G. W.; Dong, C. DA - Apr DO - 10.2527/jas.2014-8404
Year: 2015
Title: Identification of a novel microRNA important for melanogenesis in alpaca (Vicugna pacos)
Journal: J Anim Sci
Volume: 93
Issue: 4
Pages: 1622-31 ST - Identification of a novel microRNA important for melanogenesis in alpaca (Vicugna pacos)
Label: 1669
Keywords: Animals Base Sequence Camelids, New World Cells, Cultured Cyclic AMP Cyclic GMP Gene Expression Regulation Guanylate Cyclase Hair Color Melanins Melanocytes MicroRNAs Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor Molecular Sequence Data Monophenol Monooxygenase Oxidoreductases Signal Transduction Skin Pigmentation LA - eng
Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of coat colors in animals are poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNA play important roles in the control of melanogenesis and coat color in mammals. In a previous study, we characterized the miRNA expression profiles in alpaca skin with brown and white coat color and identified a novel miRNA (named lpa-miR-nov-66) that is expressed significantly higher in white skin compared to brown skin. The present study was conducted to determine the functional roles of this novel miRNA in the regulation of melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. lpa-miR-nov-66 is predicted to target the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) gene based on presence of a binding site in the sGC coding sequence (CDS). Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in alpaca melanocyes upregulated the expression of sGC both at the mRNA and protein level. Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocyes also resulted in decreased expression of key melanogenic genes including tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1), and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF). Our ELISA assays showed increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) but decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production in melanocytes overexpressing lpa-miR-nov-66. In addition, overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 also reduced melanin production in cultured melanocytes. Results support a role of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocytes by directly or indirectly targeting , which regulates melanogenesis via the cAMP pathway. AN - 26020184
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26020184


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 787
Author: Yamaoka, T. T.; Auckburally, A. DA - Nov DO - 10.1111/vaa.12293
Year: 2015
Title: The use of rocuronium for ophthalmological surgery in an alpaca
Journal: Vet Anaesth Analg
Volume: 42
Issue: 6
Pages: 657-8 ST - The use of rocuronium for ophthalmological surgery in an alpaca
Label: 1644
Keywords: Androstanols Anesthesia, General Animals Camelids, New World Corneal Diseases Injections, Intravenous Male Neuromuscular Blockade Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents LA - eng
Notes: TY - JOUR AN - 26284691
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26284691


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 788
Author: Xu, Y.; Xiong, L.; Li, Y.; Xiong, Y.; Tu, Z.; Fu, J.; Chen, B. DA - Jul DO - 10.1007/s00216-015-8693-3
Year: 2015
Title: Anti-idiotypic nanobody as citrinin mimotope from a naive alpaca heavy chain single domain antibody library
Journal: Anal Bioanal Chem
Volume: 407
Issue: 18
Pages: 5333-41 ST - Anti-idiotypic nanobody as citrinin mimotope from a naive alpaca heavy chain single domain antibody library
Label: 1684
Keywords: Animals Anti-Bacterial Agents Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies, Monoclonal Camelids, New World Citrinin Edible Grain Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Gene Library Limit of Detection Reproducibility of Results Single-Domain Antibodies LA - eng
Abstract: Compared with peptide-based mimotope, anti-idiotypic antibodies (AIds) are considered as promising biosynthetic surrogate antigen because these antibodies display stable protein conformation. Nevertheless, conventional AIds are generated by immunizing animals with heterologous idiotypic antibody in vivo; isolated AIds commonly exhibit a higher affinity to primary antibodies than target analytes because AIds undergo an affinity-matured process during immune responses, resulting in low sensitivity in competitive immunoassay. In the present study, an anti-citrinin monoclonal antibody (anti-CIT McAb) was designed as primary antibody; one β-type AI alpaca heavy chain single domain antibody (β-AI VHH) was selected as a citrinin (CIT) surrogate from a naive phage-displayed VHH library. The affinity constant (K D) of obtained β-AI VHH to anti-CIT McAb (160 nM) is 2.35 times lower than that of CIT and ovalbumin conjugates (CIT-OVA) to anti-CIT McAb (68 nM). The developed VHH-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (V-ELISA) can be used to perform dynamic linear detection of CIT in 10% (v/v) methanol/PBS from 5.0 to 300.0 ng/mL, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 44.6 ng/mL (n = 3); this result was twice as good as that of indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA, IC50 = 96.2 ng/mL) with CIT-OVA as a coating antigen. Moreover, the precision of V-ELISA was evaluated by analyzing average recoveries and coefficient of variations of CIT-spiked cereal sample; the reliability of V-ELISA was also validated with a conventional ic-ELISA. In summary, the proposed strategy has a great potential for panning other β-AI VHH toward small organic molecules from a naive VHH library. AN - 25910884
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25910884


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 789
Author: Wiuf, A.; Kristensen, L. H.; Kristensen, O.; Dorosz, J.; Jensen, J.; Gajhede, M. DA - Oct DO - 10.1107/S2053230X1501537X
Year: 2015
Title: Structure and binding properties of a cameloid nanobody raised against KDM5B
Journal: Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
Volume: 71
Issue: Pt 10
Pages: 1235-41 ST - Structure and binding properties of a cameloid nanobody raised against KDM5B
Label: 1625
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Animals Camelus Chromatography, Gel Crystallization Crystallography, X-Ray Humans Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases Molecular Sequence Data Nuclear Proteins Protein Binding Repressor Proteins Single-Domain Antibodies Temperature LA - eng
Abstract: The histone demethylase KDM5B is considered to be a promising target for anticancer therapy. Single-chain antibodies from llama (nanobodies) have been raised to aid in crystallization and structure determination of this enzyme. The antigen-binding properties of 15 of these nanobodies have been characterized. The crystal structure of one of these (NB17) has been determined to a resolution of 1.85 Å. NB17 crystallizes in space group P4322 with six molecules in the asymmetric unit. The six molecules in the asymmetric unit pack as an entity with approximate D3 symmetry with interactions mediated by the CDR loops, which could act as a crystallization nucleus. NB17 does not bind to monomeric KDM5B residues 1-820, but is found to bind to aggregates formed after incubation at 310 K. AN - 26457512
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26457512


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 790
Author: Wang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, H. D.; Shen, Y.; Liu, N.; Cao, J.; Yu, X. J.; Dong, C. S.; He, X. Y. DA - Oct DO - 10.4238/2015.October.28.38
Year: 2015
Title: Alpaca fiber growth is mediated by microRNA let-7b via down-regulation of target gene FGF5
Journal: Genet Mol Res
Volume: 14
Issue: 4
Pages: 13754-63 ST - Alpaca fiber growth is mediated by microRNA let-7b via down-regulation of target gene FGF5
Label: 1622
Keywords: Animals Base Sequence Binding Sites Camelids, New World Cell Line Down-Regulation Fibroblast Growth Factor 5 Gene Expression Regulation MicroRNAs Protein Transport RNA Interference RNA, Messenger Wool LA - eng
Abstract: MicroRNAs are very small endogenous RNA molecules that play a crucial role in an array of biological processes, including regulation of skin morphogenesis. The microRNA let-7b is thought to modulate animal hair growth, by binding target genes that encode growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) has been previously reported to be involved in the initiation of the catagen phase of hair growth. In this study, we combined previous reports with bioinformatic analysis techniques to identify and validate FGF5 and, using lucerifase assay, confirmed targeted binding of let-7b to FGF5. To investigate the interaction between let-7b and FGF5, alpaca skin fibroblasts were transfected with let-7b over-expression vectors, and then mRNA and protein expression levels of FGF5 and the gene encoding its receptor, FGFR1, were evaluated. Levels of FGF5 mRNA and protein were remarkably lower in transfected groups, as compared to controls. In summary, this study confirmed that let-7b acts as a regulator of skin morphogenesis, by directly targeting FGF5 and down-regulating its expression. It provides the evidence of hair growth regulated by miRNAs in animals and may have important applications in wool production. AN - 26535691
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26535691


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 791
Author: Virdi, V.; Juarez, P.; Depicker, A. DA - Dec DO - 10.3233/HAB-150285
Year: 2015
Title: Plant expression systems for early stage discovery and development of lead therapeutic antibodies
Journal: Hum Antibodies
Volume: 23
Issue: 3-4 LA - eng
Pages: 37-43 ST - Plant expression systems for early stage discovery and development of lead therapeutic antibodies
Label: 1576
Abstract: Antibodies for human clinical applications are predominantly produced in mammalian expression systems, with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells being the gold standard. CHO cells are ideal for the manufacturing of the IgG class of antibodies, but not for the production of complex antibodies like secretory IgAs (SIgAs) and IgMs, which remain unavailable for clinical use. In contrast, plant seeds and leaves hold the promise to produce SIgAs, IgMs and similar complex antibody formats to scalable amounts. Using transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, complex antibody formats can be produced up to milligram amounts in less than a month.|Based on these merits, we propose a model for early-phase exploration and designing of innovative antibody formats for therapeutic application. Further in this essay, we elaborate how the model was followed during the selection of novel antibodies for seed-based production.|This exploratory model led to the engineering of novel light-chain devoid porcinized-llama antibodies (VHH-Fc) of the IgG (VHH-IgG) and IgA (VHH-IgA) isotypes and also tetravalent dimeric and SIgAs.|The proposed strategy may lead to plant-based rapid engineering of innovative antibodies more apt and efficacious for therapy, and in the coarse also add to the understanding of their mode of action. AN - 27472860
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27472860


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 792
Author: Villacrés, C.; Tayi, V. S.; Lattová, E.; Perreault, H.; Butler, M. DA - Jul DO - 10.1002/biot.201400662
Year: 2015
Title: Low glucose depletes glycan precursors, reduces site occupancy and galactosylation of a monoclonal antibody in CHO cell culture
Journal: Biotechnol J
Volume: 10
Issue: 7
Pages: 1051-66 ST - Low glucose depletes glycan precursors, reduces site occupancy and galactosylation of a monoclonal antibody in CHO cell culture
Label: 1668
Keywords: Animals Antibodies, Monoclonal CHO Cells Cricetinae Cricetulus Glucose Glycoproteins Glycosylation Humans Recombinant Proteins LA - eng
Abstract: Controlled feeding of glucose has been employed previously to enhance the productivity of recombinant glycoproteins but there is a concern that low concentrations of glucose could limit the synthesis of precursors of glycosylation. Here we investigate the effect of glucose depletion on the metabolism, productivity and glycosylation of a chimeric human-llama monoclonal antibody secreted by CHO cells. The cells were inoculated into media containing varying concentrations of glucose. Glucose depletion occurred in cultures with an initial glucose ≤5.5 mM and seeded at low density (2.5 × 10(5) cells/mL) or at high cell inoculum (≥2.5 × 10(6) cells/mL) at higher glucose concentration (up to 25 mM). Glucose-depleted cultures produced non-glycosylated Mabs (up to 51%), lower galactosylation index (GI <0.43) and decreased sialylation (by 85%) as measured by mass spectrometry and HPLC. At low glucose a reduced intracellular pool of nucleotides (0.03-0.23 fmoles/cell) was measured as well as a low adenylate energy charge (<0.57). Low glucose also reduced GDP-sugars (by 77%) and UDP-hexosamines (by 90%). The data indicate that under glucose deprivation, low levels of intracellular nucleotides and nucleotide sugars reduced the availability of the immediate precursors of glycosylation. These results are important when applied to the design of fed-batch cultures. AN - 26058832
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26058832


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 793
Author: Tribulo, P.; Bogle, O.; Mapletoft, R. J.; Adams, G. P. DA - Jun DO - 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.12.014
Year: 2015
Title: Bioactivity of ovulation inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) in bovine seminal plasma and its effects on ovarian function in cattle
Journal: Theriogenology
Volume: 83
Issue: 9
Pages: 1394-401 ST - Bioactivity of ovulation inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) in bovine seminal plasma and its effects on ovarian function in cattle
Label: 1696
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Cattle Corpus Luteum Female Male Nerve Growth Factors Ovulation Ovulation Induction Progesterone Random Allocation Semen Ultrasonography LA - eng
Abstract: To understand the role of ovulation-inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) (OIF [NGF]) in bovine seminal plasma, we (1) used an in vivo llama bioassay to test the hypothesis that bovine seminal plasma induces ovulation and CL development in llamas similar to that of llama seminal plasma when the dose of seminal plasma is adjusted to ovulation-inducing factor content (experiment 1) and (2) determined the effect of bovine seminal plasma on the interval to ovulation and luteal development in heifers (experiment 2). Within species, seminal plasma was pooled (n = 160 bulls, n = 4 llamas), and the volume of seminal plasma used for treatment was adjusted to a total dose of 250 μg of ovulation-inducing factor. In experiment 1, mature female llamas were assigned randomly to four groups and treated intramuscularly with either 10 mL of PBS (negative control, n = 5), 50-μg GnRH (positive control, n = 5), 6-mL of llama seminal plasma (n = 6), or 12 mL of bull seminal plasma (n = 6). Ovulation and CL development were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography. In experiment 2, beef heifers were given a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin followed by 25-mg porcine LH (pLH) 12 hours later to induce ovulation. Heifers were assigned randomly to three groups and given 12 mL bovine seminal plasma intramuscularly 12 hours after pLH treatment (n = 10), within 4 hours after ovulation (n = 9), or no treatment (control, n = 10). Ovulation was monitored by ultrasonography every 4 hours, and the CL development was monitored daily until the next ovulation. In experiment 1, ovulation was detected in 0/5, 4/5, 4/6, 4/6 llamas in the PBS, GnRH, llama seminal plasma, and bovine seminal plasma groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Luteal development was not different among groups. In experiment 2, the interval to ovulation was more synchronous (range: 4 vs. 22 hours; P < 0.0001) in heifers treated with seminal plasma before ovulation compared with the other groups. Luteal development was not different among groups; however, plasma progesterone concentrations tended to be greater in the postovulation treatment group compared with other groups. In summary, results confirmed the presence of bioactive ovulation-inducing factor in bull seminal plasma and supported the hypothesis that bovine and llama seminal plasma have similar ovulatory effects, using a llama bioassay. Treatment with bovine seminal plasma resulted in greater synchrony of ovulation in heifers pretreated with pLH. Plasma progesterone concentration tended to be higher in heifers given bovine seminal plasma within 4 hours after ovulation, suggesting that bovine ovulation-inducing factor is luteotrophic. AN - 25796284
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796284


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 794
Author: Tolliver, B. K.; Anton, R. F. C2 - PMC4518701 DA - Jun
Year: 2015
Title: Assessment and treatment of mood disorders in the context of substance abuse
Journal: Dialogues Clin Neurosci
Volume: 17
Issue: 2
Pages: 181-90 ST - Assessment and treatment of mood disorders in the context of substance abuse
Label: 1648
Keywords: Comorbidity Disease Progression Humans Mood Disorders Outcome Assessment (Health Care) Prevalence Substance-Related Disorders LA - eng
Abstract: Recognition and management of mood symptoms in individuals using alcohol and/or other drugs represent a daily challenge for clinicians in both inpatient and outpatient treatment settings. Diagnosis of underlying mood disorders in the context of ongoing substance abuse requires careful collection of psychiatric history, and is often critical for optimal treatment planning and outcomes. Failure to recognize major depression or bipolar disorders in these patients can result in increased relapse rates, recurrence of mood episodes, and elevated risk of completed suicide. Over the past decade, epidemiologic research has clarified the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders in substance-dependent individuals, overturning previous assumptions that depression in these patients is simply an artifact of intoxication and/or withdrawal, therefore requiring no treatment. However, our understanding of the bidirectional relationships between mood and substance use disorders in terms of their course(s) of illness and prognoses remains limited. Like-wise, strikingly little treatment research exists to guide clinical decision making in co-occurring mood and substance use disorders, given their high prevalence and public health burden. Here we overview what is known and the salient gaps of knowledge where data might enhance diagnosis and treatment of these complicated patients. AN - 26246792
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26246792


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 795
Author: Tinkler, S. H.; Mathews, L. A.; Firshman, A. M.; Quandt, J. E. C2 - PMC4357909 DA - Apr
Year: 2015
Title: The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia
Journal: Can Vet J
Volume: 56
Issue: 4
Pages: 370-4 ST - The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia
Label: 1691
Keywords: Animals Animals, Newborn Camelids, New World Hypercapnia Hypoventilation Oxygen Positive-Pressure Respiration Premature Birth Pulmonary Surfactants LA - eng
Abstract: A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult. AN - 25829556
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25829556


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 796
Author: Tian, B.; Wong, W. Y.; Hegmann, E.; Gaspar, K.; Kumar, P.; Chao, H. DA - Jun DO - 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.5b00237
Year: 2015
Title: Production and characterization of a camelid single domain antibody-urease enzyme conjugate for the treatment of cancer
Journal: Bioconjug Chem
Volume: 26
Issue: 6
Pages: 1144-55 ST - Production and characterization of a camelid single domain antibody-urease enzyme conjugate for the treatment of cancer
Label: 1677
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Animals Antineoplastic Agents Camelids, New World Canavalia Cell Line, Tumor Enzyme Therapy Humans Immunoconjugates Male Mice, Nude Molecular Sequence Data Neoplasms Single-Domain Antibodies Urease LA - eng
Abstract: A novel immunoconjugate (L-DOS47) was developed and characterized as a therapeutic agent for tumors expressing CEACAM6. The single domain antibody AFAIKL2, which targets CEACAM6, was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pT7-7 system. High purity urease (HPU) was extracted and purified from Jack bean meal. AFAIKL2 was activated using N-succinimidyl [4-iodoacetyl] aminobenzoate (SIAB) as the cross-linker and then conjugated to urease. The activation and conjugation reactions were controlled by altering pH. Under these conditions, the material ratio achieved conjugation ratios of 8-11 antibodies per urease molecule, the residual free urease content was practically negligible (<2%), and high purity (>95%) L-DOS47 conjugate was produced using only ultradiafiltration to remove unreacted antibody and hydrolyzed cross-linker. L-DOS47 was characterized by a panel of analytical techniques including SEC, IEC, Western blot, ELISA, and LC-MS(E) peptide mapping. As the antibody-urease conjugate ratio increased, a higher binding signal was observed. The specificity and cytotoxicity of L-DOS47 was confirmed by screening in four cell lines (BxPC-3, A549, MCF7, and CEACAM6-transfected H23). BxPC-3, a CEACAM6-expressing cell line was found to be most susceptible to L-DOS47. L-DOS47 is being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent in human phase I clinical studies for nonsmall cell lung cancer. AN - 25938892
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25938892


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 797
Author: Taglioretti, V.; Fugassa, M. H.; Sardella, N. H. DA - Jul DO - 10.1007/s00436-015-4442-y
Year: 2015
Title: Parasitic diversity found in coprolites of camelids during the Holocene
Journal: Parasitol Res
Volume: 114
Issue: 7
Pages: 2459-64 ST - Parasitic diversity found in coprolites of camelids during the Holocene
Label: 1690
Keywords: Animals Argentina Biodiversity Camelids, New World Feces Fossils History, Ancient Humans Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic Paleopathology Parasites LA - eng
Abstract: Knowledge of parasitic infections to which fauna was exposed in the past provides information on the geographical origin of some parasites, on the possible dispersal routes and for archaeological fauna on the potential zoonotic risk that human and animal populations could be exposed. The aim of the present study was to examine the gastrointestinal parasite present in camelid coprolites collected from the archaeological site Cerro Casa de Piedra, cave 7 (CCP7), Patagonia, Argentina. Coprolites were collected from different stratified sequences dating from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition to the late Holocene. Paleoparasitological examination revealed the presence of eggs of Trichostrongylidae attributed to Lamanema chavezi or Nematodirus lamae, eggs of three unidentified capillariids, Strongylus-type eggs and oocysts of Eimeria macusaniensis. These parasites affected camelids living in the studied area since the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, about 10,000 years ago. Gastrointestinal parasite fauna of patagonian camelids did not vary significatively from Pleistocene-Holocene transition to late Holocene, although environmental conditions fluctuated greatly throughout this period, as indicative of the strength and the stability of these associations over time. In this study, the zoonotic and biogeography importance of parasites of camelids are also discussed. AN - 25859925
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25859925


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 798
Author: Syring, C. DA - Jan
Year: 2015
Title: [New World Camelid Days 2014]
Journal: Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd
Volume: 157
Issue: 1
Pages: 8, 24 ST - [New World Camelid Days 2014]
Label: 1611
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Switzerland Veterinary Medicine LA - fre|ger
Notes: TY - JOUR AN - 26753315
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753315


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 799
Author: Stoughton, W. B.; Gold, J. DA - Aug DO - 10.2460/javma.247.3.300
Year: 2015
Title: Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus pleuropneumonia and peritonitis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf in North America
Journal: J Am Vet Med Assoc
Volume: 247
Issue: 3
Pages: 300-3 ST - Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus pleuropneumonia and peritonitis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf in North America
Label: 1652
Keywords: Animals Anti-Bacterial Agents Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Camelus Drainage Female Peritonitis Pleuropneumonia Streptococcal Infections Streptococcus equi LA - eng
Abstract: A 12-week-old female dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf was evaluated because of acute (< 24 hours) inappetence and lethargy. The calf was being bottle-fed because of maternal rejection.|Physical examination revealed decreased bronchovesicular sounds and absent borborygmi. The rectal temperature was 38.9°C (102.0°F). A CBC indicated leukopenia with a degenerative left shift suggestive of a systemic infection. Results of abdominal and thoracic ultrasonography showed severe bicavitary effusion, peripheral lung consolidation, and intestinal hypomotility. Pleural and peritoneal fluid analysis confirmed a diagnosis of septic pleuritis and peritonitis. Results of aerobic bacterial culture of venous blood, peritoneal fluid, and pleural fluid samples indicated Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus septicemia as the etiology for the polyserositis (ie, alpaca fever).|Treatment with IV broad-spectrum antimicrobials, an NSAID, and pleural drainage was initiated. Clinical signs of pleuropneumonia, peritonitis, and systemic infection improved rapidly 24 hours after initiation of medical treatment. The calf was discharged from the hospital after 11 days, and antimicrobial treatment continued for 2 weeks after discharge. At follow-up approximately 4 weeks after hospital discharge (6 weeks after the initial examination), there were no clinical signs suggestive of relapse or any reported complications.|S equi subsp zooepidemicus may cause polyserositis in Old World camelids (eg, dromedary camels) with signs similar to those seen in New World camelids (eg, alpaca and llama). The rapid response to medical treatment for the patient described suggested that S equi subsp zooepidemicus-induced polyserositis (alpaca fever) in dromedary camels may respond favorably to appropriate treatment. Reducing stress, reducing overcrowding, and separate housing of equids and camelids are suggested. Further studies are needed to better assess the epidemiology of alpaca fever in dromedary camels in North America. AN - 26176731
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26176731


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 800
Author: Stolworthy, D. K.; Bowden, A. E.; Roeder, B. L.; Robinson, T. F.; Holland, J. G.; Christensen, S. L.; Beatty, A. M.; Bridgewater, L. C.; Eggett, D. L.; Wendel, J. D.; Stieger-Vanegas, S. M.; Taylor, M. D. DA - Dec DO - 10.1002/jor.22968
Year: 2015
Title: MRI evaluation of spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the alpaca cervical spine
Journal: J Orthop Res
Volume: 33
Issue: 12
Pages: 1776-83 ST - MRI evaluation of spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the alpaca cervical spine
Label: 1657
Keywords: Animals Biomechanical Phenomena Camelids, New World Cervical Vertebrae Disease Models, Animal Female Image Processing, Computer-Assisted Intervertebral Disc Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Least-Squares Analysis Magnetic Resonance Imaging LA - eng
Abstract: Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding human pathology, treatment, and healing, but few animals are known to naturally develop intervertebral disc degeneration. The study of degenerative disc disease and its treatment would greatly benefit from a more comprehensive, and comparable animal model. Alpacas have recently been presented as a potential large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration due to similarities in spinal posture, disc size, biomechanical flexibility, and natural disc pathology. This research further investigated alpacas by determining the prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration among an aging alpaca population. Twenty healthy female alpacas comprised two age subgroups (5 young: 2-6 years; and 15 older: 10+ years) and were rated according to the Pfirrmann-grade for degeneration of the cervical intervertebral discs. Incidence rates of degeneration showed strong correlations with age and spinal level: younger alpacas were nearly immune to developing disc degeneration, and in older animals, disc degeneration had an increased incidence rate and severity at lower cervical levels. Advanced disc degeneration was present in at least one of the cervical intervertebral discs of 47% of the older alpacas, and it was most common at the two lowest cervical intervertebral discs. The prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration encourages further investigation and application of the lower cervical spine of alpacas and similar camelids as a large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration. AN - 26135031
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26135031


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 801
Author: Stölzl, A. M.; Lambertz, C.; Gauly, M. DA - 2015 Sep-Oct
Year: 2015
Title: Grazing behaviour and dry matter intake of llamas (Lama glama) and German black- head mutton sheep (Ovis orientalis forma aries) under Central European conditions
Journal: Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr
Volume: 128
Issue: 9-10
Pages: 409-15 ST - Grazing behaviour and dry matter intake of llamas (Lama glama) and German black- head mutton sheep (Ovis orientalis forma aries) under Central European conditions
Label: 1619
Keywords: Animal Husbandry Animals Camelids, New World Eating Environment Europe Female Herbivory Sheep LA - eng
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the behaviour of llamas (Lama glama) and German blackhead mutton sheep (Ovis orientalis forma aries) when kept under Central European grazing conditions. In total, six adult female sheep and six adult female llamas were observed by direct observation during one week, in which each group was observed for a total time of 24 h. The animals were kept on the same pasture, but the species were raised in separate plots. Forage height before and after the experimental period were determined using a rising plate meter to calculate the average daily dry matter intake (DMI). Llamas had a daily DMI of 0.85%/BW and sheep of 1.04%/BW, respectively. The following behaviours were recorded by direct observation: grazing standing up, grazing lying down, ruminating standing up, ruminating lying down, lying down, lying down lateral and standing. Both species grazed for more than 50% of the time. Ruminating was predominantly performed while standing and lying by sheep (about 50% of the night and 12% of the day) and while lying by llamas (54% of the night and 10% of the day). In conclusion, sheep and llamas differed in grazing behaviour and daily biorhythm. These differences indicate that sheep and llamas may not synchronize their behaviour when co-grazed, though particularly in co-grazing studies the observation period should be extended. AN - 26591388
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26591388


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 802
Author: Sorensen, N. J.; Allison, R. W. DA - Sep DO - 10.1111/vcp.12260
Year: 2015
Title: What is your diagnosis? Abdominal fluid from an adult alpaca
Journal: Vet Clin Pathol
Volume: 44
Issue: 3
Pages: 459-60 ST - What is your diagnosis? Abdominal fluid from an adult alpaca
Label: 1688
Keywords: Abdomen Animals Ascitic Fluid Camelids, New World Diagnosis, Differential Euthanasia, Animal Lymphoma, B-Cell Male LA - eng
Notes: TY - JOUR AN - 25899216
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25899216


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 803
Author: Smith, M. A.; Bush, R. D.; Thomson, P. C.; Hopkins, D. L. DA - Sep DO - 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.04.003
Year: 2015
Title: Carcass traits and saleable meat yield of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia
Journal: Meat Sci
Volume: 107
Pages: 1-11 ST - Carcass traits and saleable meat yield of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia
Label: 1683
Keywords: Adipose Tissue Age Factors Animal Feed Animal Husbandry Animals Body Composition Body Size Bone and Bones Camelids, New World Castration Dietary Fats Female Humans Male Meat Meat-Packing Industry Poaceae Sex Factors LA - eng
Abstract: Carcass traits and saleable meat yield (SMY) of female and castrated male alpacas in Australia at 18, 24 and 36 months of age were investigated. Fifty huacaya alpacas, evenly distributed across 14, 20, 32 month ages and two genders, were grazed on coastal summer pastures for four months. Dressing percentage and carcass length were collected at slaughter. At 24h post-mortem the carcasses were prepared into four SMY combinations. Thirty six month animals had heavier hot carcass weights (33.7 ± 1 kg) and longer carcasses (81.2 ± 0.7 cm) as expected. The percentage of total carcass bone (17.5 ± 0.2%), fat trim (1.4 ± 0.1%) and meat trim (7.8 ± 0.4%) was assessed as a proportion of cold carcass weight. The proportion of fat increased and bone decreased with age. Females had more trim than males. SMY decreased in females and increased in males with age across all combinations suggesting that males are preferable for meat production. AN - 25917946
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25917946


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 804
Author: Silva, M.; Fernández, A.; Ulloa-Leal, C.; Adams, G. P.; Berland, M. A.; Ratto, M. H. DA - Oct DO - 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.06.006
Year: 2015
Title: LH release and ovulatory response after intramuscular, intravenous, and intrauterine administration of β-nerve growth factor of seminal plasma origin in female llamas
Journal: Theriogenology
Volume: 84
Issue: 7
Pages: 1096-102 ST - LH release and ovulatory response after intramuscular, intravenous, and intrauterine administration of β-nerve growth factor of seminal plasma origin in female llamas
Label: 1653
Keywords: Administration, Intravenous Animals Camelids, New World Corpus Luteum Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Female Luteinizing Hormone Male Muscles Nerve Growth Factor Ovary Ovulation Progesterone Semen Ultrasonography Uterus LA - eng
Abstract: The objective of the study was to compare the pituitary and ovarian responses after intramuscular, intravenous, or intrauterine administration of β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) of seminal plasma origin (SP-NGF) in llamas. In experiment 1, mature female llamas with a growing follicle of 7 mm or greater were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 7/group) and given 2 mg of purified SP-NGF in a volume of 2 mL by (1) intramuscular administration, (2) intravenous administration, and (3) intrauterine infusion, or (4) intrauterine infusion of 2 mL of PBS (negative control). Because ovulations were not detected after intrauterine infusion in experiment 1, a second experiment was done to determine if a higher dose of SP-NGF given by intrauterine infusion, similar to a natural dose during copulation, will elicit an ovulatory response. In experiment 2, llamas with a growing follicle of 7 mm or greater were assigned randomly to three groups (n = 6/per group) given an intrauterine infusion of (1) 4 mL of raw seminal plasma, (2) 4 mL of PBS containing 20 mg of purified llama SP-NGF, or 3) 4 mL of PBS (negative control). In both experiments, the ovaries were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography using a B-mode scanner and power Doppler mode to detect ovulation and to monitor CL growth, regression, and vascularization. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma LH and progesterone concentrations. In experiment 1, only llamas treated by intramuscular or intravenous administration of SP-NGF ovulated (7 of 7 and 6 of 7, respectively). Plasma LH concentration did not differ between the intramuscular and intravenous SP-NGF-treated groups, nor did CL diameter, CL vascularization, or plasma progesterone concentration profiles. In experiment 2, the ovulation rate was 100% for llamas treated by intrauterine infusion of raw seminal plasma or llama SP-NFG, whereas no ovulations were detected in females treated with PBS. Plasma LH concentrations did not differ between groups that ovulated, nor did CL diameter, CL vascularization, or plasma progesterone concentration profiles. We conclude that β-NGF from llama seminal plasma origin elicits a preovulatory LH surge, followed by ovulation and the development of a functional CL, regardless of the route of administration. However, the dose required to elicit pituitary and ovarian responses is higher when administered by intrauterine infusion than by intramuscular or intravenous routes. AN - 26164804
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26164804


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 806
Author: Schulz, C.; Beer, M.; Hoffmann, B. DA - Nov DO - 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.08.024
Year: 2015
Title: Schmallenberg virus infection in South American camelids: Field and experimental investigations
Journal: Vet Microbiol
Volume: 180
Issue: 3-4
Pages: 171-9 ST - Schmallenberg virus infection in South American camelids: Field and experimental investigations
Label: 1637
Keywords: Abortion, Veterinary Animals Antibodies, Viral Bunyaviridae Infections Camelids, New World Female Germany Male Orthobunyavirus Pregnancy Prevalence RNA, Viral Risk Factors Ruminants Seroepidemiologic Studies LA - eng
Abstract: During the first epizootic wave of the novel, teratogenic Schmallenberg virus (SBV, Orthobunyavirus) in ruminants in Northern Europe, serological evidence of a previous SBV-infection demonstrated that South American camelids (SAC) are also susceptible to SBV. However, their potential role in SBV spread remains unknown. To investigate the prevalence and course of SBV-infection in SAC, a German field study and an animal trial with three llamas and three alpacas were conducted. From September 2012 to December 2013, 313 of 502 SAC (62.35%) were found SBV seropositive, but negative for SBV-RNA. The estimated between-district (94.23% of 52) and median within-district (71.43%) and herd (73.13%) SBV seroprevalence in German SAC was similar to the seroprevalence reported in cattle herds and sheep flocks at the time. An age of >1 year was found a statistically significant risk factor for SBV-infection, which could be explained by the spatio-temporal spread of SBV in Germany during the study period. No clinical signs or an increase of abortion and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection in SAC were reported by the study participants. Similar to SBV-infected ruminants, SBV-RNAemia in experimentally SBV-infected SAC was detected for a short time between days 3 and 7 after infection (dpi), and seroconversion occurred between 9 and 21 dpi. Despite the similar virological and serological results, the lack of clinical signs and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection suggests that SBV causes subclinical infection in SAC. However, their role as reservoirs in the spread of SBV has to be further investigated. AN - 26361966
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26361966


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 805
Author: Schulz, C.; Ziller, M.; Kampen, H.; Gauly, M.; Beer, M.; Grevelding, C. G.; Hoffmann, B.; Bauer, C.; Werner, D. DA - Dec DO - 10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.09.021
Year: 2015
Title: Culicoides vector species on three South American camelid farms seropositive for bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Germany 2008/2009
Journal: Vet Parasitol
Volume: 214
Issue: 3-4
Pages: 272-81 ST - Culicoides vector species on three South American camelid farms seropositive for bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Germany 2008/2009
Label: 1624
Keywords: Animals Biodiversity Bluetongue Bluetongue virus Camelids, New World Ceratopogonidae Feces Female Germany Humidity Insect Control Insect Vectors Male RNA, Viral Regression Analysis Seasons Temperature LA - eng
Abstract: Palearctic species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), in particular of the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes, were identified as putative vectors of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) on ruminant farms during the epizootic in Germany from 2006 to 2009. BTV may cause severe morbidity and mortality in ruminants and sporadically in South American camelids (SAC). However, the fauna of Culicoides spp. on SAC farms has not been investigated. Therefore, the ceratopogonid fauna was monitored on three farms with BTV-seropositive SAC in Germany. Black-light traps were set up on pastures and in stables from summer 2008 to autumn 2009. Additionally, ceratopogonids were caught in emergence traps mounted on llama dung and dung-free pasture from spring to autumn 2009. After morphological identification, selected Culicoides samples were analysed for BTV-RNA by real-time RT-PCR. The effects of the variables 'location', 'temperature' and 'humidity' on the number of Culicoides caught in black-light traps were modelled using multivariable Poisson regression. In total, 26 species of Culicoides and six other genera of biting midges were identified. The most abundant Culicoides spp. collected both outdoors and indoors with black-light traps belonged to the Obsoletus (77.4%) and Pulicaris (16.0%) complexes. The number of Culicoides peaked in summer, while no biting midges were caught during the winter months. Daily collections of Culicoides were mainly influenced by the location and depended on the interaction of temperature and humidity. In the emergence traps, species of the Obsoletus complex predominated the collections. In summary, the absence of BTV-RNA in any of the analysed Culicoides midges and in the BTV-seropositive SAC on the three farms together with the differences in the pathogenesis of BTV-8 in SAC compared to ruminants suggests a negligible role of SAC in the spread of the virus. Although SAC farms may provide similar suitable habitats for putative Culicoides vectors than ruminant farms, the results suggest that geographic and meteorological factors had a stronger influence on Culicoides abundance than the animal species. AN - 26489592
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26489592


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 807
Author: Schmäschke, R. DO - 10.15653/TPG-140914
Year: 2015
Title: [Endo- and ectoparasites of South American camelids and their control]
Journal: Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere
Volume: 43
Issue: 3
Pages: 169-79 ST - [Endo- and ectoparasites of South American camelids and their control]
Label: 1672
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Parasitic Diseases, Animal LA - ger
Abstract: In a literature review, common endo- and ectoparasites of South American camelids are described, presenting morphological details and clinical signs important for diagnosis. Based on the life cycle of the parasites, possibilities for prophylaxis and therapy are indicated. The review should aid the veterinarian to diagnose and control common parasitic infections in South American camelids. AN - 25995027
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25995027


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 808
Author: Rotman, M.; Welling, M. M.; van den Boogaard, M. L.; Moursel, L. G.; van der Graaf, L. M.; van Buchem, M. A.; van der Maarel, S. M.; van der Weerd, L. DA - Aug DO - 10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2015.03.003
Year: 2015
Title: Fusion of hIgG1-Fc to 111In-anti-amyloid single domain antibody fragment VHH-pa2H prolongs blood residential time in APP/PS1 mice but does not increase brain uptake
Journal: Nucl Med Biol
Volume: 42
Issue: 8
Pages: 695-702 ST - Fusion of hIgG1-Fc to 111In-anti-amyloid single domain antibody fragment VHH-pa2H prolongs blood residential time in APP/PS1 mice but does not increase brain uptake
Label: 1675
Keywords: Alzheimer Disease Amyloid beta-Peptides Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor Animals Blood-Brain Barrier Brain Disease Models, Animal Fluorescent Antibody Technique HEK293 Cells Humans Image Processing, Computer-Assisted Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments Immunoglobulin G Indium Radioisotopes Isotope Labeling Metabolic Clearance Rate Mice Mice, Inbred C57BL Mice, Transgenic Pentetic Acid Positron-Emission Tomography Presenilin-1 Radiopharmaceuticals Single-Domain Antibodies Tissue Distribution LA - eng
Abstract: Llama single domain antibody fragments (VHH), which can pass endothelial barriers, are being investigated for targeting amyloid plaque load in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Contrary to conventional human or murine antibodies consisting of IgG or F(ab')2 antibody fragments, VHH are able to effectively pass the blood brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. However, in earlier in vivo studies, anti-amyloid VHH showed poor BBB passage due to their short serum half-lives. It would be of interest to develop a VHH based protein with elongated serum half-life to enhance BBB passage, allowing the VHH to more easily reach the cerebral amyloid deposits.|To increase serum persistence, the Fc portion of the human IgG1 antibody (hinge plus CH2 and CH3 domains) was fused to the C-terminus of the VHH (VHH-pa2H-Fc). To determine the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution profile of the fusion protein, the chelator p-SCN-Bz-DTPA was linked to the protein and thereafter labeled with radioactive indium-111 ((111)In). Double transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 and wild type littermates were injected with 20 μg VHH-pa2H-Fc-DTPA-(111)In (10-20 MBq). Pharmacokinetics of the tracer was determined in blood samples at 10 intervals after injection and imaging using microSPECT was performed. The biodistribution of the radioactivity in various excised tissues was measured at 48 h after injection.|We succeeded in the expression of the fusion protein VHH-pa2H-Fc in HEK293T cells with a yield of 50mg/L growth medium. The fusion protein showed homodimerization - necessary for successful Fc neonatal receptor recycling. Compared to VHH-pa2H, the Fc tailed protein retained high affinity for amyloid beta on human AD patient brain tissue sections, and significantly improved serum retention of the VHH. However, at 48 h after systemic injection of the non-fused VHH-DTPA-(111)In and the VHH-Fc-DTPA-(111)In fusion protein in transgenic mice, the specific brain uptake of VHH-Fc-DTPA-(111)In was not improved compared to non-fused VHH-DTPA-(111)In.|Using VHH-Fc conjugates increases the blood half-life of the protein. However, purely extending the time window for brain uptake does not increase BBB passage. Nevertheless, VHH-Fc holds promise for therapeutic applications where a sustained systemic circulation of VHH is advantageous. AN - 25960433
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25960433


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 809
Author: Rossotti, M.; Tabares, S.; Alfaya, L.; Leizagoyen, C.; Moron, G.; González-Sapienza, G. C2 - PMC4439928 DA - Jul DO - 10.1016/j.bbagen.2015.03.009
Year: 2015
Title: Streamlined method for parallel identification of single domain antibodies to membrane receptors on whole cells
Journal: Biochim Biophys Acta
Volume: 1850
Issue: 7
Pages: 1397-404 ST - Streamlined method for parallel identification of single domain antibodies to membrane receptors on whole cells
Label: 1694
Keywords: Animals Antigens, CD11b Antigens, CD18 Antigens, CD45 Biotin Camelids, New World Cell Line Cell Surface Display Techniques Cells, Cultured Dendritic Cells Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Flow Cytometry Immunization Mice, Inbred BALB C Peptides Receptors, Cell Surface Reproducibility of Results Single-Chain Antibodies Single-Domain Antibodies Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization LA - eng
Abstract: Owing to their minimal size, high production yield, versatility and robustness, the recombinant variable domains (nanobodies) of camelid single chain antibodies are valued affinity reagents for research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. While their preparation against purified antigens is straightforward, the generation of nanobodies to difficult targets such as multi-pass or complex membrane cell receptors remains challenging. Here we devised a platform for high throughput identification of nanobodies to cell receptor based on the use of a biotin handle.|Using a biotin-acceptor peptide tag, the in vivo biotinylation of nanobodies in 96 well culture blocks was optimized allowing their parallel analysis by flow cytometry and ELISA, and their direct use for pull-down/MS target identification.|The potential of this strategy was demonstrated by the selection and characterization of panels of nanobodies to Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18), MHC II and the mouse Ly-5 leukocyte common antigen (CD45) receptors, from a VHH library obtained from a llama immunized with mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells. By on and off switching of the addition of biotin, the method also allowed the epitope binning of the selected Nbs directly on cells.|This strategy streamlines the selection of potent nanobodies to complex antigens, and the selected nanobodies constitute ready-to-use biotinylated reagents.|This method will accelerate the discovery of nanobodies to cell membrane receptors which comprise the largest group of drug and analytical targets. AN - 25819371
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25819371


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 810
Author: Prantner, A. M.; Turini, M.; Kerfelec, B.; Joshi, S.; Baty, D.; Chames, P.; Scholler, N. DA - Jul
Year: 2015
Title: Anti-Mesothelin Nanobodies for Both Conventional and Nanoparticle-Based Biomedical Applications
Journal: J Biomed Nanotechnol
Volume: 11
Issue: 7
Pages: 1201-12 ST - Anti-Mesothelin Nanobodies for Both Conventional and Nanoparticle-Based Biomedical Applications
Label: 1641
Keywords: Antibodies, Monoclonal GPI-Linked Proteins HeLa Cells Humans Nanoparticles Protein Engineering Subcellular Fractions LA - eng
Abstract: Mesothelin, a cancer biomarker overexpressed in tumors of epithelial origin, is a target for nanotechnology-based diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic applications. The currently available anti-mesothelin antibodies present limitations, including low penetration due to large size and/or lack of in vivo stability. Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) or nanobodies (Nbs) provide powerful solutions to these specific problems. We generated a phage-display library of Nbs that were amplified from B cells of a llama that was immunized with human recombinant mesothelin. Two nanobodies (Nb A1 and Nb C6) were selected on the basis of affinity (K(D) = 15 and 30 nM, respectively). Nb A1 was further modified by adding either a cysteine to permit maleimide-based bioconjugations or a sequence for the site-specific metabolic addition of a biotin in vivo. Both systems of conjugation (thiol-maleimide and streptavidin/biotin) were used to characterize and validate Nb A1 and to functionalize nanoparticles. We showed that anti-mesothelin Nb A1 could detect native and denatured mesothelin in various diagnostic applications, including flow cytometry, western blotting, immunofluorescence, and optical imaging. In conclusion, anti-mesothelin Nbs are novel, cost-effective, small, and single domain reagents with high affinity and specificity for the tumor-associated antigen mesothelin, which can be simply bioengineered for attachment to nanoparticles or modified surfaces using multiple bioconjugation strategies. These anti-mesothelin Nbs can be useful in both conventional and nanotechnology-based diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic biomedical applications. AN - 26307843
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26307843


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 811
Author: Piñera, M.; de Llama, B.; Jubete, M. T.; Arrieta Blanco, F. DA - Dec DO - 10.1016/j.aprim.2015.01.013
Year: 2015
Title: [Detecting patients at risk of malnutrition. Can we improve?]
Journal: Aten Primaria
Volume: 47
Issue: 10 LA - spa
Pages: 675-6 ST - [Detecting patients at risk of malnutrition. Can we improve?]
Label: 1685
Notes: TY - JOUR AN - 25908305
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908305


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 812
Author: Petsalaki, E.; Helbig, A. O.; Gopal, A.; Pasculescu, A.; Roth, F. P.; Pawson, T. C2 - PMC4489257 DA - Jul DO - 10.1093/nar/gkv459
Year: 2015
Title: SELPHI: correlation-based identification of kinase-associated networks from global phospho-proteomics data sets
Journal: Nucleic Acids Res
Volume: 43
Issue: W1
Pages: W276-82 ST - SELPHI: correlation-based identification of kinase-associated networks from global phospho-proteomics data sets
Label: 1676
Keywords: Erlotinib Hydrochloride Humans Internet Lung Neoplasms Peptides Phosphoprotein Phosphatases Phosphorylation Protein Kinase Inhibitors Protein Kinases Proteomics Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor Signal Transduction Software LA - eng
Abstract: While phospho-proteomics studies have shed light on the dynamics of cellular signaling, they mainly describe global effects and rarely explore mechanistic details, such as kinase/substrate relationships. Tools and databases, such as NetworKIN and PhosphoSitePlus, provide valuable regulatory details on signaling networks but rely on prior knowledge. They therefore provide limited information on less studied kinases and fewer unexpected relationships given that better studied signaling events can mask condition- or cell-specific 'network wiring'. SELPHI is a web-based tool providing in-depth analysis of phospho-proteomics data that is intuitive and accessible to non-bioinformatics experts. It uses correlation analysis of phospho-sites to extract kinase/phosphatase and phospho-peptide associations, and highlights the potential flow of signaling in the system under study. We illustrate SELPHI via analysis of phospho-proteomics data acquired in the presence of erlotinib-a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-in cancer cells expressing TKI-resistant and -sensitive variants of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor. In this data set, SELPHI revealed information overlooked by the reporting study, including the known role of MET and EPHA2 kinases in conferring resistance to erlotinib in TKI sensitive strains. SELPHI can significantly enhance the analysis of phospho-proteomics data contributing to improved understanding of sample-specific signaling networks. SELPHI is freely available via http://llama.mshri.on.ca/SELPHI. AN - 25948583
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25948583


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 813
Author: Pentecost, R. L.; Niehaus, A. J.; Werle, N.; Lakritz, J. DA - Apr DO - 10.1016/j.rvsc.2015.02.006
Year: 2015
Title: Absorption and disposition of florfenicol after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous dosing in alpacas
Journal: Res Vet Sci
Volume: 99
Pages: 199-203 ST - Absorption and disposition of florfenicol after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous dosing in alpacas
Label: 1700
Keywords: Absorption, Physiological Animals Anti-Bacterial Agents Biological Availability Camelids, New World Cross-Over Studies Half-Life Injections, Intramuscular Injections, Intravenous Injections, Subcutaneous Intramuscular Absorption Male Subcutaneous Absorption Thiamphenicol LA - eng
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to define disposition and systemic availability of florfenicol in alpacas. Administration of 20 mg/kg doses to 8 male alpacas by i.v., i.m. and s.c. routes was performed by randomized, 3-way crossover design. Clearance and steady state volumes (Vdss) after i.v. injection were 5 ml/min/kg and 775 ml/kg respectively. Mean residence time (MRT) and terminal phase half-life (T1/2λz) were 2.8 h and 2 h respectively. Maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) after i.m. were higher than s.c. administration (p = 0.034). After s.c. dosing, T1/2λz and MRT were greater than after i.m. injection (p < 0.001; p = 0.006 respectively). Mean absorption time (MAT) after s.c. dosing was also prolonged (p = 0.006). Fractional absorption of florfenicol after i.m. and s.c. was not different (p > 0.05). Serum florfenicol concentrations remained >1.0 µg/ml for 20 h after i.m. dosing. Differences in rate and extent of florfenicol absorption after extravascular dosing could influence therapeutic outcomes. AN - 25744433
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25744433


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 814
Author: Pauciullo, A.; Erhardt, G. C2 - PMC4414411 DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0124963
Year: 2015
Title: Molecular Characterization of the Llamas (Lama glama) Casein Cluster Genes Transcripts (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3) and Regulatory Regions
Journal: PLoS One
Volume: 10
Issue: 4
Pages: e0124963 ST - Molecular Characterization of the Llamas (Lama glama) Casein Cluster Genes Transcripts (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3) and Regulatory Regions
Label: 1681
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Camelus Caseins Evolution, Molecular Exons Female Gene Expression Regulation Goats Humans Lactation Milk Protein Processing, Post-Translational RNA, Messenger Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid Sequence Homology LA - eng
Abstract: In the present paper, we report for the first time the characterization of llama (Lama glama) caseins at transcriptomic and genetic level. A total of 288 casein clones transcripts were analysed from two lactating llamas. The most represented mRNA populations were those correctly assembled (85.07%) and they encoded for mature proteins of 215, 217, 187 and 162 amino acids respectively for the CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3 genes. The exonic subdivision evidenced a structure made of 21, 9, 17 and 6 exons for the αs1-, β-, αs2- and κ-casein genes respectively. Exon skipping and duplication events were evidenced. Two variants A and B were identified in the αs1-casein gene as result of the alternative out-splicing of the exon 18. An additional exon coding for a novel esapeptide was found to be cryptic in the κ-casein gene, whereas one extra exon was found in the αs2-casein gene by the comparison with the Camelus dromedaries sequence. A total of 28 putative phosphorylated motifs highlighted a complex heterogeneity and a potential variable degree of post-translational modifications. Ninety-six polymorphic sites were found through the comparison of the lama casein cDNAs with the homologous camel sequences, whereas the first description and characterization of the 5'- and 3'-regulatory regions allowed to identify the main putative consensus sequences involved in the casein genes expression, thus opening the way to new investigations -so far- never achieved in this species. AN - 25923814
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25923814


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 815
Author: Patil, S. B.; Vögtli, M.; Webb, B.; Mazza, G.; Pinzani, M.; Soh, Y. A.; McKendry, R. A.; Ndieyira, J. W. DA - Oct DO - 10.1038/nnano.2015.174
Year: 2015
Title: Decoupling competing surface binding kinetics and reconfiguration of receptor footprint for ultrasensitive stress assays
Journal: Nat Nanotechnol
Volume: 10
Issue: 10
Pages: 899-907 ST - Decoupling competing surface binding kinetics and reconfiguration of receptor footprint for ultrasensitive stress assays
Label: 1645
Keywords: Animals Anti-Bacterial Agents Camelids, New World Equipment Design Factor VIII HIV-1 Humans Immobilized Proteins Kinetics Models, Molecular Protein Binding Receptors, Cell Surface Single-Domain Antibodies Surface Plasmon Resonance Surface Properties Vancomycin env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus LA - eng
Abstract: Cantilever arrays have been used to monitor biochemical interactions and their associated stress. However, it is often necessary to passivate the underside of the cantilever to prevent unwanted ligand adsorption, and this process requires tedious optimization. Here, we show a way to immobilize membrane receptors on nanomechanical cantilevers so that they can function without passivating the underlying surface. Using equilibrium theory, we quantitatively describe the mechanical responses of vancomycin, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antigens and coagulation factor VIII captured on the cantilever in the presence of competing stresses from the top and bottom cantilever surfaces. We show that the area per receptor molecule on the cantilever surface influences ligand-receptor binding and plays an important role on stress. Our results offer a new way to sense biomolecules and will aid in the creation of ultrasensitive biosensors. AN - 26280409
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26280409


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 816
Author: Olson, M. A.; Zabetakis, D.; Legler, P. M.; Turner, K. B.; Anderson, G. P.; Goldman, E. R. DA - Oct DO - 10.1093/protein/gzv047
Year: 2015
Title: Can template-based protein models guide the design of sequence fitness for enhanced thermal stability of single domain antibodies?
Journal: Protein Eng Des Sel
Volume: 28
Issue: 10
Pages: 395-402 ST - Can template-based protein models guide the design of sequence fitness for enhanced thermal stability of single domain antibodies?
Label: 1635
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Animals Camelids, New World Models, Molecular Molecular Sequence Data Point Mutation Protein Engineering Protein Stability Protein Structure, Secondary Protein Unfolding Single-Domain Antibodies Temperature LA - eng
Abstract: We investigate the practical use of comparative (template-based) protein models in replica-exchange simulations of single-domain antibody (sdAb) chains to evaluate if the models can correctly predict in rank order the thermal susceptibility to unfold relative to experimental melting temperatures. The baseline model system is the recently determined crystallographic structure of a llama sdAb (denoted as A3), which exhibits an unusually high thermal stability. An evaluation of the simulation results for the A3 comparative model and crystal structure shows that, despite the overall low Cα root-mean-square deviation between the two structures, the model contains misfolded regions that yields a thermal profile of unraveling at a lower temperature. Yet comparison of the simulations of four different comparative models for sdAb A3, C8, A3C8 and E9, where A3C8 is a design of swapping the sequence of the complementarity determining regions of C8 onto the A3 framework, discriminated among the sequences to detect the highest and lowest experimental melting transition temperatures. Further structural analysis of A3 for selected alanine substitutions by a combined computational and experimental study found unexpectedly that the comparative model performed admirably in recognizing substitution 'hot spots' when using a support-vector machine algorithm. AN - 26374895
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374895


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 817
Author: Nilsen, B.; Johnston, N. P.; Stevens, N.; Robinson, T. F. DA - Oct DO - 10.1111/jpn.12291
Year: 2015
Title: Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay
Journal: J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl)
Volume: 99
Issue: 5
Pages: 873-9 ST - Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay
Label: 1707
Keywords: Amaranthus Animal Feed Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena Animals Camelids, New World Chenopodium quinoa Diet Digestion Hordeum Male LA - eng
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the compartment 1 (C1) characteristics of alpacas (fistulated male, 7 ± 1.5 years old, 61 ± 5 kg BW) fed grass hay (GH) supplemented with amaranth (AM), quinoa (Q) and barley (B) grains. Alpacas were provided water ad libitum while housed in metabolism crates. The GH and GH plus treatments were fed at 0700 every day. Treatment periods were for 14 days in which GH or GH plus one of the grain treatments were randomly allocated. On day 14, volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. C1 degradation of each feed component was also determined with the alpacas being fed GH only and the samples incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h. Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were determined and were divided into three categories: a = immediately soluble; b = the non-soluble but degradable; and u = non-degradable/unavailable, potential extent of degradation (PE), degradation rate (c) and effective degradation (ED). C1 passage rate was determined using acid detergent insoluble ash as a marker and was calculated to be 5.5%∙h-1. Total DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for B and resulted in a higher (p < 0.05) CP intake. GH and AM were different in mean pH (6.81 and 6.66, respectively). B NH3 -N was greater (p < 0.05) than the other treatments. Total VFA was greatest (p < 0.05) for AM, with the greatest composition differences being a shift form acetate percentage to butyrate. DM, NDF and CP degradation was different across the treatments, where PE and ED were higher (p < 0.05) for the grain treatments. The pseudo-grains AM and Q had similar C1 degradation characteristics to B. AN - 25683297
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25683297


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 819
Author: Nguyen, V. S.; Logger, L.; Spinelli, S.; Desmyter, A.; Le, T. T.; Kellenberger, C.; Douzi, B.; Durand, E.; Roussel, A.; Cascales, E.; Cambillau, C. C2 - PMC4374921 DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0122187
Year: 2015
Title: Inhibition of type VI secretion by an anti-TssM llama nanobody
Journal: PLoS One
Volume: 10
Issue: 3
Pages: e0122187 ST - Inhibition of type VI secretion by an anti-TssM llama nanobody
Label: 1695
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Animals Antibody Affinity Antibody Specificity Bacterial Proteins Camelids, New World Models, Molecular Molecular Sequence Data Protein Binding Protein Conformation Sequence Alignment Single-Domain Antibodies Thermodynamics Type VI Secretion Systems LA - eng
Abstract: The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a secretion pathway widespread in Gram-negative bacteria that targets toxins in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Although most T6SSs identified so far are involved in inter-bacterial competition, a few are directly required for full virulence of pathogens. The T6SS comprises 13 core proteins that assemble a large complex structurally and functionally similar to a phage contractile tail structure anchored to the cell envelope by a trans-membrane spanning stator. The central part of this stator, TssM, is a 1129-amino-acid protein anchored in the inner membrane that binds to the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein. In this study, we have raised camelid antibodies against the purified TssM periplasmic domain. We report the crystal structure of two specific nanobodies that bind to TssM in the nanomolar range. Interestingly, the most potent nanobody, nb25, competes with the TssJ lipoprotein for TssM binding in vitro suggesting that TssJ and the nb25 CDR3 loop share the same TssM binding site or causes a steric hindrance preventing TssM-TssJ complex formation. Indeed, periplasmic production of the nanobodies displacing the TssM-TssJ interaction inhibits the T6SS function in vivo. This study illustrates the power of nanobodies to specifically target and inhibit bacterial secretion systems. AN - 25811612
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25811612


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 818
Author: Nguyen, V. S.; Spinelli, S.; Desmyter, A.; Le, T. T.; Kellenberger, C.; Cascales, E.; Cambillau, C.; Roussel, A. DA - Mar DO - 10.1107/S2053230X15000709
Year: 2015
Title: Production, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of a complex between a fragment of the TssM T6SS protein and a camelid nanobody
Journal: Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
Volume: 71
Issue: Pt 3
Pages: 266-71 ST - Production, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of a complex between a fragment of the TssM T6SS protein and a camelid nanobody
Label: 1698
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Animals Bacterial Secretion Systems Camelids, New World Crystallization Crystallography, X-Ray Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Proteins Membrane Proteins Molecular Sequence Data Peptide Fragments Single-Domain Antibodies LA - eng
Abstract: The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a machine evolved by Gram-negative bacteria to deliver toxin effectors into target bacterial or eukaryotic cells. The T6SS is functionally and structurally similar to the contractile tail of the Myoviridae family of bacteriophages and can be viewed as a syringe anchored to the bacterial membrane by a transenvelope complex. The membrane complex is composed of three proteins: the TssM and TssL inner membrane components and the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein. The TssM protein is central as it interacts with both TssL and TssJ, therefore linking the membranes. Using controlled trypsinolysis, a 32.4 kDa C-terminal fragment of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli TssM (TssM32Ct) was purified. A nanobody obtained from llama immunization, nb25, exhibited subnanomolar affinity for TssM32Ct. Crystals of the TssM32Ct-nb25 complex were obtained and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P64, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.23, c = 172.95 Å. Molecular replacement with a model nanobody indicated the presence of a dimer of TssM32Ct-nb25 in the asymmetric unit. AN - 25760699
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25760699


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 820
Author: Neill, J. D.; Dubovi, E. J.; Ridpath, J. F. DA - Sep DO - 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.06.007
Year: 2015
Title: Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation
Journal: Vet Microbiol
Volume: 179
Issue: 3-4
Pages: 299-303 ST - Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation
Label: 1665
Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological Amino Acid Sequence Amino Acids Animals Camelids, New World Canada Cattle Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral Gene Expression Regulation, Viral Viral Envelope Proteins LA - eng
Abstract: Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV are often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected. The complete nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of eleven alpaca-adapted BVDV isolates and the region encoding the envelope glycoproteins of an additional three isolates were determined. With the exception of one, all alpaca isolates were >99.2% similar at the nucleotide level. The Hercules isolate was more divergent, with 95.7% sequence identity to the other viruses. Sequence similarity of the 14 viruses indicated they were isolates of a single BVDV strain that had adapted to and were circulating through alpaca herds. Hercules was a more distantly related strain that has been isolated only once in Canada and represented a separate adaptation event that possessed the same adaptive changes. Comparison of amino acid sequences of alpaca and bovine-derived BVDV strains revealed three regions with amino acid sequences unique to all alpaca isolates. The first contained two small in-frame deletions near the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein. The second was found near the C-terminus of the E2 protein where four altered amino acids were located within a 30 amino acid domain that participates in E2 homodimerization. The third region contained three variable amino acids in the C-terminus of the E(rns) within the amphipathic helix membrane anchor. These changes were found in the polar side of the amphipathic helix and resulted in an increased charge within the polar face. Titration of bovine and alpaca viruses in both bovine and alpaca cells indicated that with increased charge in the amphipathic helix, the ability to infect alpaca cells also increased. AN - 26072370
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26072370


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 821
Author: Moonens, K.; Van den Broeck, I.; Okello, E.; Pardon, E.; De Kerpel, M.; Remaut, H.; De Greve, H. C2 - PMC4337312 DA - Feb DO - 10.1186/s13567-015-0151-x
Year: 2015
Title: Structural insight in the inhibition of adherence of F4 fimbriae producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by llama single domain antibodies
Journal: Vet Res
Volume: 46
Pages: 14 ST - Structural insight in the inhibition of adherence of F4 fimbriae producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by llama single domain antibodies
Label: 1693
Keywords: Adhesins, Escherichia coli Animals Camelids, New World Crystallography, X-Ray Diarrhea Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Infections Fimbriae, Bacterial Single-Domain Antibodies Swine Swine Diseases Virus Shedding LA - eng
Abstract: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in piglets express F4 fimbriae to mediate attachment towards host receptors. Recently we described how llama single domain antibodies (VHHs) fused to IgA, produced in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and fed to piglets resulted in a progressive decline in shedding of F4 positive ETEC bacteria. Here we present the structures of these inhibiting VHHs in complex with the major adhesive subunit FaeG. A conserved surface, distant from the lactose binding pocket, is targeted by these VHHs, highlighting the possibility of targeting epitopes on single-domain adhesins that are non-involved in receptor binding. AN - 25828907
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828907


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 822
Author: Miyazaki, N.; Kiyose, N.; Akazawa, Y.; Takashima, M.; Hagihara, Y.; Inoue, N.; Matsuda, T.; Ogawa, R.; Inoue, S.; Ito, Y. DA - Sep DO - 10.1093/jb/mvv038
Year: 2015
Title: Isolation and characterization of antigen-specific alpaca (Lama pacos) VHH antibodies by biopanning followed by high-throughput sequencing
Journal: J Biochem
Volume: 158
Issue: 3
Pages: 205-15 ST - Isolation and characterization of antigen-specific alpaca (Lama pacos) VHH antibodies by biopanning followed by high-throughput sequencing
Label: 1689
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Animals Antibodies Antibody Specificity Antigens Camelids, New World High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains Leukocytes, Mononuclear LA - eng
Abstract: The antigen-binding domain of camelid dimeric heavy chain antibodies, known as VHH or Nanobody, has much potential in pharmaceutical and industrial applications. To establish the isolation process of antigen-specific VHH, a VHH phage library was constructed with a diversity of 8.4 × 10(7) from cDNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an alpaca (Lama pacos) immunized with a fragment of IZUMO1 (IZUMO1PFF) as a model antigen. By conventional biopanning, 13 antigen-specific VHHs were isolated. The amino acid sequences of these VHHs, designated as N-group VHHs, were very similar to each other (>93% identity). To find more diverse antibodies, we performed high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of VHH genes. By comparing the frequencies of each sequence between before and after biopanning, we found the sequences whose frequencies were increased by biopanning. The top 100 sequences of them were supplied for phylogenic tree analysis. In total 75% of them belonged to N-group VHHs, but the other were phylogenically apart from N-group VHHs (Non N-group). Two of three VHHs selected from non N-group VHHs showed sufficient antigen binding ability. These results suggested that biopanning followed by HTS provided a useful method for finding minor and diverse antigen-specific clones that could not be identified by conventional biopanning. AN - 25888581
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25888581


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 823
Author: Mesquita, F. S.; Ramos, R. S.; Pugliesi, G.; Andrade, S. C.; Van Hoeck, V.; Langbeen, A.; Oliveira, M. L.; Gonella-Diaza, A. M.; Gasparin, G.; Fukumasu, H.; Pulz, L. H.; Membrive, C. M.; Coutinho, L. L.; Binelli, M. DA - Aug DO - 10.1095/biolreprod.115.129031
Year: 2015
Title: The Receptive Endometrial Transcriptomic Signature Indicates an Earlier Shift from Proliferation to Metabolism at Early Diestrus in the Cow
Journal: Biol Reprod
Volume: 93
Issue: 2
Pages: 52 ST - The Receptive Endometrial Transcriptomic Signature Indicates an Earlier Shift from Proliferation to Metabolism at Early Diestrus in the Cow
Label: 1651
Keywords: Animals Apoptosis Caspase 3 Cattle Cell Proliferation Cloprostenol Computational Biology Diestrus Endometrium Enzyme Activation Extracellular Matrix Female Luteolytic Agents Ovarian Follicle Pregnancy Transcriptome LA - eng
Abstract: This study aimed to characterize the endometrial transcriptome and functional pathways overrepresented in the endometrium of cows treated to ovulate larger (≥13 mm) versus smaller (≤12 mm) follicles. Nelore cows were presynchronized prior to receiving cloprostenol (large follicle [LF] group) or not (small follicle [SF] group), along with a progesterone (P4) device on Day (D) -10. Devices were withdrawn and cloprostenol administered 42-60 h (LF) or 30-36 h (SF) before GnRH agonist treatment (D0). Tissues were collected on D4 (experiment [Exp.] 1; n = 24) or D7 (Exp. 2; n = 60). Endometrial transcriptome was obtained by RNA-Seq, whereas proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Overall, LF cows developed larger follicles and corpora lutea, and produced greater amounts of estradiol (D-1, Exp. 1, SF: 0.7 ± 0.2; LF: 2.4 ± 0.2 pg/ml; D-1, Exp. 2, SF: 0.5 ± 0.1; LF: 2.3 ± 0.6 pg/ml) and P4 (D4, Exp. 1, SF: 0.8 ± 0.1; LF: 1.4 ± 0.2 ng/ml; D7, Exp. 2, SF: 2.5 ± 0.4; LF: 3.7 ± 0.4 ng/ml). Functional enrichment indicated that biosynthetic and metabolic processes were enriched in LF endometrium, whereas SF endometrium transcriptome was biased toward cell proliferation. Data also suggested reorganization of the extracellular matrix toward a proliferation-permissive phenotype in SF endometrium. LF endometrium showed an earlier onset of proliferative activity, whereas SF endometrium expressed a delayed increase in glandular epithelium proliferation. In conclusion, the periovulatory endocrine milieu regulates bovine endometrial transcriptome and seems to determine the transition from a proliferation-permissive to a biosynthetic and metabolically active endometrial phenotype, which may be associated with the preparation of an optimally receptive uterine environment. AN - 26178716
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26178716


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 824
Author: Kubus, K.; Wöckel, A.; Felton, C.; Schwarzenberger, J.; Sobiraj, A. DO - 10.15653/TPG-150173
Year: 2015
Title: [Nonsurgical and surgical treatment of an urachal fistula in an alpaca cria. A case report]
Journal: Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere
Volume: 43
Issue: 6
Pages: 368-73 ST - [Nonsurgical and surgical treatment of an urachal fistula in an alpaca cria. A case report]
Label: 1633
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Female Fistula Umbilicus Urachus LA - ger
Abstract: Urachal fistula is a neonatal condition. There are two reported forms: a congenital and an acquired form. We describe the case of a 6-hour-old female alpaca cria that was presented with a damp umbilicus and a meconium impaction. Conservative treatment of the urachal fistula with local and systemic medication was unsuccessful after 6 days; therefore, a resection of the umbilicus under general anaesthesia was performed. Reconvalescence was uneventful. AN - 26395385
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26395385


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 825
Author: Koziol, J. H.; Edmondson, M. A.; Wolfe, D. F.; Bayne, J. E. C2 - PMC4466831 DA - Jul
Year: 2015
Title: Successful resolution of a preputial prolapse in an alpaca using medical therapy
Journal: Can Vet J
Volume: 56
Issue: 7
Pages: 753-5 ST - Successful resolution of a preputial prolapse in an alpaca using medical therapy
Label: 1658
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Genital Diseases, Male Male LA - eng
Abstract: A 2-year-old intact male alpaca was presented for a post-breeding preputial prolapse of 5 days duration. The internal lamina of the prepuce was prolapsed approximately 6 cm and the exposed preputial epithelium was edematous and necrotic. Following 7 days of medical treatment, resolution of the preputial prolapse was achieved. AN - 26130840
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26130840


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 826
Author: Klarenbeek, A.; El Mazouari, K.; Desmyter, A.; Blanchetot, C.; Hultberg, A.; de Jonge, N.; Roovers, R. C.; Cambillau, C.; Spinelli, S.; Del-Favero, J.; Verrips, T.; de Haard, H. J.; Achour, I. C2 - PMC4622956 DO - 10.1080/19420862.2015.1046648
Year: 2015
Title: Camelid Ig V genes reveal significant human homology not seen in therapeutic target genes, providing for a powerful therapeutic antibody platform
Journal: MAbs
Volume: 7
Issue: 4
Pages: 693-706 ST - Camelid Ig V genes reveal significant human homology not seen in therapeutic target genes, providing for a powerful therapeutic antibody platform
Label: 1671
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Camelus Crystallography, X-Ray Humans Immunoglobulin Variable Region Protein Folding Protein Structure, Tertiary Sequence Homology, Amino Acid LA - eng
Abstract: Camelid immunoglobulin variable (IGV) regions were found homologous to their human counterparts; however, the germline V repertoires of camelid heavy and light chains are still incomplete and their therapeutic potential is only beginning to be appreciated. We therefore leveraged the publicly available HTG and WGS databases of Lama pacos and Camelus ferus to retrieve the germline repertoire of V genes using human IGV genes as reference. In addition, we amplified IGKV and IGLV genes to uncover the V germline repertoire of Lama glama and sequenced BAC clones covering part of the Lama pacos IGK and IGL loci. Our in silico analysis showed that camelid counterparts of all human IGKV and IGLV families and most IGHV families could be identified, based on canonical structure and sequence homology. Interestingly, this sequence homology seemed largely restricted to the Ig V genes and was far less apparent in other genes: 6 therapeutically relevant target genes differed significantly from their human orthologs. This contributed to efficient immunization of llamas with the human proteins CD70, MET, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, resulting in large panels of functional antibodies. The in silico predicted human-homologous canonical folds of camelid-derived antibodies were confirmed by X-ray crystallography solving the structure of 2 selected camelid anti-CD70 and anti-MET antibodies. These antibodies showed identical fold combinations as found in the corresponding human germline V families, yielding binding site structures closely similar to those occurring in human antibodies. In conclusion, our results indicate that active immunization of camelids can be a powerful therapeutic antibody platform. AN - 26018625
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26018625


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 16
Author: Kingston, Lewis [author]
Year: 2015
Title: Silver llama
City: Cambridge, England
Publisher: Vanguard Press
Number of Pages: 1 volume LA - English
ISBN: 9781784650025 HL - National Library of Scotland ; Trinity College Dublin Library ; University of Oxford Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 827
Author: King, J. S.; Vaughan, J. L.; Windsor, P. A. DA - Jul DO - 10.1111/avj.12339
Year: 2015
Title: Serological evidence of Neospora caninum in alpacas from eastern Australia
Journal: Aust Vet J
Volume: 93
Issue: 7
Pages: 259-61 ST - Serological evidence of Neospora caninum in alpacas from eastern Australia
Label: 1659
Keywords: Abortion, Veterinary Animals Antibodies, Protozoan Camelids, New World Coccidiosis Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Neospora New South Wales Victoria LA - eng
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate if there was any serological evidence of Neospora caninum in alpaca populations in south-eastern Australia.|Serum samples from 100 alpacas were collected from four farms. All serum samples were screened for N. caninum antibodies using a commercially available competitive ELISA. Of the 100 alpacas sampled, 3 were suspect seropositive for N. caninum.|There is natural N. caninum seroprevalence in alpacas in south-eastern Australia; however, it remains undetermined whether or not this infection is currently contributing to reproductive failure in alpacas in Australia. AN - 26113353
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26113353


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 828
Author: Kiani, A.; Alstrup, L.; Nielsen, M. O. DA - Oct DO - 10.1016/j.domaniend.2015.03.006
Year: 2015
Title: Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets
Journal: Domest Anim Endocrinol
Volume: 53
Pages: 9-16 ST - Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets
Label: 1664
Keywords: 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid Animal Feed Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena Animals Blood Glucose Camelids, New World Creatinine Cross-Over Studies Diet Dietary Proteins Fatty Acids, Nonesterified Female Goats Insulin Poaceae Sheep Species Specificity Urea LA - eng
Abstract: This study aimed to elucidate whether distinct endocrine and metabolic adaptations provide llamas superior ability to adapt to low protein content grass-based diets as compared with the true ruminants. Eighteen adult, nonpregnant females (6 llamas, 6 goats, and 6 sheep) were fed either green grass hay with (HP) or grass seed straw (LP) in a cross-over design experiment over 2 periods of 21 d. Blood samples were taken on day 21 in each period at -30, 60, 150, and 240 min after feeding the morning meal and analyzed for plasma contents of glucose, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxy butyrate (BOHB), urea, creatinine, insulin, and leptin. Results showed that llamas vs sheep and goats had higher plasma concentrations of glucose (7.1 vs 3.5 and 3.6 ± 0.18 mmol/L), creatinine (209 vs 110 and 103 ± 10 μmol/L), and urea (6.7 vs 5.6 and 4.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but lower leptin (0.33 vs 1.49 and 1.05 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and BOHB (0.05 vs 0.26 and 0.12 ± 0.02 mmol/L), respectively. BOHB in llamas was extremely low for a ruminating animal. Llamas showed that hyperglycemia coexisted with hyperinsulinemia (in general on the HP diet; postprandially on the LP diet). Llamas were clearly hypercreatinemic compared with the true ruminants, which became further exacerbated on the LP diet, where they also sustained plasma urea at markedly higher concentrations. However, llamas had markedly lower leptin concentrations than the true ruminants. In conclusion, llamas appear to have an intrinsic insulin resistant phenotype. Augmentation of creatinine and sustenance of elevated plasma urea concentrations in llamas when fed the LP diet must reflect distinct metabolic adaptations of intermediary protein and/or nitrogen metabolism, not observed in the true ruminants. These features can contribute to explain lower metabolic rates in llamas compared with the true ruminants, which must improve the chances of survival on low protein content diets. AN - 26073222
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26073222


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 829
Author: Kandalaft, H.; Hussack, G.; Aubry, A.; van Faassen, H.; Guan, Y.; Arbabi-Ghahroudi, M.; MacKenzie, R.; Logan, S. M.; Tanha, J. C2 - PMC4768215 DA - Oct DO - 10.1007/s00253-015-6594-1
Year: 2015
Title: Targeting surface-layer proteins with single-domain antibodies: a potential therapeutic approach against Clostridium difficile-associated disease
Journal: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol
Volume: 99
Issue: 20
Pages: 8549-62 ST - Targeting surface-layer proteins with single-domain antibodies: a potential therapeutic approach against Clostridium difficile-associated disease
Label: 1678
Keywords: Anti-Bacterial Agents Antibodies, Bacterial Bacterial Proteins Clostridium difficile Epitopes Locomotion Membrane Glycoproteins Peptide Library Protein Binding Single-Domain Antibodies LA - eng
Abstract: Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of death from gastrointestinal infections in North America. Antibiotic therapy is effective, but the high incidence of relapse and the rise in hypervirulent strains warrant the search for novel treatments. Surface layer proteins (SLPs) cover the entire C. difficile bacterial surface, are composed of high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) subunits, and mediate adherence to host cells. Passive and active immunization against SLPs has enhanced hamster survival, suggesting that antibody-mediated neutralization may be an effective therapeutic strategy. Here, we isolated a panel of SLP-specific single-domain antibodies (VHHs) using an immune llama phage display library and SLPs isolated from C. difficile hypervirulent strain QCD-32g58 (027 ribotype) as a target antigen. Binding studies revealed a number of VHHs that bound QCD-32g58 SLPs with high affinity (K D = 3-6 nM) and targeted epitopes located on the LMW subunit of the SLP. The VHHs demonstrated melting temperatures as high as 75 °C, and a few were resistant to the gastrointestinal protease pepsin at physiologically relevant concentrations. In addition, we demonstrated the binding specificity of the VHHs to the major C. difficile ribotypes by whole cell ELISA, where all VHHs were found to bind 001 and 027 ribotypes, and a subset of antibodies were found to be broadly cross-reactive in binding cells representative of 012, 017, 023, and 078 ribotypes. Finally, we showed that several of the VHHs inhibited C. difficile QCD-32g58 motility in vitro. Targeting SLPs with VHHs may be a viable therapeutic approach against C. difficile-associated disease. AN - 25936376
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25936376


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 17
Author: Jovcevska, Ivana; Komel, Radovan
Year: 2015
Title: Llama heavy-chain antibody-derived nanobodies as tools to identify protein markers for human glioma : [doctoral dissertation]
City: Ljubljana DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
University: I. Jovcevska
Label: 1713
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 830
Author: Ingram, J. R.; Knockenhauer, K. E.; Markus, B. M.; Mandelbaum, J.; Ramek, A.; Shan, Y.; Shaw, D. E.; Schwartz, T. U.; Ploegh, H. L.; Lourido, S. C2 - PMC4568647 DA - Sep DO - 10.1073/pnas.1505914112
Year: 2015
Title: Allosteric activation of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume: 112
Issue: 36
Pages: E4975-84 ST - Allosteric activation of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases
Label: 1642
Keywords: Allosteric Regulation Animals Antibodies, Protozoan Biocatalysis Blotting, Western Calcium Camelids, New World Cells, Cultured Crystallography, X-Ray Enzyme Activation Humans Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains Molecular Dynamics Simulation Mutation Phosphorylation Protein Binding Protein Kinases Protein Structure, Tertiary Protozoan Proteins Single-Domain Antibodies Toxoplasma LA - eng
Abstract: Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) comprise the major group of Ca2+-regulated kinases in plants and protists. It has long been assumed that CDPKs are activated, like other Ca2+-regulated kinases, by derepression of the kinase domain (KD). However, we found that removal of the autoinhibitory domain from Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 is not sufficient for kinase activation. From a library of heavy chain-only antibody fragments (VHHs), we isolated an antibody (1B7) that binds TgCDPK1 in a conformation-dependent manner and potently inhibits it. We uncovered the molecular basis for this inhibition by solving the crystal structure of the complex and simulating, through molecular dynamics, the effects of 1B7-kinase interactions. In contrast to other Ca2+-regulated kinases, the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 plays a dual role, inhibiting or activating the kinase in response to changes in Ca2+ concentrations. We propose that the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 acts as a molecular splint to stabilize the otherwise inactive KD. This dependence on allosteric stabilization reveals a novel susceptibility in this important class of parasite enzymes. AN - 26305940
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26305940


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 831
Author: Higginbotham, M. L.; McCaw, D. L.; Anderson, D. E.; Lattimer, J. C.; Armbrust, L.; Andrews, G. A.; McBride, B. D. DA - Mar DO - 10.2460/javma.246.6.674
Year: 2015
Title: Treatment of a maxillary fibrosarcoma in an adult alpaca
Journal: J Am Vet Med Assoc
Volume: 246
Issue: 6
Pages: 674-80 ST - Treatment of a maxillary fibrosarcoma in an adult alpaca
Label: 1702
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Fibrosarcoma Male Maxillary Neoplasms LA - eng
Abstract: An approximately 5-year-old sexually intact male alpaca was evaluated because of a right-sided maxillary mass that had recurred after previous surgical debulking.|Clinical, radiographic, and CT examination revealed an approximately 1.5-cm-diameter soft tissue mass associated with expansile osteolysis of the maxillary alveolar bone, beginning at the level of the right maxillary third premolar tooth extending caudally to the level of the rostral roots of the second molar tooth.|Right partial maxillectomy was performed, and histologic examination revealed an incompletely excised fibrosarcoma with osseous metaplasia. External beam radiation therapy to the tumor bed was initiated 1 month after surgery. Computerized planning was performed, and a total radiation dose of 48 Gy was prescribed in eleven 4.4-Gy fractions. Follow-up CT evaluations 6 and 58 weeks after radiation therapy was completed revealed no evidence of tumor recurrence. No clinical evidence of tumor recurrence was detected through 110 weeks after radiation therapy.|The oral fibrosarcoma in the alpaca described here was successfully treated with surgical excision and adjuvant radiation therapy, resulting in excellent quality of life of the treated animal. AN - 25719850
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25719850


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 832
Author: Herrera, C.; Tremblay, J. M.; Shoemaker, C. B.; Mantis, N. J. C2 - PMC4646030 DA - Nov DO - 10.1074/jbc.M115.658070
Year: 2015
Title: Mechanisms of Ricin Toxin Neutralization Revealed through Engineered Homodimeric and Heterodimeric Camelid Antibodies
Journal: J Biol Chem
Volume: 290
Issue: 46
Pages: 27880-9 ST - Mechanisms of Ricin Toxin Neutralization Revealed through Engineered Homodimeric and Heterodimeric Camelid Antibodies
Label: 1632
Keywords: Animals Antibodies, Neutralizing Camelids, New World Cercopithecus aethiops Female Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains Inhibitory Concentration 50 Mice Mice, Inbred BALB C Protein Engineering Protein Multimerization Ricin Ultracentrifugation Vero Cells LA - eng
Abstract: Novel antibody constructs consisting of two or more different camelid heavy-chain only antibodies (VHHs) joined via peptide linkers have proven to have potent toxin-neutralizing activity in vivo against Shiga, botulinum, Clostridium difficile, anthrax, and ricin toxins. However, the mechanisms by which these so-called bispecific VHH heterodimers promote toxin neutralization remain poorly understood. In the current study we produced a new collection of ricin-specific VHH heterodimers, as well as VHH homodimers, and characterized them for their ability neutralize ricin in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that the VHH heterodimers, but not homodimers were able to completely protect mice against ricin challenge, even though the two classes of antibodies (heterodimers and homodimers) had virtually identical affinities for ricin holotoxin and similar IC50 values in a Vero cell cytotoxicity assay. The VHH heterodimers did differ from the homodimers in their ability to promote toxin aggregation in solution, as revealed through analytical ultracentrifugation. Moreover, the VHH heterodimers that were most effective at promoting ricin aggregation in solution were also the most effective at blocking ricin attachment to cell surfaces. Collectively, these data suggest that heterodimeric VHH-based neutralizing agents may function through the formation of antibody-toxin complexes that are impaired in their ability to access host cell receptors. AN - 26396190
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26396190


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 833
Author: Henry, K. A.; Tanha, J.; Hussack, G. DA - Oct DO - 10.1093/protein/gzv039
Year: 2015
Title: Identification of cross-reactive single-domain antibodies against serum albumin using next-generation DNA sequencing
Journal: Protein Eng Des Sel
Volume: 28
Issue: 10
Pages: 379-83 ST - Identification of cross-reactive single-domain antibodies against serum albumin using next-generation DNA sequencing
Label: 1640
Keywords: Animals Cross Reactions High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing Humans Mice Rats Sequence Analysis, DNA Serum Albumin Single-Domain Antibodies LA - eng
Abstract: Antibodies that cross-react with multiple isoforms or homologue of a given protein are often desirable, especially in therapeutic applications. Here, we report the identification of several unique, clonally unrelated, single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) that bind to multiple serum albumin orthologues (human, rhesus, rat and mouse) with low-to-medium nanomolar affinity from a llama immunized only with human serum albumin. Using single-round panning of a phage-displayed sdAb library against serum albumins and next-generation DNA sequencing, we were able to predict patterns of sdAb reactivity to the albumins of different species with ∼90% accuracy. We expect this strategy to be generally applicable for identifying cross-reactive sdAbs, particularly when these exist at low frequency and/or are poorly enriched by panning. Moreover, the sdAbs identified here are of potential interest for serum half-life extension of biologics. AN - 26319004
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319004


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 834
Author: Guedon, J. T.; Luo, K.; Zhang, H.; Markham, R. B. C2 - PMC4506725 DA - Jul DO - 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000609
Year: 2015
Title: Monoclonal and Single Domain Antibodies Targeting β-Integrin Subunits Block Sexual Transmission of HIV-1 in In Vitro and In Vivo Model Systems
Journal: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr
Volume: 69
Issue: 3
Pages: 278-85 ST - Monoclonal and Single Domain Antibodies Targeting β-Integrin Subunits Block Sexual Transmission of HIV-1 in In Vitro and In Vivo Model Systems
Label: 1692
Keywords: Animals Antibodies, Monoclonal Antibodies, Viral Antibody Specificity Antigens, CD11a Antigens, CD18 Camelids, New World Cell Line Epithelial Cells HIV Infections HIV-1 Humans Integrin beta Chains Jurkat Cells Leukocytes, Mononuclear Mice Mice, SCID Peptide Library LA - eng
Abstract: Poor adherence to prevention regimens for gel-based anti-HIV-1 microbicides has been a major obstacle to more effective pre-exposure prophylaxis. Concern persists that the antiretroviral drug containing microbicides might promote development of antiretroviral resistance.|Using in vitro transwell systems and a humanized mouse model of HIV-1 sexual transmission, we examined, as candidate microbicides, antibodies targeting the heterodimeric leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), a non-virally encoded protein acquired by the virus that also plays a critical role cell movement across endothelial and epithelial barriers. LFA-1-specific single domain variable regions from alpaca heavy-chain only antibodies (VHH) were identified and evaluated for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 transmission in the in vitro transwell system.|Monoclonal antibodies targeting the CD11a and CD18 components of LFA-1 significantly reduced cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 transmission in the in vitro transwell culture system and prevented virus transmission in the humanized mouse model of vaginal transmission. The broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody b12 was unable to block transmission of cell-free virus. CD11a-specific VHH were isolated and expressed and the purified variable region protein domains reduced in vitro transepithelial transmission with an efficacy comparable with that of the CD11a monoclonal antibody.|Targeting integrins acquired by HIV-1 during budding and which are critical to interactions between epithelial cells and lymphocytes can reduce viral movement across epithelial barriers and prevent transmission in a humanized mouse model of sexual transmission. VHH capable of being produced by transformed bacteria can significantly reduce transepithelial virus transmission in in vitro model systems. AN - 25828964
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828964


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 835
Author: Gaudreault, N. N.; Jasperson, D. C.; Dubovi, E. J.; Johnson, D. J.; Ostlund, E. N.; Wilson, W. C. DA - Jul DO - 10.1177/1040638715585156
Year: 2015
Title: Whole genome sequence analysis of circulating Bluetongue virus serotype 11 strains from the United States including two domestic canine isolates
Journal: J Vet Diagn Invest
Volume: 27
Issue: 4
Pages: 442-8 ST - Whole genome sequence analysis of circulating Bluetongue virus serotype 11 strains from the United States including two domestic canine isolates
Label: 1667
Keywords: Animals Bluetongue Bluetongue virus Camelids, New World Deer Disease Outbreaks Dogs Phylogeny Serogroup United States LA - eng
Abstract: Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-transmitted pathogen that typically infects and causes disease in domestic and wild ruminants. BTV is also known to infect domestic canines as discovered when dogs were vaccinated with a BTV-contaminated vaccine. Canine BTV infections have been documented through serological surveys, and natural infection by the Culicoides vector has been suggested. The report of isolation of BTV serotype 11 (BTV-11) from 2 separate domestic canine abortion cases in the states of Texas in 2011 and Kansas in 2012, were apparently unrelated to BTV-contaminated vaccination or consumption of BTV-contaminated raw meat as had been previously speculated. To elucidate the origin and relationship of these 2 domestic canine BTV-11 isolates, whole genome sequencing was performed. Six additional BTV-11 field isolates from Texas, Florida, and Washington, submitted for diagnostic investigation during 2011 and 2013, were also fully sequenced and analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that the BTV-11 domestic canine isolates are virtually identical, and both share high identity with 2 BTV-11 isolates identified from white-tailed deer in Texas in 2011. The results of the current study further support the hypothesis that a BTV-11 strain circulating in the Midwestern states could have been transmitted to the dogs by the infected Culicoides vector. Our study also expands the short list of available BTV-11 sequences, which may aid BTV surveillance and epidemiology. AN - 26069226
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26069226


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 836
Author: Garmendia, A. E.; Lopez, W.; Ortega, N.; Chamorro, M. J. DA - Oct DO - 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.07.022
Year: 2015
Title: Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru
Journal: Vet Microbiol
Volume: 180
Issue: 1-2
Pages: 109-12 ST - Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru
Label: 1649
Keywords: Animals Antigens, Viral Camelids, New World Diarrhea Feces Rotavirus Rotavirus Infections LA - eng
Abstract: Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex. AN - 26243695
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26243695


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 837
Author: Garaicoechea, L.; Aguilar, A.; Parra, G. I.; Bok, M.; Sosnovtsev, S. V.; Canziani, G.; Green, K. Y.; Bok, K.; Parreño, V. C2 - PMC4534396 DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0133665
Year: 2015
Title: Llama nanoantibodies with therapeutic potential against human norovirus diarrhea
Journal: PLoS One
Volume: 10
Issue: 8
Pages: e0133665 ST - Llama nanoantibodies with therapeutic potential against human norovirus diarrhea
Label: 1647
Keywords: Animals Antibodies, Monoclonal Antibody Specificity Camelids, New World Capsid Proteins Cell Surface Display Techniques Diarrhea Epitope Mapping Epitopes Gastroenteritis Gene Library Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests Humans Immune Sera Immunization Immunization, Passive Male Norovirus Protein Binding Recombinant Proteins Single-Chain Antibodies Swine LA - eng
Abstract: Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, but no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are available. Llama-derived single chain antibody fragments (also called VHH) are small, recombinant monoclonal antibodies of 15 kDa with several advantages over conventional antibodies. The aim of this study was to generate recombinant monoclonal VHH specific for the two major norovirus (NoV) genogroups (GI and GII) in order to investigate their potential as immunotherapy for the treatment of NoV diarrhea. To accomplish this objective, two llamas were immunized with either GI.1 (Norwalk-1968) or GII.4 (MD2004) VLPs. After immunization, peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected and used to generate two VHH libraries. Using phage display technology, 10 VHH clones specific for GI.1, and 8 specific for GII.4 were selected for further characterization. All VHH recognized conformational epitopes in the P domain of the immunizing VP1 capsid protein, with the exception of one GII.4 VHH that recognized a linear P domain epitope. The GI.1 VHHs were highly specific for the immunizing GI.1 genotype, with only one VHH cross-reacting with GI.3 genotype. The GII.4 VHHs reacted with the immunizing GII.4 strain and showed a varying reactivity profile among different GII genotypes. One VHH specific for GI.1 and three specific for GII.4 could block the binding of homologous VLPs to synthetic HBGA carbohydrates, saliva, and pig gastric mucin, and in addition, could inhibit the hemagglutination of red blood cells by homologous VLPs. The ability of Nov-specific VHHs to perform well in these surrogate neutralization assays supports their further development as immunotherapy for NoV treatment and immunoprophylaxis. AN - 26267898
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26267898


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 838
Author: Franz, S.; Wittek, T.; Joachim, A.; Hinney, B.; Dadak, A. M. DA - Jun DO - 10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.04.019
Year: 2015
Title: Llamas and alpacas in Europe: Endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control
Journal: Vet J
Volume: 204
Issue: 3
Pages: 255-62 ST - Llamas and alpacas in Europe: Endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control
Label: 1679
Keywords: Animals Antiparasitic Agents Camelids, New World Europe Gastrointestinal Diseases Parasitic Diseases, Animal LA - eng
Abstract: There are distinctive specifications for veterinary medical care of South American camelids (SACs), namely, llamas, alpacas, vicunas and guanacos. Camelids are classified as food-producing animals, but as veterinary medicinal products are often only licensed for domestic food-producing species such as horses, goats, sheep and cattle, treatment of SACs generally requires off-label use of drugs. Endoparasitism is a major health concern in camelids and can result in severe clinical diseases and economic losses. There is still a lack of work on the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy for most antiparasitic drugs used in SACs. Even when choosing an appropriate route of administration, several aspects must be considered such as the fact that pour-on formulations are largely ineffective in camelids due to the unique features of llama and alpaca skin and hair that result in extremely low drug bioavailability. This review focuses on the main endoparasites of the digestive tract in llamas and alpacas in Europe and pharmacotherapeutic options based on current knowledge. AN - 25933827
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25933827


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 839
Author: Ferrer, M. S.; Schulz, K. L.; Anderson, D. E. DA - Oct DO - 10.2460/javma.247.8.889
Year: 2015
Title: Theriogenology Question of the Month. Twins in an alpaca
Journal: J Am Vet Med Assoc
Volume: 247
Issue: 8
Pages: 889-92 ST - Theriogenology Question of the Month. Twins in an alpaca
Label: 1631
Keywords: Abortion, Veterinary Animals Camelids, New World Female Placenta Placentation Pregnancy Pregnancy, Multiple LA - eng
Notes: TY - JOUR AN - 26421399
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26421399


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 840
Author: Espinosa, M. I.; Bertin, A.; Squeo, F. A.; Cortés, A.; Gouin, N. DA - Jan DO - 10.4238/2015.January.23.13
Year: 2015
Title: Comparison of DNA extraction methods for polymerase chain reaction amplification of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) fecal DNA samples
Journal: Genet Mol Res
Volume: 14
Issue: 1
Pages: 400-6 ST - Comparison of DNA extraction methods for polymerase chain reaction amplification of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) fecal DNA samples
Label: 1701
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World DNA Feces Genetic Loci Polymerase Chain Reaction Reproducibility of Results LA - eng
Abstract: Feces-based population genetic studies have become increasingly popular. However, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification rates from fecal material vary depending on the species, populations, loci, and extraction protocols. Here, we assessed the PCR amplification success of three microsatellite markers and a segment of the mitochondrial control region of DNA extracted from field-collected feces of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) using two protocols - Qiagen DNA Stool Kit and 2 cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (2CTAB/PCI) method. Chelex resin treatment to remove inhibitors was also tested. Our results show that the mitochondrial locus was the most difficult to amplify. PCR success rates improved for all markers after Chelex treatment of extracted DNA, and 2CTAB/PCI method (95.83%) appeared to perform slightly better than stool kit (91.67%) for the nuclear markers. Amplification success was significantly influenced by the extraction method, Chelex treatment, and locus (P < 0.001) but not by the freshness of the feces (fresh vs old, P = 0.17). The repeatability levels were high without Chelex treatment (> 0.89), but they decreased slightly after treatment for amplification of nuclear markers and markedly after treatment for amplification of the mitochondrial control region. Thus, we showed that Chelex treatment gives high PCR success, especially for nuclear markers, and adequate DNA extraction rates can be achieved from L. guanicoe feces even from non-fresh fecal material. Although not significant, 2CTAB/PCI method tended to provide higher successful amplification rates on a whole set of samples, suggesting that the method could be particularly useful when using small sample sizes. AN - 25729972
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25729972


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 18
Author: Erdoğan, Serkan.; Villar Arias, Silvia.; Pérez, William.
Year: 2015
Title: Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.
City: [Place of publication not identified]
Publisher: Wiley Periodicals Inc
Number of Pages: 1 online resource LA - English NT - In: Microscopy research and technique, Vol. 79, no. 2 ( 2016), p.61-71. NT - Summary: ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants.Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:61–71, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keywords: Electron microscopy.
Technique.
Microscopy. HL - National Library of Scotland DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - SER
URL: https://nls.ldls.org.uk/welcome.html?ark:/81055/vdc_100028497149.0x00000d


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 841
Author: Dreja, H.; Pade, C.; Chen, L.; McKnight, Á C2 - PMC4835949 DA - Jul DO - 10.1099/vir.0.000120
Year: 2015
Title: CD4 binding site broadly neutralizing antibody selection of HIV-1 escape mutants
Journal: J Gen Virol
Volume: 96
Issue: Pt 7
Pages: 1899-905 ST - CD4 binding site broadly neutralizing antibody selection of HIV-1 escape mutants
Label: 1697
Keywords: Antibodies, Monoclonal Antibodies, Neutralizing Binding Sites DNA Mutational Analysis HIV Antibodies HIV Envelope Protein gp120 HIV-1 Humans Immune Evasion Microbial Viability Mutagenesis, Site-Directed Mutation, Missense LA - eng
Abstract: All human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) viruses use CD4 to enter cells. Consequently, the viral envelope CD4-binding site (CD4bs) is relatively conserved, making it a logical neutralizing antibody target. It is important to understand how CD4-binding site variation allows for escape from neutralizing antibodies. Alanine scanning mutagenesis identifies residues in antigenic sites, whereas escape mutant selection identifies viable mutants. We selected HIV-1 to escape CD4bs neutralizing mAbs b12, A12 and HJ16. Viruses that escape from A12 and b12 remained susceptible to HJ16, VRC01 and J3, whilst six different viruses that escape HJ16 remained sensitive to A12, b12 and J3. In contrast, their sensitivity to VRC01 was variable. Triple HJ16/A12/b12-resistant virus proved that HIV-1 could escape multiple broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, but still retain sensitivity to VRC01 and the llama-derived J3 nanobody. This antigenic variability may reflect that occurring in circulating viruses, so studies like this can predict immunologically relevant antigenic forms of the CD4bs for inclusion in HIV-1 vaccines. AN - 25762593
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25762593


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 842
Author: Dorresteijn, B.; Rotman, M.; Faber, D.; Schravesande, R.; Suidgeest, E.; van der Weerd, L.; van der Maarel, S. M.; Verrips, C. T.; El Khattabi, M. DA - Sep DO - 10.1111/febs.13367
Year: 2015
Title: Camelid heavy chain only antibody fragment domain against β-site of amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 inhibits β-secretase activity in vitro and in vivo
Journal: FEBS J
Volume: 282
Issue: 18
Pages: 3618-31 ST - Camelid heavy chain only antibody fragment domain against β-site of amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 inhibits β-secretase activity in vitro and in vivo
Label: 1656
Keywords: Alzheimer Disease Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor Animals Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases Camelids, New World Cell Line Disease Models, Animal Disease Progression Female Humans Immunoglobulin Fragments Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains In Vitro Techniques Mice Mice, Transgenic Recombinant Proteins Vaccination LA - eng
Abstract: Accumulation and aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is generated from the amyloid precursor protein by the successive action of two membrane-associated processing enzymes: β-secretase or β-site of amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase. Inhibition of one or both of these enzymes prevents Aβ generation and the accompanying Aβ accumulation. Antigen binding fragments from camelid heavy chain only antibodies (VHHs) were found to exert excellent enzyme inhibition activity. In the present study, we generated VHHs against BACE1 by active immunization of Lama glama with the recombinant BACE1 protein. Two classes of VHHs were selected from a VHH-phage display library by competitive elution with a peptide encoding the Swedish mutation variant of the BACE1 processing site. One VHH was found to inhibit the enzyme activity of BACE1 in vitro and in cell culture, whereas two other VHHs were found to stimulate BACE1 activity under the same conditions in vitro. Furthermore, an in vivo study with a transgenic AD mouse model, using intracisternal injection of the inhibitory VHH, led to acute reduction of the Aβ load in the blood and brain. This inhibitory VHH may be considered as a candidate molecule for a therapy directed towards reduction of Aβ load and prevention of AD progression. Both the inhibitory and stimulatory VHH may be useful for improving our understanding of the structure-function relationship of BACE1, as well as its role in AD progression.|The GenBank sequence accession numbers are KR363186 for VHH B1a; KR363187 for VHH B3a; and KR363188 for VHH B5a. AN - 26147692
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26147692


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 843
Author: Dittmann, M. T.; Runge, U.; Ortmann, S.; Lang, R. A.; Moser, D.; Galeffi, C.; Schwarm, A.; Kreuzer, M.; Clauss, M. DA - Jul DO - 10.1007/s00360-015-0904-x
Year: 2015
Title: Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters
Journal: J Comp Physiol B
Volume: 185
Issue: 5
Pages: 559-73 ST - Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters
Label: 1682
Keywords: Analysis of Variance Animals Camelids, New World Digestion Fermentation Gastrointestinal Contents Gastrointestinal Transit Herbivory Models, Biological Particle Size Ruminants Species Specificity Stomach Time Factors LA - eng
Abstract: The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles. AN - 25921796
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25921796


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 844
Author: De Souza, E.; Sánchez, M. L.; Aguilar, L.; Díaz-Cabiale, Z.; Narváez, J.; Coveñas, R. DA - May DO - 10.1002/jemt.22482
Year: 2015
Title: Mapping of somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem
Journal: Microsc Res Tech
Volume: 78
Issue: 5
Pages: 363-74 ST - Mapping of somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem
Label: 1699
Keywords: Animals Brain Stem Camelids, New World Immunohistochemistry Peptide Fragments Somatostatin-28 LA - eng
Abstract: Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibers containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca brainstem. Immunoreactive fibers were widely distributed throughout the whole brainstem: 34 brainstem nuclei/regions showed a high or a moderate density of these fibers. Perikarya containing the peptide were widely distributed throughout the mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata. Cell bodies containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) were observed in the lateral and medial divisions of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, reticular formation (mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata), inferior colliculus, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, pericentral division of the dorsal tegmental nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, vestibular nucleus, motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus praepositus hypoglossi, and in the substantia nigra. This widespread distribution indicates that somatostatin-28 (1-12) is involved in multiple physiological actions in the alpaca brainstem. AN - 25754727
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25754727


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 845
Author: Cui, Y.; Li, D.; Morisseau, C.; Dong, J. X.; Yang, J.; Wan, D.; Rossotti, M. A.; Gee, S. J.; González-Sapienza, G. G.; Hammock, B. D. C2 - PMC4573264 DA - Sep DO - 10.1007/s00216-015-8889-6
Year: 2015
Title: Heavy chain single-domain antibodies to detect native human soluble epoxide hydrolase
Journal: Anal Bioanal Chem
Volume: 407
Issue: 24
Pages: 7275-83 ST - Heavy chain single-domain antibodies to detect native human soluble epoxide hydrolase
Label: 1650
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Animals Camelids, New World Cross Reactions Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Epoxide Hydrolases Humans Molecular Sequence Data Sequence Homology, Amino Acid Single-Domain Antibodies LA - eng
Abstract: The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a potential pharmacological target for treating hypertension, vascular inflammation, pain, cancer, and other diseases. However, there is not a simple, inexpensive, and reliable method to estimate levels of active sEH in tissues. Toward developing such an assay, a polyclonal variable domain of heavy chain antibody (VHH) sandwich immunoassay was developed. Ten VHHs, which are highly selective for native human sEH, were isolated from a phage-displayed library. The ten VHHs have no significant cross-reactivity with human microsomal epoxide hydrolase, rat and mouse sEH, and denatured human sEH. There is a high correlation between protein levels of the sEH determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the catalytic activity of the enzyme in S9 fractions of human tissues (liver, kidney, and lung). The VHH-based ELISA appears to be a new reliable method for monitoring the sEH and may be useful as a diagnostic tool for diseases influenced by sEH. This study also demonstrates the broad utility of VHH in biochemical and pharmacological research. AN - 26229025
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229025


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 846
Author: Cruz, A.; Cervantes, I.; Burgos, A.; Morante, R.; Gutiérrez, J. P. DA - Dec DO - 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2015.09.017
Year: 2015
Title: Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas
Journal: Anim Reprod Sci
Volume: 163
Pages: 48-55 ST - Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas
Label: 1623
Keywords: Animals Breeding Camelids, New World Ecotype Female Genetic Variation Male Pedigree Peru Pregnancy Reproduction Wool LA - eng
Abstract: One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. AN - 26490188
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26490188


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 847
Author: Corman, V. M.; Baldwin, H. J.; Tateno, A. F.; Zerbinati, R. M.; Annan, A.; Owusu, M.; Nkrumah, E. E.; Maganga, G. D.; Oppong, S.; Adu-Sarkodie, Y.; Vallo, P.; da Silva Filho, L. V.; Leroy, E. M.; Thiel, V.; van der Hoek, L.; Poon, L. L.; Tschapka, M.; Drosten, C.; Drexler, J. F. C2 - PMC4645311 DA - Dec DO - 10.1128/JVI.01755-15
Year: 2015
Title: Evidence for an Ancestral Association of Human Coronavirus 229E with Bats
Journal: J Virol
Volume: 89
Issue: 23
Pages: 11858-70 ST - Evidence for an Ancestral Association of Human Coronavirus 229E with Bats
Label: 1634
Keywords: Animals Base Sequence Bayes Theorem Biological Evolution Camelids, New World Chiroptera Coronavirus 229E, Human DNA Primers Feces Genetic Variation Ghana Humans Models, Genetic Molecular Sequence Data Phylogeny RNA Replicase Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction Sequence Analysis, DNA Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus LA - eng
Abstract: We previously showed that close relatives of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) exist in African bats. The small sample and limited genomic characterizations have prevented further analyses so far. Here, we tested 2,087 fecal specimens from 11 bat species sampled in Ghana for HCoV-229E-related viruses by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Only hipposiderid bats tested positive. To compare the genetic diversity of bat viruses and HCoV-229E, we tested historical isolates and diagnostic specimens sampled globally over 10 years. Bat viruses were 5- and 6-fold more diversified than HCoV-229E in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and spike genes. In phylogenetic analyses, HCoV-229E strains were monophyletic and not intermixed with animal viruses. Bat viruses formed three large clades in close and more distant sister relationships. A recently described 229E-related alpaca virus occupied an intermediate phylogenetic position between bat and human viruses. According to taxonomic criteria, human, alpaca, and bat viruses form a single CoV species showing evidence for multiple recombination events. HCoV-229E and the alpaca virus showed a major deletion in the spike S1 region compared to all bat viruses. Analyses of four full genomes from 229E-related bat CoVs revealed an eighth open reading frame (ORF8) located at the genomic 3' end. ORF8 also existed in the 229E-related alpaca virus. Reanalysis of HCoV-229E sequences showed a conserved transcription regulatory sequence preceding remnants of this ORF, suggesting its loss after acquisition of a 229E-related CoV by humans. These data suggested an evolutionary origin of 229E-related CoVs in hipposiderid bats, hypothetically with camelids as intermediate hosts preceding the establishment of HCoV-229E.|The ancestral origins of major human coronaviruses (HCoVs) likely involve bat hosts. Here, we provide conclusive genetic evidence for an evolutionary origin of the common cold virus HCoV-229E in hipposiderid bats by analyzing a large sample of African bats and characterizing several bat viruses on a full-genome level. Our evolutionary analyses show that animal and human viruses are genetically closely related, can exchange genetic material, and form a single viral species. We show that the putative host switches leading to the formation of HCoV-229E were accompanied by major genomic changes, including deletions in the viral spike glycoprotein gene and loss of an open reading frame. We reanalyze a previously described genetically related alpaca virus and discuss the role of camelids as potential intermediate hosts between bat and human viruses. The evolutionary history of HCoV-229E likely shares important characteristics with that of the recently emerged highly pathogenic Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus. AN - 26378164
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26378164


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 848
Author: Cockcroft, P. D.; Dornin, L. E.; Lambert, R. C.; Perry, J.; Reichel, M. P. DA - Dec DO - 10.1111/avj.12374
Year: 2015
Title: Serological survey for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus and Neospora caninum in a population of South Australian alpacas (Vicugna pacos)
Journal: Aust Vet J
Volume: 93
Issue: 12
Pages: 476-8 ST - Serological survey for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus and Neospora caninum in a population of South Australian alpacas (Vicugna pacos)
Label: 1627
Keywords: Animal Husbandry Animals Antibodies, Protozoan Antibodies, Viral Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease Camelids, New World Cattle Coccidiosis Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Neospora Seroepidemiologic Studies South Australia LA - eng
Abstract: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and Neospora caninum may cause clinical disease in alpacas. Both diseases are present in the Australian cattle population. The objective of this study was to perform a serological prevalence survey for BVDV and N. caninum exposure in a regional alpaca population of South Australia.|Serum samples were taken from 182 alpacas on 10 farms, which had a combined population of 1308 alpacas. Serological analysis for BVD antibodies was performed using a competitive BVDV antibody ELISA kit. Serological analysis for N. caninum was performed using an anti-Neospora ELISA with a protein G conjugate.|Of the 182 alpacas sampled, 5 animals located on three properties were positive for BVDV antibodies, constituting a prevalence of 2.7% (95% confidence interval 1-6%). All samples tested negative for N. caninum antibodies.|There is a low BVDV seroprevalence and N. caninum is currently either absent or present at a very low prevalence in this population of alpacas in South Australia. There is serological evidence for the presence of both organisms in South Australian beef and dairy cattle herds. Appropriate biosecurity protocols to minimise the risk of introduction and exposure should be a high priority to maintain this favourable status. AN - 26456156
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26456156


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 850
Author: Chen, J.; Hinckley, J. D.; Haberichter, S.; Jacobi, P.; Montgomery, R.; Flood, V. H.; Wong, R.; Interlandi, G.; Chung, D. W.; López, J. A.; Di Paola, J. C2 - PMC4497966 DA - Jul DO - 10.1182/blood-2014-11-613935
Year: 2015
Title: Variable content of von Willebrand factor mutant monomer drives the phenotypic variability in a family with von Willebrand disease
Journal: Blood
Volume: 126
Issue: 2
Pages: 262-9 ST - Variable content of von Willebrand factor mutant monomer drives the phenotypic variability in a family with von Willebrand disease
Label: 1670
Keywords: Crystallography, X-Ray Family Female HEK293 Cells Humans Male Molecular Docking Simulation Mutant Proteins Mutation, Missense Pedigree Phenotype Protein Binding Protein Multimerization Protein Structure, Tertiary von Willebrand Diseases von Willebrand Factor LA - eng
Abstract: Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is an inherited bleeding disorder characterized by incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. We evaluated a 24-member pedigree with VWD type 2 caused by a T>G mutation at position 3911 that predicts a methionine to arginine (M1304R) change in the platelet-binding A1 domain of von Willebrand factor (VWF). This mutation manifests as an autosomal-dominant trait, with clinical and biochemical phenotypic variability among affected individuals, including differences in bleeding tendency and VWF quantity, activity, and multimer pattern. Sequencing of all VWF coding regions in 3 affected individuals did not identify additional mutations. When expressed in heterologous cells, M1304R was secreted in lower quantities, failed to drive formation of storage granules, and was defective in multimerization and platelet binding. When cotransfected in equal quantities with the wild-type complementary DNA, the mutant complementary DNA depressed VWF secretion, although multimerization was only mildly affected. A llama nanobody (AU/VWFa-11) that detects the mutant A1 domain demonstrated highly variable binding to VWF from different affected members, indicating that the VWF contained different percentages of mutant monomers in different individuals. Thus, the observed variability in VWD phenotypes could in part be determined by the extent of mutant monomer incorporation in the final multimer structure of plasma VWF. AN - 26019279
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26019279


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 849
Author: Chen, X.; Li, G. D.; Li, Q. Y.; Hu, C. J.; Qiu, S. M.; Jiang, Y.; Jiang, C. L.; Han, L.; Huang, X. S. DA - Dec DO - 10.1007/s10482-015-0603-3
Year: 2015
Title: Enteractinococcus lamae sp. nov. and Enteractinococcus viverrae sp. nov., isolated from animal faeces
Journal: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Volume: 108
Issue: 6
Pages: 1477-83 ST - Enteractinococcus lamae sp. nov. and Enteractinococcus viverrae sp. nov., isolated from animal faeces
Label: 1630
Keywords: Animals Animals, Zoo Bacterial Typing Techniques Base Composition Camelids, New World China Cluster Analysis DNA, Bacterial DNA, Ribosomal Feces Micrococcaceae Molecular Sequence Data Nucleic Acid Hybridization Phylogeny RNA, Ribosomal, 16S Sequence Analysis, DNA Viverridae LA - eng
Abstract: Two novel actinobacteria, designated strains YIM 101617(T) and YIM 101632(T), were isolated from Lama pacos (alpaca) and Viverra zibetha (civet) faeces in Yunnan Wild Animal Park in Yunnan province, southwestern China. Both strains should be placed in genus Enteractinococcus based on phylogenetic analysis. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM 101617(T) exhibits high similarity to Enteractinococcus fodinae DSM 22966(T) (97.70 %) and Enteractinococcus coprophilus YIM 100590(T) (97.45 %), whilst YIM 101632(T) exhibits high similarity to Enteractinococcus coprophilus YIM 100590(T) (97.25 %), and the similarity between YIM 101617(T) and YIM 101632(T) is 95.90 %. However, DNA-DNA hybridization values of the two strains with the type strains in the genus Enteractinococcus were low (<70 %). Most morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the two strains were found to be similar to those of species in the genus Enteractinococcus but also some differences were observed. The DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 101617(T) and YIM 101632(T) were determined to be 55.9 and 56.4 mol%, respectively. Based on these data, the two strains are concluded to represent two different novel species in the genus Enteractinococcus. The names Enteractinococcus lamae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 101617(T)=DSM 27612(T)=CCTCC AB 2013230(T)) and Enteractinococcus viverrae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 101632(T)=KCTC 39552(T)=CCTCC AB 2013280(T)) are proposed, respectively. AN - 26423082
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26423082


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 851
Author: Chatalic, K. L.; Veldhoven-Zweistra, J.; Bolkestein, M.; Hoeben, S.; Koning, G. A.; Boerman, O. C.; de Jong, M.; van Weerden, W. M. DA - Jul DO - 10.2967/jnumed.115.156729
Year: 2015
Title: A Novel ¹¹¹In-Labeled Anti-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Nanobody for Targeted SPECT/CT Imaging of Prostate Cancer
Journal: J Nucl Med
Volume: 56
Issue: 7
Pages: 1094-9 ST - A Novel ¹¹¹In-Labeled Anti-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Nanobody for Targeted SPECT/CT Imaging of Prostate Cancer
Label: 1673
Keywords: Animals Antigens, Surface Autoradiography Cell Line, Tumor Cysteine Flow Cytometry Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II Histidine Humans Kidney Male Mice Multimodal Imaging Nanomedicine Neoplasm Transplantation Oligopeptides Peptide Library Prostatic Neoplasms Protein Structure, Tertiary Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc Single-Domain Antibodies Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon Tomography, X-Ray Computed LA - eng
Abstract: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and a promising target for molecular imaging and therapy. Nanobodies (single-domain antibodies, VHH) are the smallest antibody-based fragments possessing ideal molecular imaging properties, such as high target specificity and rapid background clearance. We developed a novel anti-PSMA Nanobody (JVZ-007) for targeted imaging and therapy of PCa. Here, we report on the application of the (111)In-radiolabeled Nanobody for SPECT/CT imaging of PCa.|A Nanobody library was generated by immunization of a llama with 4 human PCa cell lines. Anti-PSMA Nanobodies were captured by biopanning on PSMA-overexpressing cells. JVZ-007 was selected for evaluation as an imaging probe. JVZ-007 was initially produced with a c-myc-hexahistidine (his) tag allowing purification and detection. The c-myc-his tag was subsequently replaced by a single cysteine at the C terminus, allowing site-specific conjugation of chelates for radiolabeling. JVZ-007-c-myc-his was conjugated to 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (p-SCN-DTPA) via the lysines, whereas JVZ-007-cys was conjugated to maleimide-DTPA via the C-terminal cysteine. PSMA targeting was analyzed in vitro by cell-binding experiments using flow cytometry, autoradiography, and internalization assays with various PCa cell lines and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). The targeting properties of radiolabeled Nanobodies were evaluated in vivo in biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging experiments, using nude mice bearing PSMA-positive PC-310 and PSMA-negative PC-3 tumors.|JVZ-007 was successfully conjugated to DTPA for radiolabeling with (111)In at room temperature. (111)In-JVZ007-c-myc-his and (111)In-JVZ007-cys internalized in LNCaP cells and bound to PSMA-expressing PDXs and, importantly, not to PSMA-negative PDXs and human kidneys. Good tumor targeting and fast blood clearance were observed for (111)In-JVZ-007-c-myc-his and (111)In-JVZ-007-cys. Renal uptake of (111)In-JVZ-007-c-myc-his was initially high but was efficiently reduced by coinjection of gelofusine and lysine. The replacement of the c-myc-his tag by the cysteine contributed to a further reduction of renal uptake without loss of targeting. PC-310 tumors were clearly visualized by SPECT/CT with both tracers, with low renal uptake (<4 percentage injected dose per gram) for (111)In-JVZ-007-cys already at 3 h after injection.|We developed an (111)In-radiolabeled anti-PSMA Nanobody, showing good tumor targeting, low uptake in nontarget tissues, and low renal retention, allowing excellent SPECT/CT imaging of PCa within a few hours after injection. AN - 25977460
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25977460


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 852
Author: Chandramohan, B.; Renieri, C.; La Manna, V.; La Terza, A. C2 - PMC4313674 DO - 10.1155/2015/265751
Year: 2015
Title: The alpaca melanocortin 1 receptor: gene mutations, transcripts, and relative levels of expression in ventral skin biopsies
Journal: ScientificWorldJournal
Volume: 2015
Pages: 265751 ST - The alpaca melanocortin 1 receptor: gene mutations, transcripts, and relative levels of expression in ventral skin biopsies
Label: 1706
Keywords: 3' Untranslated Regions 5' Untranslated Regions Amino Acid Sequence Animals Base Sequence Camelids, New World Cloning, Molecular Gene Expression Hair Color Molecular Sequence Data Mutation, Missense Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 1 Sequence Alignment Silent Mutation Skin LA - eng
Abstract: The objectives of the present study were to characterize the MC1R gene, its transcripts and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coat color in alpaca. Full length cDNA amplification revealed the presence of two transcripts, named as F1 and F2, differing only in the length of their 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) sequences and presenting a color specific expression. Whereas the F1 transcript was common to white and colored (black and brown) alpaca phenotypes, the shorter F2 transcript was specific to white alpaca. Further sequencing of the MC1R gene in white and colored alpaca identified a total of twelve SNPs; among those nine (four silent mutations (c.126C>A, c.354T>C, c.618G>A, and c.933G>A); five missense mutations (c.82A>G, c.92C>T, c.259A>G, c.376A>G, and c.901C>T)) were observed in coding region and three in the 3'UTR. A 4 bp deletion (c.224 227del) was also identified in the coding region. Molecular segregation analysis uncovered that the combinatory mutations in the MC1R locus could cause eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis in alpaca. Overall, our data refine what is known about the MC1R gene and provides additional information on its role in alpaca pigmentation. AN - 25685836
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25685836


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 853
Author: Carretero, M. I.; Fumuso, F. G.; Neild, D. M.; Giuliano, S. M.; Cetica, P.; Miragaya, M. H. DA - Sep DO - 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2015.06.014
Year: 2015
Title: Evaluation of the acrosomal status in Lama glama sperm incubated with acrosome reaction inducers
Journal: Anim Reprod Sci
Volume: 160
Pages: 1-11 ST - Evaluation of the acrosomal status in Lama glama sperm incubated with acrosome reaction inducers
Label: 1654
Keywords: Acrosome Acrosome Reaction Animals Calcium Ionophores Camelids, New World Ionomycin Male Progesterone Progestins LA - eng
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of different acrosome reaction (AR) inducers on viability and acrosomal status in llama spermatozoa, by using the FITC-PNA/PI technique and evaluate if there is a positive correlation between the FITC-PNA/PI and the Coomassie blue (CB) staining techniques. After incubating twenty ejaculates in 0.1% collagenase the centrifuged pellets were resuspended in TALP-BSA medium. An aliquot was sonicated to remove the acrosomal content (positive control). The rest of the sample was incubated for 3h at 38 °C with 5% CO2 and 100% humidity.|Three aliquots were further incubated 1h with one of the following AR inducers: calcium ionophore, ionomycin or progesterone.|One without inducers and the other, incubated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle of the inducing agents). Acrosomes were evaluated at time 0 and after 4h incubation. Calcium ionophore was the most potent agent for inducing the AR (67.2 ± 14.4% live+dead AR sperm) (P < 0.05). These samples showed no motility and viability was very low (0-30%). Both ionomycin and progesterone presented significantly higher (P < 0.05) percentages of total AR sperm than the controls, but had similar percentages of dead reacted sperm to the controls. A positive correlation was observed between the intact acrosome FITC-PNA/PI pattern (live+dead sperm) and the acrosome-present CB pattern (r = 0.64; P = 0.000) in all the evaluated samples.|the FITC-PNA/PI technique simultaneously evaluates viability and acrosomal status in llama spermatozoa and calcium ionophore could be used as a control of AR. AN - 26164525
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26164525


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 854
Author: Campbell, A. J.; Pearson, L. K.; Spencer, T. E.; Tibary, A. DA - Aug DO - 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.03.027
Year: 2015
Title: Double ovulation and occurrence of twinning in alpacas (Vicugna pacos)
Journal: Theriogenology
Volume: 84
Issue: 3
Pages: 421-4 ST - Double ovulation and occurrence of twinning in alpacas (Vicugna pacos)
Label: 1674
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Embryonic Development Female Ovary Ovulation Pregnancy Pregnancy Outcome Pregnancy, Animal Pregnancy, Multiple Retrospective Studies Ultrasonography LA - eng
Abstract: Twin births are rare in alpacas despite the high incidence of double ovulation and are undesirable because they contribute to early and late pregnancy loss, abortion, and birth of nonviable neonates. The objective of the present study was to determine the incidence and outcome of twin pregnancy in double-ovulating alpacas by retrospective and prospective analysis. Data from double-ovulating females (N = 41) presented for pregnancy diagnosis were analyzed to determine pregnancy status at three stages after mating (14-16, 25-30, and 45-53 days). In a prospective study, adult reproductively sound alpacas (n = 21) were examined by ultrasonography to determine the incidence of multiple ovulations. A subset of those alpacas (n = 10) were euthanized either at 9 days (n = 5) or 14 days (n = 5) after a single mating and administration of GnRH to determine presence and number of embryos. A total of 31 cycles were included in the study to determine the incidence of multiple ovulations. In the retrospective study, twin pregnancies were identified between 25 and 30 days in 47.1% of double-ovulating females. There were more twins from bilateral ovulations (62.5%) than from unilateral ovulations (37.5%). Twin pregnancies were either reduced to a singleton (62.5%) or lost completely (37.5%). One set of twins remained viable until Day 52. In the prospective study, double ovulation occurred in 18.8% of the cycles. Two embryos were collected from two of the four double-ovulating females. In conclusion, twin conception is not rare in alpacas. A high rate of spontaneous reduction of twin pregnancies occurs before Day 45. However, a significant proportion of twin pregnancy may result in loss of both embryos. Determination of the number of ovulations (CL) at the time of early pregnancy diagnosis (14-16 days) should be an integral part of any pregnancy evaluation. AN - 25963129
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25963129


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 855
Author: Calpe, S.; Wagner, K.; El Khattabi, M.; Rutten, L.; Zimberlin, C.; Dolk, E.; Verrips, C. T.; Medema, J. P.; Spits, H.; Krishnadath, K. K. DA - Nov DO - 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-14-0956
Year: 2015
Title: Effective Inhibition of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Function by Highly Specific Llama-Derived Antibodies
Journal: Mol Cancer Ther
Volume: 14
Issue: 11
Pages: 2527-40 ST - Effective Inhibition of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Function by Highly Specific Llama-Derived Antibodies
Label: 1638
Keywords: Animals Antibodies Antibody Affinity Antibody Specificity Blotting, Western Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Bone Morphogenetic Proteins Camelids, New World Cell Line HT29 Cells Humans Mice Models, Molecular Neoplasms Protein Binding Protein Structure, Tertiary LA - eng
Abstract: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) have important but distinct roles in tissue homeostasis and disease, including carcinogenesis and tumor progression. A large number of BMP inhibitors are available to study BMP function; however, as most of these antagonists are promiscuous, evaluating specific effects of individual BMPs is not feasible. Because the oncogenic role of the different BMPs varies for each neoplasm, highly selective BMP inhibitors are required. Here, we describe the generation of three types of llama-derived heavy chain variable domains (VHH) that selectively bind to either BMP4, to BMP2 and 4, or to BMP2, 4, 5, and 6. These generated VHHs have high affinity to their targets and are able to inhibit BMP signaling. Epitope binning and docking modeling have shed light into the basis for their BMP specificity. As opposed to the wide structural reach of natural inhibitors, these small molecules target the grooves and pockets of BMPs involved in receptor binding. In organoid experiments, specific inhibition of BMP4 does not affect the activation of normal stem cells. Furthermore, in vitro inhibition of cancer-derived BMP4 noncanonical signals results in an increase of chemosensitivity in a colorectal cancer cell line. Therefore, because of their high specificity and low off-target effects, these VHHs could represent a therapeutic alternative for BMP4(+) malignancies. AN - 26351325
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26351325


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 856
Author: Brooks, K.; Burns, G.; Spencer, T. E. DA - Aug DO - 10.1095/biolreprod.115.130757
Year: 2015
Title: Biological Roles of Hydroxysteroid (11-Beta) Dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1), HSD11B2, and Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1) in Sheep Conceptus Elongation
Journal: Biol Reprod
Volume: 93
Issue: 2
Pages: 38 ST - Biological Roles of Hydroxysteroid (11-Beta) Dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1), HSD11B2, and Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1) in Sheep Conceptus Elongation
Label: 1663
Keywords: 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Amino Acid Sequence Animals Apoptosis Caspase 9 Embryo Transfer Embryo, Mammalian Embryonic Development Female Hydrocortisone Molecular Sequence Data Oligonucleotides, Antisense Pregnancy RNA, Messenger Receptors, Glucocorticoid Sheep, Domestic LA - eng
Abstract: In sheep, the elongating conceptus synthesizes and secretes interferon tau (IFNT) as well as prostaglandins (PGs) and cortisol. The enzymes, hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) and HSD11B2 interconvert cortisone and cortisol. In sheep, HSD11B1 is expressed and active in the conceptus trophectoderm as well as in the endometrial luminal epithelia; in contrast, HSD11B2 expression is most abundant in conceptus trophectoderm. Cortisol is a biologically active glucocorticoid and ligand for the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1 or GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2 or MR). Expression of MR is not detectable in either the ovine endometrium or conceptus during early pregnancy. In tissues that do not express MR, HSD11B2 protects cells from the growth-inhibiting and/or proapoptotic effects of cortisol, particularly during embryonic development. In study one, an in utero loss-of-function analysis of HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 was conducted in the conceptus trophectoderm using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) that inhibit mRNA translation. Elongating, filamentous conceptuses were recovered on Day 14 from ewes infused with control morpholino or HSD11B2 MAO. In contrast, HSD11B1 MAO resulted in severely growth-retarded conceptuses or conceptus fragments with apoptotic trophectoderm. In study two, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing was used to determine the role of GR in conceptus elongation and development. Elongating, filamentous-type conceptuses (12-14 cm in length) were recovered from ewes gestating control embryos (n = 7/7) and gestating GR-edited embryos (n = 6/7). These results support the idea that the effects of HSD11B1-derived cortisol on conceptus elongation are indirectly mediated by the endometrium and are not directly mediated through GR in the trophectoderm. AN - 26085523
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085523


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 857
Author: Borges de Araújo, C. G.; Oliveira do Nascimento Holanda, A.; de Souza Rocha, C. V.; Soares do Nascimento, A. P.; Simplício Revoredo, C. M.; Borges da Silva, B.; do Nascimento Nogueira, N.; do Nascimento Marreiro, D. DA - Aug DO - 10.3305/nh.2015.32.2.9204
Year: 2015
Title: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZINCEMIA, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE ACTIVITY AND MARKER OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER
Journal: Nutr Hosp
Volume: 32
Issue: 2 LA - eng
Pages: 785-91 ST - RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZINCEMIA, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE ACTIVITY AND MARKER OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER
Label: 1646
Abstract: studies show changes in zinc metabolism in women with breast cancer. This mineral has antioxidant action, and disorders in its biochemical parameters are related to poor prognosis of the disease and increase in the carcinogenic process.|this study evaluated the activity of enzyme superoxide dismutase and biochemical parameters related to zinc, and investigated the existence of correlation between these variables and the marker of oxidative stress in these patients.|this was a case-control study with 66 women aged between 20 and 50 years old, distributed into: case group (women with breast cancer, n = 34) and control group (healthy women, n = 32). Zinc intake was analyzed by three-day food diary, using Nutwin software, version 1.5. Plasma and erythrocyte zinc concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry method (λ = 213.9). Superoxide dismutase activity was assessed by Griess colorimetric method, and plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were analyzed.|mean levels of zinc intake, superoxide dismutase and TBARS were higher than recommended for the study participants with statistical difference for enzyme superoxide dismutase (p < 0.05). Mean plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of zinc were reduced in both groups (p > 0.05).|therefore, it can be assumed that zinc intake in women with breast cancer does not impact plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of this mineral. High superoxide dismutase activity in women with breast cancer may be due to a compensatory mechanism of regulation via oxidative stress found in this disease. AN - 26268112
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268112


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 858
Author: Blykers, A.; Schoonooghe, S.; Xavier, C.; D'hoe, K.; Laoui, D.; D'Huyvetter, M.; Vaneycken, I.; Cleeren, F.; Bormans, G.; Heemskerk, J.; Raes, G.; De Baetselier, P.; Lahoutte, T.; Devoogdt, N.; Van Ginderachter, J. A.; Caveliers, V. DA - Aug DO - 10.2967/jnumed.115.156828
Year: 2015
Title: PET Imaging of Macrophage Mannose Receptor-Expressing Macrophages in Tumor Stroma Using 18F-Radiolabeled Camelid Single-Domain Antibody Fragments
Journal: J Nucl Med
Volume: 56
Issue: 8
Pages: 1265-71 ST - PET Imaging of Macrophage Mannose Receptor-Expressing Macrophages in Tumor Stroma Using 18F-Radiolabeled Camelid Single-Domain Antibody Fragments
Label: 1666
Keywords: Animals Autoradiography Camelids, New World Fluorine Radioisotopes Fluorobenzenes Humans Hydrogen-Ion Concentration Lectins, C-Type Macrophages Mannose-Binding Lectins Mice Mice, Inbred C57BL Mice, Knockout Neoplasms Positron-Emission Tomography Radiopharmaceuticals Receptors, Cell Surface Single-Domain Antibodies Tissue Distribution Triethylenephosphoramide LA - eng
Abstract: Tumor-associated macrophages constitute a major component of the stroma of solid tumors, encompassing distinct subpopulations with different characteristics and functions. We aimed to identify M2-oriented tumor-supporting macrophages within the tumor microenvironment as indicators of cancer progression and prognosis, using PET imaging. This can be realized by designing (18)F-labeled camelid single-domain antibody fragments (sdAbs) specifically targeting the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), which has been identified as an important biomarker on this cell population.|Cross-reactive anti-MMR sdAbs were generated after immunization of an alpaca with the extracellular domains of both human and mouse MMR. The lead binder was chosen on the basis of comparisons of binding affinity and in vivo pharmacokinetics. The PET tracer (18)F-fluorobenzoate (FB)-anti-MMR sdAb was developed using the prosthetic group N-succinimidyl-4-(18)F-fluorobenzoate ((18)F-SFB), and its biodistribution, tumor-targeting potential, and specificity in terms of macrophage and MMR targeting were evaluated in mouse tumor models.|Four sdAbs were selected after affinity screening, but only 2 were found to be cross-reactive for human and mouse MMR. The lead anti-MMR 3.49 sdAb, bearing an affinity of 12 and 1.8 nM for mouse and human MMR, respectively, was chosen for its favorable in vivo biodistribution profile and tumor-targeting capacity. (18)F-FB-anti-MMR 3.49 sdAb was synthesized with a 5%-10% radiochemical yield using an automated and optimized protocol. In vivo biodistribution analyses showed fast clearance via the kidneys and retention in MMR-expressing organs and tumor. The kidney retention of the fluorinated sdAb was 20-fold lower than a (99m)Tc-labeled counterpart. Compared with MMR- and C-C chemokine receptor 2-deficient mice, significantly higher uptake was observed in tumors grown in wild-type mice, demonstrating the specificity of the (18)F tracer for MMR and macrophages, respectively.|Anti-MMR 3.49 was denoted as the lead cross-reactive MMR-targeting sdAb. (18)F radiosynthesis was optimized, providing an optimal probe for PET imaging of the tumor-promoting macrophage subpopulation in the tumor stroma. AN - 26069306
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26069306


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 859
Author: Bianchi, C. P.; Meikle, A.; Benavente, M. A.; Álvarez, M. A.; Trasorras, V. L.; Miragaya, M. H.; Rodríguez, E.; Aba, M. A. DA - Dec DO - 10.1111/rda.12618
Year: 2015
Title: Oestrogen and Progesterone Receptors and COX-2 Expression in Endometrial Biopsy Samples During Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy in Llamas (Lama glama)
Journal: Reprod Domest Anim
Volume: 50
Issue: 6
Pages: 980-8 ST - Oestrogen and Progesterone Receptors and COX-2 Expression in Endometrial Biopsy Samples During Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy in Llamas (Lama glama)
Label: 1628
Keywords: Animals Biopsy Buserelin Camelids, New World Cyclooxygenase 2 Endometrium Estrogen Receptor alpha Female Fertility Agents, Female Luteolysis Pregnancy Pregnancy, Animal Receptors, Progesterone LA - eng
Abstract: Endometrial expression of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) was evaluated in non-pregnant and pregnant llamas during the period when luteolysis/maternal recognition of pregnancy is expected to occur. Females (n = 28) were divided into two groups: non-pregnant llamas were induced to ovulate with a Buserelin injection, and endometrial biopsies were obtained on day 8 (n = 5) or 12 (n = 5) post-induction of ovulation. Animals of the pregnant group (n = 18) were mated with a fertile male. Pregnancy was confirmed by the visualization of the embryo collected by transcervical flushing in 5 of 9 animals on day 8 post-mating and by progesterone profile on day 12 post-mating in 4 of 9 animals, when endometrial biopsies were obtained. An immunohistochemical technique was used to evaluate receptors population and COX-2 expression. Pregnant llamas showed a higher percentage of positive cells and stronger intensity for ERα than for non-pregnant llamas in stroma on day 8 and in the luminal epithelium on day 12 post-induction of ovulation, while a deep decrease in endometrial PR population was reported in pregnant llamas on that day in luminal and glandular epithelia and stroma. In the luminal epithelium, COX-2 expression was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant animals. Briefly, the increase of ERα in pregnant llamas gives further support to the hypothesis that oestrogens are involved in the mechanism of maternal recognition of pregnancy. Endometrial PR decrease in pregnant llamas might be a necessary event to allow the expression of proteins involved in conceptus attachment, a mechanism widely accepted in other species. Moreover, embryo seems to attenuate maternal PGF(2α) secretion during early pregnancy by decreasing the endometrial expression of COX-2 in the luminal epithelium of pregnant llamas. AN - 26446171
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26446171


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 860
Author: Bennett, M. M.; Richards, N. L. DA - May DO - 10.1016/j.cvex.2015.01.006
Year: 2015
Title: Camelid wellness
Journal: Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract
Volume: 18
Issue: 2
Pages: 255-80 ST - Camelid wellness
Label: 1686
Keywords: Animal Husbandry Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena Animals Camelids, New World Housing, Animal LA - eng
Abstract: Wellness management and environmental enrichment of New World camelids is multifaceted and should include everything from how they are fed and housed to how they are interacted with and handled. Camelid feeding regimens should be based on sound nutritional concepts, designed for specific animal groups, and begin with an appropriate forage base. Provide housing, shelter, substrate, and feeders designed for the needs and behaviors of camelids. Herd management should include regularly obtaining weights and body condition scores. Handling and training should be of a positive nature, in keeping with the natural history and temperament of the animal. AN - 25902272
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902272


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 861
Author: Barker, W. H.; Witte, T. H.; Driver, C. J.; Jull, P.; Whitehead, C. E.; Volk, H. A. DA - May DO - 10.2460/javma.246.10.1122
Year: 2015
Title: Dorsal laminectomy for treatment of cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy in an alpaca
Journal: J Am Vet Med Assoc
Volume: 246
Issue: 10
Pages: 1122-8 ST - Dorsal laminectomy for treatment of cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy in an alpaca
Label: 1680
Keywords: Animals Ataxia Camelids, New World Cervical Vertebrae Laminectomy Male Posture Spinal Cord Diseases Spinal Stenosis LA - eng
Abstract: An 11-year-old male breeding alpaca was evaluated for a 2-day history of lowered head carriage and lethargy.|On initial examination, the alpaca had signs of lethargy and lowered carriage of the head and neck, but no specific neurologic deficits. Medical management improved the clinical signs, but 8 months later, the alpaca developed acute, progressive general proprioceptive ataxia affecting all 4 limbs and was referred for further evaluation and treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging and CT identified disruption of the normal osseous architecture of C7 and T1. Medical management was attempted, but because of a lack of improvement, the patient underwent surgery 14 months after initial examination.|A dorsal laminectomy of C7 and T1 via a dorsal midline approach was performed, and the spinous processes of both vertebrae were removed prior to removal of the overlying lamina. Free dorsal expansion of the spinal cord was ensured by resection of the ligamentum flavum. Six months after surgery, the alpaca had returned to successful breeding with 7 hembra bred in the first year after surgery, producing 6 crias, and 4 crias in the second year. The patient was eventually euthanized 28 months after surgery because of neurologic deterioration but was still ambulatory at that time.|A good outcome with adequate alleviation of clinical signs and breeding soundness for > 2 years following dorsal laminectomy was achieved in this camelid patient. The surgical approach was similar to that in other species and was associated with mild postoperative morbidity. Veterinarians treating camelids should be aware of the initial clinical signs and treatment options for cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy. In acute cases, the signs of reduced cervical mobility and pain on manipulation should prompt investigation including appropriate diagnostic imaging. Timely surgical intervention should be considered in patients that respond poorly to medical treatment to avoid irreversible spinal cord injury and optimize outcome. AN - 25932939
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25932939


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 862
Author: Barbian, H. J.; Decker, J. M.; Bibollet-Ruche, F.; Galimidi, R. P.; West, A. P.; Learn, G. H.; Parrish, N. F.; Iyer, S. S.; Li, Y.; Pace, C. S.; Song, R.; Huang, Y.; Denny, T. N.; Mouquet, H.; Martin, L.; Acharya, P.; Zhang, B.; Kwong, P. D.; Mascola, J. R.; Verrips, C. T.; Strokappe, N. M.; Rutten, L.; McCoy, L. E.; Weiss, R. A.; Brown, C. S.; Jackson, R.; Silvestri, G.; Connors, M.; Burton, D. R.; Shaw, G. M.; Nussenzweig, M. C.; Bjorkman, P. J.; Ho, D. D.; Farzan, M.; Hahn, B. H. C2 - PMC4453581 DA - Apr DO - 10.1128/mBio.00296-15
Year: 2015
Title: Neutralization properties of simian immunodeficiency viruses infecting chimpanzees and gorillas
Journal: MBio
Volume: 6
Issue: 2
Label: 1687
Keywords: Animals Antibodies, Neutralizing Cross Reactions Gorilla gorilla HIV Antibodies Humans Inhibitory Concentration 50 Neutralization Tests Pan troglodytes Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Simian Immunodeficiency Virus LA - eng
Abstract: Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting central (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) (SIVcpzPtt) and eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (SIVcpzPts) chimpanzees (n = 11) as well as western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (SIVgor) (n = 1). We found that bNabs directed against the CD4 binding site (n = 10), peptidoglycans at the base of variable loop 3 (V3) (n = 5), and epitopes at the interface of surface (gp120) and membrane-bound (gp41) envelope glycoproteins (n = 5) failed to neutralize SIVcpz and SIVgor strains. In addition, apex V2-directed bNabs (n = 3) as well as llama-derived (heavy chain only) antibodies (n = 6) recognizing both the CD4 binding site and gp41 epitopes were either completely inactive or neutralized only a fraction of SIVcpzPtt strains. In contrast, one antibody targeting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 (10E8), functional CD4 and CCR5 receptor mimetics (eCD4-Ig, eCD4-Ig(mim2), CD4-218.3-E51, and CD4-218.3-E51-mim2), as well as mono- and bispecific anti-human CD4 (iMab and LM52) and CCR5 (PRO140, PRO140-10E8) receptor antibodies neutralized >90% of SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with low-nanomolar (0.13 to 8.4 nM) potency. Importantly, the latter antibodies blocked virus entry not only in TZM-bl cells but also in Cf2Th cells expressing chimpanzee CD4 and CCR5 and neutralized SIVcpz in chimpanzee CD4(+) T cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3.6 to 40.5 nM. These findings provide new insight into the protective capacity of anti-HIV-1 bNabs and identify candidates for further development to combat SIVcpz infection.|SIVcpz is widespread in wild-living chimpanzees and can cause AIDS-like immunopathology and clinical disease. HIV-1 infection of humans can be controlled by antiretroviral therapy; however, treatment of wild-living African apes with current drug regimens is not feasible. Nonetheless, it may be possible to curb the spread of SIVcpz in select ape communities using vectored immunoprophylaxis and/or therapy. Here, we show that antibodies and antibody-like inhibitors developed to combat HIV-1 infection in humans are capable of neutralizing genetically diverse SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with considerable breadth and potency, including in primary chimpanzee CD4(+) T cells. These reagents provide an important first step toward translating intervention strategies currently developed to treat and prevent AIDS in humans to SIV-infected apes. AN - 25900654
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25900654


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 19
Author: Barón González, Enrique.; Vidal Espinar, Miquel.; Barceló i Cullerés, Damià; Eljarrat Esebag, Ethel; Barcelona., Universitat de; Química., Facultat de
Year: 2015
Title: Evaluación del impacto ambiental asociado al uso de nuevos retardantes de llama
Label: 945672852 LA - Text en castellà, resum en anglès.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 863
Author: Álvarez, B.; Krogh-Andersen, K.; Tellgren-Roth, C.; Martínez, N.; Günaydın, G.; Lin, Y.; Martín, M. C.; Álvarez, M. A.; Hammarström, L.; Marcotte, H. C2 - PMC4551240 DA - Sep DO - 10.1128/AEM.00945-15
Year: 2015
Title: An Exopolysaccharide-Deficient Mutant of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Efficiently Displays a Protective Llama Antibody Fragment against Rotavirus on Its Surface
Journal: Appl Environ Microbiol
Volume: 81
Issue: 17
Pages: 5784-93 ST - An Exopolysaccharide-Deficient Mutant of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Efficiently Displays a Protective Llama Antibody Fragment against Rotavirus on Its Surface
Label: 1662
Keywords: Animals Bacterial Proteins Disease Models, Animal Female Humans Immunoglobulin Fragments Lactobacillus rhamnosus Male Mice Mice, Inbred BALB C Molecular Sequence Data Polysaccharides, Bacterial Probiotics Rotavirus Rotavirus Infections LA - eng
Abstract: Rotavirus is the leading cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries, where it causes a high number of deaths among infants. Two vaccines are available, being highly effective in developed countries although markedly less efficient in developing countries. As a complementary treatment to the vaccines, a Lactobacillus strain producing an anti-rotavirus antibody fragment in the gastrointestinal tract could potentially be used. In order to develop such an alternative therapy, the effectiveness of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG to produce and display a VHH antibody fragment (referred to as anti-rotavirus protein 1 [ARP1]) on the surface was investigated. L. rhamnosus GG is one of the best-characterized probiotic bacteria and has intrinsic antirotavirus activity. Among four L. rhamnosus GG strains [GG (CMC), GG (ATCC 53103), GG (NCC 3003), and GG (UT)] originating from different sources, only GG (UT) was able to display ARP1 on the bacterial surface. The genomic analysis of strain GG (UT) showed that the genes welE and welF of the EPS cluster are inactivated, which causes a defect in exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, allowing efficient display of ARP1 on its surface. Finally, GG (UT) seemed to confer a level of protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea similar to that of wild-type GG (NCC 3003) in a mouse pup model, indicating that the EPS may not be involved in the intrinsic antirotavirus activity. Most important, GG (EM233), a derivative of GG (UT) producing ARP1, was significantly more protective than the control strain L. casei BL23. AN - 26092449
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26092449


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 864
Author: Andersen, K. K.; Strokappe, N. M.; Hultberg, A.; Truusalu, K.; Smidt, I.; Mikelsaar, R. H.; Mikelsaar, M.; Verrips, T.; Hammarström, L.; Marcotte, H. C2 - PMC4730582 DA - Nov DO - 10.1128/IAI.00870-15
Year: 2015
Title: Neutralization of Clostridium difficile Toxin B Mediated by Engineered Lactobacilli That Produce Single-Domain Antibodies
Journal: Infect Immun
Volume: 84
Issue: 2
Pages: 395-406 ST - Neutralization of Clostridium difficile Toxin B Mediated by Engineered Lactobacilli That Produce Single-Domain Antibodies
Label: 1620
Keywords: Administration, Oral Animals Antibodies, Neutralizing Antitoxins Bacterial Proteins Bacterial Toxins Camelids, New World Clostridium difficile Cricetinae Disease Models, Animal Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous Escherichia coli Gastrointestinal Tract Immunization Immunization, Passive Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains Lactobacillus Recombinant Proteins Single-Domain Antibodies LA - eng
Abstract: Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the Western world. The major virulence factors of C. difficile are two exotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), which cause extensive colonic inflammation and epithelial damage manifested by episodes of diarrhea. In this study, we explored the basis for an oral antitoxin strategy based on engineered Lactobacillus strains expressing TcdB-neutralizing antibody fragments in the gastrointestinal tract. Variable domain of heavy chain-only (VHH) antibodies were raised in llamas by immunization with the complete TcdB toxin. Four unique VHH fragments neutralizing TcdB in vitro were isolated. When these VHH fragments were expressed in either secreted or cell wall-anchored form in Lactobacillus paracasei BL23, they were able to neutralize the cytotoxic effect of the toxin in an in vitro cell-based assay. Prophylactic treatment with a combination of two strains of engineered L. paracasei BL23 expressing two neutralizing anti-TcdB VHH fragments (VHH-B2 and VHH-G3) delayed killing in a hamster protection model where the animals were challenged with spores of a TcdA(-) TcdB(+) strain of C. difficile (P < 0.05). Half of the hamsters in the treated group survived until the termination of the experiment at day 5 and showed either no damage or limited inflammation of the colonic mucosa despite having been colonized with C. difficile for up to 4 days. The protective effect in the hamster model suggests that the strategy could be explored as a supplement to existing therapies for patients. AN - 26573738
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26573738


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 865
Author: Alturki, N. A.; Henry, K. A.; MacKenzie, C. R.; Arbabi-Ghahroudi, M. DO - 10.1007/978-1-4939-2999-3_16
Year: 2015
Title: Isolation of Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies Against Native Proteins Using Recombinant Multivalent Peptide Ligands
Journal: Methods Mol Biol
Volume: 1348
Pages: 167-89 ST - Isolation of Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies Against Native Proteins Using Recombinant Multivalent Peptide Ligands
Label: 1629
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Cell Surface Display Techniques Gene Expression High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing Ligands Peptide Library Peptides Recombinant Fusion Proteins Single-Domain Antibodies LA - eng
Abstract: Generation of antibodies against desired epitopes on folded proteins may be hampered by various characteristics of the target protein, including antigenic and immunogenic dominance of irrelevant epitopes and/or steric occlusion of the desired epitope. In such cases, peptides encompassing linear epitopes of the native protein represent attractive alternative reagents for immunization and screening. Peptide antigens are typically prepared by fusing or conjugating the peptide of interest to a carrier protein. The utility of such antigens depends on many factors including the peptide's amino acid sequence, display valency, display format (synthetic conjugate vs. recombinant fusion) and characteristics of the carrier. Here we provide detailed protocols for: (1) preparation of DNA constructs encoding peptides fused to verotoxin (VT) multimerization domain; (2) expression, purification, and characterization of the multivalent peptide-VT ligands; (3) concurrent panning of a non-immune phage-displayed camelid VHH library against the peptide-VT ligands and native protein; and (4) identification of VHHs enriched via panning using next-generation sequencing techniques. These methods are simple, rapid and can be easily adapted to yield custom peptide-VT ligands that appear to maintain the antigenic structures of the peptide. However, we caution that peptide sequences should be chosen with great care, taking into account structural, immunological, and biophysical information on the protein of interest. AN - 26424272
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26424272


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 866
Author: Allen, A. J.; Stanton, J. B.; Evermann, J. F.; Fry, L. M.; Ackerman, M. G.; Barrington, G. M. DA - Mar DO - 10.1177/1040638715571627
Year: 2015
Title: Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States
Journal: J Vet Diagn Invest
Volume: 27
Issue: 2
Pages: 226-30 ST - Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States
Label: 1708
Keywords: Animals Bluetongue Bluetongue virus Camelids, New World Canada Diagnosis, Differential Female Male Northwestern United States Polymerase Chain Reaction Seroepidemiologic Studies LA - eng
Abstract: In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. AN - 25680921
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25680921


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 867
Author: Agbedanu, P. N.; Anderson, K. L.; Brewer, M. T.; Carlson, S. A. DA - Sep DO - 10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.09.002
Year: 2015
Title: Doxycycline as an inhibitor of p-glycoprotein in the alpaca for the purpose of maintaining avermectins in the CNS during treatment for parelaphostrongylosis
Journal: Vet Parasitol
Volume: 212
Issue: 3-4
Pages: 303-7 ST - Doxycycline as an inhibitor of p-glycoprotein in the alpaca for the purpose of maintaining avermectins in the CNS during treatment for parelaphostrongylosis
Label: 1636
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Animals Camelids, New World Cell Line Central Nervous System Diseases Dogs Doxycycline Drug Interactions Gene Expression Regulation Ivermectin Minocycline Molecular Sequence Data P-Glycoprotein LA - eng
Abstract: Meningeal worms (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) are a common malady of alpacas, often refractory to conventional treatments. Ivermectin is a very effective anthelmintic used against a variety of parasites but this drug is not consistently effective against alpaca meningeal worms once the parasite has gained access to the CNS, even if used in a protracted treatment protocol. Ivermectin is not effective against clinical cases of P. tenuis, raising the possibility that the drug is not sustained at therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A specific protein (designated as p-glycoprotein (PGP)) effluxes ivermectin from the brain at the blood-brain barrier, thus hampering the maintenance of therapeutic concentrations of the drug in the CNS. Minocycline is a synthetic tetracycline antibiotic with an excellent safety profile in all animals tested to date. Minocycline has three unique characteristics that could be useful for treating meningeal worms in conjunction with ivermectin. First, minocycline is an inhibitor of PGP at the blood-brain barrier and this inhibition could maintain effective concentrations of ivermectin in the brain and meninges. Second, minocycline protects neurons in vivo through a number of different mechanisms and this neuroprotection could alleviate the potential untoward neurologic effects of meningeal worms. Third, minocycline is a highly lipid-soluble drug, thus facilitating efficient brain penetration. We thus hypothesized that minocycline will maintain ivermectin, or a related avermectin approved in ruminants (abamectin, doramectin, or eprinomectin), in the alpaca CNS. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the gene encoding the alpaca PGP, expressed the alpaca PGP in a heterologous expression system involving MDCK cells, and measured the ability of minocycline to inhibit the efflux of avermectins from the MDCK cells; doxycycline was used as a putative negative control (based on studies in other species). Our in vitro studies surprisingly revealed that doxycycline was effective at inhibiting the efflux of ivermectin and doramectin (minocycline had no effect). These two avermectins, in combination with doxycycline, should be considered when treating meningeal worms in alpacas. AN - 26371853
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26371853


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 874
Year: 2015
Title: Bibersteinia trehalosi infection in cattle and sheep
Journal: Vet Rec
Volume: 176
Issue: 8
Pages: 195-8 ST - Bibersteinia trehalosi infection in cattle and sheep
Label: 1705
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Cattle Cattle Diseases Chickens Pasteurellaceae Infections Poultry Diseases Sentinel Surveillance Sheep Sheep Diseases Swine Swine Diseases United Kingdom LA - eng
Notes: TY - JOUR AN - 25698822 DA - Feb DO - 10.1136/vr.h603
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25698822


Reference Type: Book Section
Record Number: 873
Year: 2015
Title: LA LLAMA I
Editor: Mistral, Gabriela
Book Title: Alm&#xe1;cigo
Publisher: Ediciones UC
Pages: 28-28 ST - LA LLAMA I
Series Editor: Saavedra, Luis Vargas
Series Title: Poemas in&#xe9;ditos de Gabriela Mistral
Label: 28
Notes: TY - CHAP
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1djmc9g.11


Reference Type: Book Section
Record Number: 872
Year: 2015
Title: LA LLAMA II
Editor: Mistral, Gabriela
Book Title: Alm&#xe1;cigo
Publisher: Ediciones UC
Pages: 28-28 ST - LA LLAMA II
Series Editor: Saavedra, Luis Vargas
Series Title: Poemas in&#xe9;ditos de Gabriela Mistral
Label: 29
Notes: TY - CHAP
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1djmc9g.12


Reference Type: Book Section
Record Number: 871
Year: 2015
Title: LA LLAMA III
Editor: Mistral, Gabriela
Book Title: Alm&#xe1;cigo
Publisher: Ediciones UC
Pages: 29-29 ST - LA LLAMA III
Series Editor: Saavedra, Luis Vargas
Series Title: Poemas in&#xe9;ditos de Gabriela Mistral
Label: 35
Notes: TY - CHAP
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1djmc9g.13


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 870
Year: 2015
Title: PCV type 2-associated fetopathy in pigs
Journal: Vet Rec
Volume: 176
Issue: 25
Pages: 648-51 ST - PCV type 2-associated fetopathy in pigs
Label: 1660
Keywords: Animals Bird Diseases Birds Camelids, New World Cattle Cattle Diseases Circoviridae Infections Disease Outbreaks Fetal Diseases Sentinel Surveillance Sheep Sheep Diseases Swine Swine Diseases United Kingdom LA - eng
Notes: TY - JOUR AN - 26101389 DA - Jun DO - 10.1136/vr.h3075
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26101389


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 869
Year: 2015
Title: SAC C VS disease surveillance report: Skin lesions in a heifer with malignant catarrhal fever
Journal: Vet Rec
Volume: 177
Issue: 2
Pages: 40-3 ST - SAC C VS disease surveillance report: Skin lesions in a heifer with malignant catarrhal fever
Label: 1655
Keywords: Animals Animals, Exotic Bird Diseases Camelids, New World Cattle Cattle Diseases Female Malignant Catarrh Scotland Sentinel Surveillance Sheep Sheep Diseases Skin Diseases Swine Swine Diseases LA - eng
Notes: TY - JOUR AN - 26160789 DA - Jul DO - 10.1136/vr.h3173
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26160789


Reference Type: Book Section
Record Number: 868
Year: 2015
Title: The Llama Tree Venerable Trees in the Nashville Basin
Editor: Kimmerer, Tom
Book Title: Venerable Trees
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
Pages: 35-46 ST - The Llama Tree Venerable Trees in the Nashville Basin
Series Title: History, Biology, and Conservation in the Bluegrass
Label: 127
Abstract: <p>The llama tree shades a small pasture in Tennessee near College Grove. Two llamas sit in the shade of the tree, roll around in the dust nearby, and occasionally snack on the tree. It is a huge bur oak, one of many ancient trees scattered throughout the farmland of the Inner Nashville Basin. Nearby, a huge, dead bur oak stands at the edge of a pasture occupied by longhorn cattle. At nearly every turn of a country road, solitary old trees stand in the pastures.</p><p>It is possible to find woodland pastures of ancient trees in the Nashville Basin, but</p>
Notes: TY - CHAP
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt17573kc.6


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 21
Author: Wernery, Ulrich; Kinne, Jörg; Schuster, Rolf Karl
Year: 2014
Title: Camelid infectious disorders.
Publisher: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health)
ISBN: 9290449543


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 875
Author: Tillib, S. V.; Vyatchanin, A. S.; Muyldermans, S. DA - Dec DO - 10.1134/S000629791412013X
Year: 2014
Title: Molecular analysis of heavy chain-only antibodies of Camelus bactrianus
Journal: Biochemistry (Mosc)
Volume: 79
Issue: 12
Pages: 1382-90 ST - Molecular analysis of heavy chain-only antibodies of Camelus bactrianus
Label: 1703
Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence Animals Camelus Immunoglobulin G Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains Male Molecular Sequence Data Sequence Analysis LA - eng
Abstract: In this work, IgG content and structures of antigen-binding domains and hinge regions of different IgG subtypes of Camelus bactrianus were analyzed in detail for the first time. Our data demonstrate that C. bactrianus contains a very large amount of heavy chain-only antibodies that can be used as a source of VHH domain-containing molecules. Despite some minor sequence differences identified in this study, C. bactrianus VHH domains possess principally the same unique features as those of C. dromedarius and the llama. These features are important for developing an efficient phage display-based antibody selection technology. We conclude that C. bactrianus is a very suitable animal to raise an immune response that serves as a source to identify antigen-specific VHHs selected after phage display. AN - 25716733
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25716733


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 22
Author: Pawlinski, Sylvia.
Year: 2014
Title: Neonatal septicemia in a llama cria
Label: 907454648 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Generic
Record Number: 23
Author: Nevoltris, Damien; Baty, Daniel; Université., Aix-Marseille; (Marseille)., Ecole Doctorale Sciences de la Vie et de la Santé
Year: 2014
Title: Développement des ligands pour l' étude des récepteurs GPCR, Tyrosine Kinase, basée sur l' utilisation de simple domaine d' anticorps de lamas
Place Published: [Lieu de publication inconnu]
Publisher: [éditeur inconnu]
Date: 2014///
Label: 913706085 LA - French
Abstract: La recherche de nouvelles molécules à visée thérapeutique ou diagnostic ciblant les récepteurs membranaires incluant les RCPGs, les récepteurs à tyrosine kinase et les canaux ioniques sont au coeur des recherches investies par les entreprises pharmaceutiques. Dans ce projet nous avons étudié et caractérisé des domaines variables de chaîne lourde d'anticorps de lamas (sdAbs) qui peuvent contourner certaines limites liées à l'utilisation des anticorps monoclonaux ou des petites molécules. En effet, de par leurs particularités structurales qui les rendent particulièrement intéressants en termes de stabilité, d'affinité et de reconnaissance d'antigène, les sdAbs représentent etre une alternative prométeuse. Dans ce manuscrit sont exposés les travaux effectués sur les récepteurs aux tyrosines kinases appartenant à la famille des ErbBs et les récepteurs au glutamate mGluRs (RCPG). En plus d'avoir sélectionné des sdAbs hautement spécifiques de ces différents antigènes, ces molécules ont également montré des caractéristiques très étonnantes et inattendues. En effet, la majeure partie des sdAbs sélectionnés présentent une spécificité pour une conformation du récepteur particulière (forme active ou inactive). Cette particularité très pertinente nous ouvre un spectre d'application très diversifié, car elle permet de cibler et d'analyser les récepteurs dans ces différents états d'activation. Ajouté à cela, certains sdAbs possèdent une activité de modulateur allostérique, voir même présentent un effet agoniste. Ces résultats très encourageants nous ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives, et ces molécules représentent une nouvelle approche pour la modulation et l'étude des ces récepteurs. The research for new therapeutic or diagnostic molecules targeting membrane receptors, including GPCRs, tyrosine kinase receptors and ion channels are the heart of the research invested by pharmaceutical companies. In this project we used the variable domain of llama antibody heavy chain also called single domain antibodies (sdAbs) that can bypass some limitations to the use of monoclonal antibodies or small molecules. Indeed, because of their structural features that make them particularly interesting in terms of stability, affinity and antigen recognition, sdAbs represent a very promising candidates that can be used in various fiels of application: as fluorescent probes , screening tools , or therapeutic molecules. In this manuscript are exposed the work performed on the tyrosine kinases receptor belonging to the ErbBs family and metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluRs (GPCRs).We selected very highly specific sdAbs directed against antigen of interest, but these molecules have also shown very surprising and unexpected particularities. Indeed, most of the selected sdAbs exhibit specificity for a particular conformation of the receptor (active or inactive form). This very relevant feature opens an highly diversified application spectrum, because it allows to identify and analyze these receptors in different states of activation. Added to this, some sdAbs present an allosteric modulator activity, or even present an agonist effect. These encouraging results open up new perspectives, and these molecules represent a new approach for modulation and study of these membrane receptors.
Notes: TY - DATA DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 876
Author: McCoy, L. E.; Groppelli, E.; Blanchetot, C.; de Haard, H.; Verrips, T.; Rutten, L.; Weiss, R. A.; Jolly, C. C2 - PMC4189184 DA - Oct DO - 10.1186/s12977-014-0083-y
Year: 2014
Title: Neutralisation of HIV-1 cell-cell spread by human and llama antibodies
Journal: Retrovirology
Volume: 11
Pages: 83 ST - Neutralisation of HIV-1 cell-cell spread by human and llama antibodies
Label: 1704
Keywords: Animals Antibodies, Neutralizing Antigens, CD4 Camelids, New World HIV Antibodies HIV Infections HIV-1 Humans Macrophages Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction T-Lymphocytes LA - eng
Abstract: Direct cell-cell spread of HIV-1 is a very efficient mode of viral dissemination, with increasing evidence suggesting that it may pose a considerable challenge to controlling viral replication in vivo. Much current vaccine research involves the study of broadly neutralising antibodies (bNabs) that arise during natural infection with the aims of eliciting such antibodies by vaccination or incorporating them into novel therapeutics. However, whether cell-cell spread of HIV-1 can be effectively targeted by bNabs remains unclear, and there is much interest in identifying antibodies capable of efficiently neutralising virus transmitted by cell-cell contact.|In this study we have tested a panel of bNAbs for inhibition of cell-cell spread, including some not previously evaluated for inhibition of this mode of HIV-1 transmission. We found that three CD4 binding site antibodies, one from an immunised llama (J3) and two isolated from HIV-1-positive patients (VRC01 and HJ16) neutralised cell-cell spread between T cells, while antibodies specific for glycan moieties (2G12, PG9, PG16) and the MPER (2F5) displayed variable efficacy. Notably, while J3 displayed a high level of potency during cell-cell spread we found that the small size of the llama heavy chain-only variable region (VHH) J3 is not required for efficient neutralisation since recombinant J3 containing a full-length human heavy chain Fc domain was significantly more potent. J3 and J3-Fc also neutralised cell-cell spread of HIV-1 from primary macrophages to CD4+ T cells.|In conclusion, while bNabs display variable efficacy at preventing cell-cell spread of HIV-1, we find that some CD4 binding site antibodies can inhibit this mode of HIV-1 dissemination and identify the recently described llama antibody J3 as a particularly potent inhibitor. Effective neutralisation of cell-cell spread between physiologically relevant cell types by J3 and J3-Fc supports the development of VHH J3 nanobodies for therapeutic or prophylactic applications. AN - 25700025
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700025


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 24
Author: Dewdney, A.
Year: 2014
Title: Llama Llama Jingle Bells
Publisher: Penguin Young Readers Group
ISBN: 9780451469809
URL: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ZvlyoAEACAAJ


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 25
Author: Cebra, C.; Anderson, D.E.; Tibary, A.; Van Saun, R.J.; Johnson, L.R.W.
Year: 2014
Title: Llama and Alpaca Care: Medicine, Surgery, Reproduction, Nutrition, and Herd Health
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 9780323242912
URL: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8sU0AwAAQBAJ


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 26
Author: Webb, B.
Year: 2013
Title: The Llama of Death: A Gunn Zoo Mystery
Publisher: Poisoned Pen Press, Incorporated
ISBN: 9781615954278
URL: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1Uuuj5qWv-4C


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 27
Author: Soler, C.; Sancho, M.; García, A.; Fuentes, MC.; Núñez, J.; Cucho, H.
Year: 2013
Title: Ejaculate Fractioning Effect on Llama Sperm Head Morphometry as Assessed by the ISAS® CASA system.
City: Berlin, Germany
Publisher: Blackwell Science
Number of Pages: 1 online resource LA - English NT - In: Reproduction in domestic animals, Vol. 49, no. 1 ( 2014), p.71-78. NT - Summary: Content South American camelid sperm characteristics are poorly known compared with those of other domestic animals. The long‐term duration of ejaculation makes difficult to gather all the seminal fluid, implying possible ejaculation portion losses. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the characteristics of the morphology and morphometry of the spermatozoa change during ejaculation. The morphometric characterization was tested on nine specimens of the Lanuda breed, using a special artificial vagina. In five of the animals, a fractioning of the ejaculate was performed by taking samples every 5 min. for a total of 20 min. Air‐dried seminal smears were stained with Hemacolor and mounted permanently with Eukitt. Morphometric analysis was carried out with the morphometry module of the ISAS® CASA system. Almost 350 cells were analysed per sample, with a total number of 3207 spermatozoa. Mean values were given as follows: length: 5.51 μm; width: 3.38 μm; area: 17.75 μm2; perimeter: 14.8 μm; ellipticity: 0.24; elongation: 0.56; rugosity: 0.87; regularity: 1.07; and shape factor: 1.41. Different animals showed differences in their morphometric values. When we compared the values from different fractions, only two samples showed differences in morphometric parameter values and four samples showed differences in shape parameters. Multivariate analysis allowed the size classification of the cells into three classes and five classes of shapes. The distribution of classes among fractions showed no differences. Despite the individual morphometric differences observed in some fractions, the characteristics of the sperm head morphometry can be considered constant along the ejaculatory period in the llama
Keywords: Animal breeding.
Veterinary pathology.
Livestock.
Breeding. HL - National Library of Scotland DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - SER
URL: https://nls.ldls.org.uk/welcome.html?ark:/81055/vdc_100024619112.0x000041


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 28
Author: Preciado Rodríguez, Nancy Aurelia DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 2013
Title: Water dispossession at the Llano en Llamas : a research study by a daughter of Mexican farmworkers in the land of her consciousness
Date: 2013 ST - Water dispossession at the Llano en Llamas : a research study by a daughter of Mexican farmworkers in the land of her consciousness
Label: 1724
Abstract: In 1953, Juan Rulfo, one of the most important Latin American writers of the 20th century presents, El Llano en Llamas (Burning Plain), a collection of realistic short stories about rural life in the land of his childhood in Jalisco, Mexico. About 60 years after El Llano en Llamas, this daughter of Mexican campesinos, has also decided to write about the land of her childhood: the same El Llano en Llamas. This thesis examines the water dispossession experienced by agricultural laborers living in the municipalities of Tonaya, and San Gabriel, which are symbolically part of the Llano en Llamas. By focusing on a corporate socially responsible agricultural company and a mining company in the state of Jalisco, Mexico I argue that both projects of development are dispossessing the communities of their water sources. I also intend to illustrate that currently, the processes of dispossession use modes and logics of power rooted in colonialism.
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/22448/PRECIADORODRIGUEZ-THESIS-2013.pdf


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 29
Author: Pembro, Caroline [author]
Year: 2013
Title: Ollie : the diary of a llama farmer
City: Bath
Publisher: Llama-rama Publishing
Number of Pages: vii, 97 pages : illustrations (black and white) ; 20 cm. LA - English
ISBN: 9780957675001 (paperback)
Keywords: Pembro, Caroline.
Ollie (Llama)
Llamas as pets.
Human-animal relationships. HL - British Library ; National Library of Scotland ; National Library of Wales / Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru ; Trinity College Dublin Library ; University of Oxford Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 30
Author: Parisien, Albert; University of, Ottawa DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - En.
Year: 2013
Title: Large-Scale Production in 'Escherichia coli' TG1 and Purification of Llama Single Domain Antibody ToxA5.1 Against 'Clostridium difficile' Toxin A
Label: 1855
Abstract: Drug resistant strains of Clostridium difficile are a major health concern with over 3 million cases costing over 1 billion $ per year in the United-States. The diseases associated with these bacteria (CDAD) are toxin-mediated which offers a mean of treating and lessening the severity of CDAD symptoms. Toxin inactivation via antibodies therapy can drastically reduce CDAD morbidity and this project was aiming at investigating the large-scale production and recovery of a novel llama single domain antibody (pSJF2H-ToxA5.1) in recombinant Escherichia coli TG1 targeting C. difficile enterotoxin A (TcdA). In order to achieve these objectives, the project was divided into four segments: 1) ToxA5.1 being an intracellular recombinant protein, obtaining a high biomass production was the first step towards large-scale production. To achieve HCDC, effects of initial glucose concentration and pH-stat feeding strategy were studied; 2) Upon achieving HCDC, effects of parameters such as temperature, induction timing and media supplementation with complex nitrogen sources were investigated; 3) Once large-scale production of ToxA5.1 was obtained, the recombinant protein needed to be recovered and a selective cell lysis scheme where synergistic lysis effects of Triton X-100 and temperature were studied. And finally 4) Single-step purification using nickel nanoparticles (NNP) synthesized via a modified polyol method was studied. Combining the HCDC strategy with a temperature shift and yeast extract addition at the time of induction, ToxA5.1 concentration of 127 mg/L was obtained. Synergistic and selective cell lysis using Triton X-100 and temperature was achieved where 95% of the available ToxA5.1 was recovered and still functional while ToxA5.1 fraction in the resulting lysate increased to 27% in the cell lysate. Single-step purification was achieved using the synthesized NNP which proved to be highly selective and could be used up to five times. Diameter of the NNP synthesized was controlled by using various concentration of ranging from 131 ± 80 nm to 47 ± 20 nm. Using experimental data from binding isotherm, the ToxA5.1-NNP system was modeled.
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 32
Author: Impey, Rose [author]; Pye, Ali [illustrator] SE - Awesome animals
Year: 2013
Title: Llama drama : in it to win it!
City: London
Publisher: HarperCollins Children's Books
Number of Pages: 200 pages : illustrations ; 20 cm. LA - English
ISBN: 9780007494811 (pbk.)
9780007494804 (ePub ebook) NT - Also issued online.
Keywords: Llamas -- Juvenile fiction. HL - British Library ; National Library of Scotland ; Trinity College Dublin Library ; University of Cambridge Libraries ; University of Oxford Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 31
Author: Impey, Rose [author]; Pye, Ali [illustrator] SE - Awesome animals
Year: 2013
Title: Llama drama : it's showtime!
City: London
Publisher: HarperCollins Children's
Number of Pages: 186 pages ; 20 cm. LA - English
ISBN: 9780007494781 (paperback)
9780007494798 (ebook) NT - Also issued online.
Keywords: Llamas -- Juvenile fiction. HL - British Library ; National Library of Scotland ; National Library of Wales / Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru ; Trinity College Dublin Library ; University of Oxford Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 34
Author: Dewdney, A.
Year: 2013
Title: Llama Llama and the Bully Goat
Publisher: Penguin Young Readers Group
ISBN: 9780698140639
URL: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Vq9iURft-ZUC


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 33
Author: Dewdney, Anna. [Main author]
Year: 2013
Title: Llama llama shopping drama
City: London
Publisher: Hodder Children's Books
Number of Pages: 32 unnumbered pages : chiefly illustrations (colour) ; 27 cm. LA - English
ISBN: 9781444910896 (hardback) NT - Originally published: as Llama llama mad at Mama. New York: Viking, 2007. HL - British Library ; National Library of Scotland ; Trinity College Dublin Library ; University of Cambridge Libraries ; University of Oxford Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Electronic Source
Record Number: 35
Author: Danquah, Welbeck; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich
Year: 2013
Title: Selection and characterization of llama-derived anti-P2X7 single domain antibodies
Producer: Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg
Last Update Date: 2013///
Label: 862303713 LA - English
Notes: TY - ELEC DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org
URL: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:gbv:18-63593


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 36
Author: Cucchi, María E Cerón; Marcoppido, Gisela; Trangoni, Marcos D; Cravero, Silvio L
Year: 2013
Title: Detection of fiber-digesting bacteria in the forestomach contents of llamas (Lama glama) by PCR
Journal: Revista Argentina de microbiologia
Volume: 45
Issue: 3
Pages: 147-149
Alternate Journal: Revista Argentina de microbiologia


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 37
Author: Conraths, FJ; Peters, M; Beer, M
Year: 2013
Title: Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus infection in ruminants in Europe: potential global impact and preventive measures
Journal: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Volume: 61
Issue: 2
Pages: 63-67
Alternate Journal: New Zealand Veterinary Journal


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 38
Author: Apichela, S. A.; Argañaraz, M. E.; Giuliano, S.; Zampini, R.; Carretero, I.; Miragaya, M.; Miceli, D. C.
Year: 2013
Title: Llama oviductal sperm reservoirs: involvement of bulbourethral glands.
City: Berlin, Germany
Publisher: Blackwell Science
Number of Pages: 1 online resource LA - English NT - In: Andrologia, Vol. 46, no. 3 (June 2014), p.290-295. NT - Summary: Summary The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of llama seminal plasma in the formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Female llamas with follicles in the mature phase were mated with a bulbourethral glands‐removed male. Females mated with nonbulbourethral glands‐removed males were used as control. Oviducts were obtained by surgery 24 h after mating. The uterotubal junction and isthmus were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and mucopolysaccharides were identified by Alcian blue staining. To know the proteins probably involved in sperm reservoir formation, SDS‐PAGE of seminal plasma (8% and 18% resolving gel) was made. Spermatozoa only adhered to the oviductal mucosa surface of uterotubal junction of females mated with nonbulbourethral glands‐removed males confirming that seminal plasma and, in particular, bulbourethral secretions are related with the oviductal sperm reservoir formation. Histological sections showed sperm in the lumen, immersed in substance, positive for acid mucopolysaccharides. Alcian blue staining of seminal plasma proteins SDS‐PAGE showed a band of high molecular weight containing mucopolysaccharides, only present in nonbulbourethral glands‐removed males. Bulbourethral glands would secrete at least eight different proteins that most likely participate in the process of sperm storage in the oviduct.
Keywords: Andrology.
Infertility, Male. HL - National Library of Scotland DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - SER
URL: https://nls.ldls.org.uk/welcome.html?ark:/81055/vdc_100024781660.0x000007


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 39
Author: Anderson, D.E.; Jones, M.L.; Miesner, M.D.
Year: 2013
Title: Veterinary Techniques for Llamas and Alpacas
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 9781118602430
URL: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=y4yLPIMVdwgC


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 40
Author: Alpers, S.A.
Year: 2013
Title: Miss Lilly The Cute Little Llama: The Cute Little Llama
Publisher: Xlibris US
ISBN: 9781483645452
URL: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=aP0ttLIsWOoC


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 878
Author: Qian, Jianing DA - 2012
Year: 2012
Title: Affinity chromatography of camelid antibodies
University: Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology
Thesis Type: Doctoral
Label: 514
Keywords: Immunoglobulins Chromatographic analysis LA - eng
Notes: TY - THES
URL: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?did=2&uin=uk.bl.ethos.610171


Reference Type: Electronic Source
Record Number: 42
Author: Perez, Alicia R.; Walker, Patricia
Year: 2012
Title: La sangre llama
Last Update Date: 2012///
Label: 849349867 LA - English
Abstract: Author's abstract: LA SANGRE LLAMA is an exhibition of paintings featuring works by Alicia Perez. The series of paintings are acrylic on canvas all 24" x 36", and explore the contemporary Latino immigrant experience that often involves instability, acculturation, and loss of identity. The attire found on the subjects all vary in patterns and colors to represent different nationalities that fall under the umbrella of Hispanic Culture. Intentionally concealed faces in the paintings emphasize the belief that many Hispanic immigrants are frequently viewed as stereotypes, rather than individuals. LA SANGRE LLAMA, which translates to "the blood beckons," affirms the notion that regardless of geographic location, a person's roots will always remain where they began.
Notes: TY - ELEC DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org
URL: http://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/etd/8/


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 43
Author: McCarthy, Maria C. [editor of compilation]; Cultured Llama Publishing [publisher]
Year: 2012
Title: Unexplored territory : poetry and fiction from Cultured Llama
City: Teynham, Sittingbourne
Publisher: Cultured Llama Publishing
Number of Pages: xi, 94 pages ; 21 cm LA - English
ISBN: 9780956892171 (paperback)
Keywords: English poetry -- 21st century.
English fiction -- 21st century. HL - British Library DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 880
Author: Duncanson, Graham R.; International., C.A.B.
Year: 2012
Title: Veterinary treatment of llamas and alpacas
City: Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK
Publisher: CAB International
Number of Pages: xix, 248 p. ST - Veterinary treatment of llamas and alpacas
ISBN: 9781780640068
Label: 1559
Keywords: Camelids, New World Animal Diseases therapy Animal Diseases diagnosis Surgical Procedures, Operative veterinary
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - 1576101
2012001020 Graham R. Duncanson. ill. Includes bibliographical references and index. Animal husbandry -- Nutrition and metabolic diseases -- Examination -- Sample taking and simple diagnostic tests -- Veterinary equipment -- Veterinary medicines -- Vaccines -- Sedation, analgesia, anaesthesia, and euthanasia -- Medicine and surgery of the gastro-enteric system -- Medicine and surgery of the respiratory and circulatory systems -- Medicine and surgery of the urino-genital system -- Medicine and surgery of the neurological system -- Medicine and surgery of the locomotory system -- Skin conditions -- Cause of sudden death and post mortem technique -- Poisons -- Zoonotic diseases.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 44
Author: Dewdney, Anna. [Main author]
Year: 2012
Title: Llama llama red pyjama
City: London
Publisher: Hodder Children's
Number of Pages: 1 volume (unpaged) : illustrations ; 27 cm LA - English
ISBN: 9781444910872 (hbk.)
1444910876 (hbk.) HL - British Library ; National Library of Scotland ; National Library of Wales / Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru ; Trinity College Dublin Library ; University of Oxford Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 45
Author: Danquah, Welbeck Owusu
Year: 2012
Title: Selection and characterization of llama-derived anti-P2X7 single domian antibodies
Label: 935173188 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 46
Author: Conroy, C.
Year: 2012
Title: Mama Wants a Llama
Publisher: AuthorHouse
ISBN: 9781477216064
URL: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1acthbnngMUC


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 47
Author: Barreta, J.; Gutiérrez‐Gil, B.; Iñiguez, V.; Saavedra, V.; Chiri, R.; Latorre, E.; Arranz, J. J.
Year: 2012
Title: Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in Bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the South American camelids.
City: Oxford
Publisher: Blackwell Science
Number of Pages: 1 online resource LA - English NT - In: Animal genetics, Vol. 44, no. 2 (Apr. 2013), p.158-168. NT - SummaryThe objectives of this work were to assess the mtDNA diversity of Bolivian South American camelid (SAC) populations and to shed light on the evolutionary relationships between the Bolivian camelids and other populations of SACs. We have analysed two different mtDNA regions: the complete coding region of the MT‐CYB gene and 513 bp of the D‐loop region. The populations sampled included Bolivian llamas, alpacas and vicunas, and Chilean guanacos. High levels of genetic diversity were observed in the studied populations. In general, MT‐CYB was more variable than D‐loop. On a species level, the vicunas showed the lowest genetic variability, followed by the guanacos, alpacas and llamas. Phylogenetic analyses performed by including additional available mtDNA sequences from the studied species confirmed the existence of the two monophyletic clades previously described by other authors for guanacos (G) and vicunas (V). Significant levels of mtDNA hybridization were found in the domestic species. Our sequence analyses revealed significant sequence divergence within clade G, and some of the Bolivian llamas grouped with the majority of the southern guanacos. This finding supports the existence of more than the one llama domestication centre in South America previously suggested on the basis of archaeozoological evidence. Additionally, analysis of D‐loop sequences revealed two new matrilineal lineages that are distinct from the previously reported G and V clades. The results presented here represent the first report on the population structure and genetic variability of Bolivian camelids and may help to elucidate the complex and dynamic domestication process of SAC populations.
Keywords: Livestock.
Genetics.
Domestic animals. HL - National Library of Scotland DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - SER
URL: https://nls.ldls.org.uk/welcome.html?ark:/81055/vdc_100024487477.0x00003d


Reference Type: Electronic Source
Record Number: 48
Year: 2012
Title: Studies in the development of SCWO vessel reactor with hydrothermal flame as an internal heat source
Last Update Date: 2012///
Label: 919574202 LA - English
Abstract: La oxidación en agua supercrítica (OASC) es una tecnología prometedora para la destrucción de residuos, pero su comercialización se ha retrasado por los problemas de corrosión y el depósito de sal asociados a esta tecnología así como por su alto consumo energético. el uso de reactores con una llama hidrotermal como fuente de calor contribuyen a superar muchos de los desafíos que presenta esta tecnología. La inyección de los reactivos sobre una llama hidrotermal puede permitir la posibilidad de inyectar la alimentación en el reactor a temperaturas bajas, evitando los problemas de corrosión y taponamiento en un sistema de precalentamiento. También la cinética es mucho más rápida lo que permite destrucciones completas de los contaminantes en tiempos de residencia inferiores a 1 segundo. Junto a esto, las altas temperaturas asociadas a las llamas hidrotermales contribuyen a una mejor recuperación de la energía del calor liberado en la reacción para una posible producción de electricidad A través de esta tesis, diferentes estudios sobre el proceso de oxidación en agua supercrítica con llamas hidrotermales se llevan a cabo con el fin de desarrollar un nuevo diseño de reactor para oxidación en agua supercrítica capaz de inyectar alimentaciones a temperatura ambiente, eliminar desechos que contienen sales inorgánicas y a optimizar el uso energético del proceso. Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Tecnología del Medio Ambiente
Notes: TY - ELEC DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org
URL: http://uvadoc.uva.es/handle/10324/2026


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 49
Author: Osmundson, Susanna DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 2011
Title: Abdominal serosal cysts in an adult male llama (Lama glama)
Label: 1835
Abstract: A 4-year-old male intact llama presented for a two-month history of scrotal swelling and a one month history of abdominal distension. On physical exam the abdomen was taut and distended, and the animal was in poor body condition. Abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple large fluid-filled structures, displacing the gastrointestinal tract dorsally. Abdominal fluid was drained via an indwelling thoracocentesis tube, and later the cysts were surgically excised. The cysts were serosal in origin, though etiology was unknown as there was no indication of neoplasia or infection. Four months post-excision the animal has an adequate appetite, is in good body condition and had no signs of abdominal distension or scrotal swelling. Abdominal serosal cysts have not been previously described in llamas, and are a possible differential for animals with abdominal distension. (Abstract.).
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 50
Author: Maw, Jenna
Year: 2011
Title: Llamascape based on an interpretive cast : the inhabitanta llama the spatial analysta geographer the common humana phantom within the social imagination
City: Ottawa DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
University: Library and Archives Canada = Bibliothèque et Archives Canada
Label: 1760
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Generic
Record Number: 882
Author: Lusat, Jacqueline CN - British Library DSC DRT 549443
Year: 2011
Title: Importance and management of mange mites and gastrontestinal parasites in Alpaca and Llama populations in the UK [electronic resource]
Publisher: University of Bristol
Date: 2011 ST - Importance and management of mange mites and gastrontestinal parasites in Alpaca and Llama populations in the UK [electronic resource]
Label: 197
Notes: TY - WEB
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Bristol, 2011. Includes bibliographical references. University of Bristol.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 51
Author: Lusat, Jacqueline.
Year: 2011
Title: Importance and management of mange mites and gastrointestinal parasites in alpaca and llama populations in the UK
Label: 931554871 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 52
Author: Guerra Gómez, Paula; Moyano Morcillo, Encarnación; Barceló i Cullerés, DamiÃ; Eljarrat Esebag, Ethel; Universitat de, Barcelona; Departament de Química, Analítica; Consejo Superior de Investigaciones, Científicas DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - Text en castellà, articles en anglès.
Year: 2011
Title: Análisis de retardantes de llama halogenados emergentes y su impacto en el medio ambiente y en humanos
Label: 1747
Notes: TY - THES
(Espanya)


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 53
Author: García-Luján, José María
Year: 2011
Title: La llama del triunfo
Series Title: La Esfera ficción
City: Madrid
Publisher: Esfera de los Libros
Number of Pages: 326 p.
Edition: 1.
ISBN: 9788499700366
Accession Number: 17113107
Call Number: PQ6707.A3682 L43 2011
Notes: 2011536496 José María García-Luján. 23 cm.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 54
Author: Fowler, Murray E
Year: 2011
Title: Medicine and surgery of camelids
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470961694


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 55
Author: Ellison, Jane
Year: 2011
Title: Knitting with Peruvian yarns : 25 soft sweaters and accessories in alpaca, llama, merino and silk
City: North Pomfret, Vt.
Publisher: Trafalgar Square
Number of Pages: 128 p.
ISBN: 9781570764769 157076476X
Accession Number: 16350152
Call Number: TT825 .E456 2011
Keywords: Knitting Patterns. Yarn. Sweaters.
Abstract: Presents step-by-step instructions and patterns for twenty-five hand-knit projects using Mirasol yarns --
Notes: 2010933364 Jane Ellison. col. ill. ; 26 cm.
URL: Contributor biographical information http://www.loc.gov/catdir/enhancements/fy1312/2010933364-b.html
Publisher description http://www.loc.gov/catdir/enhancements/fy1312/2010933364-d.html


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 56
Author: DeRubertis, Barbara; Alley, R. W.
Year: 2011
Title: Lana Llama's little lamb
Series Title: Animal antics A to Z
City: New York
Publisher: Kane Press
Number of Pages: 32 p.
ISBN: 9781575653334 (library binding alk. paper) 9781575653242 (pbk. alk. paper)
Accession Number: 16290747
Call Number: PZ7.D4475 Lan 2011
Keywords: Llamas Fiction. Sheep Fiction. Wolves Fiction. Schools Fiction. Animals Fiction. Alphabet.
Abstract: Lana Llama loves Lucky Lamb, and finally comes up with a way to protect him from the sly and sneaky wolf that lives down the lane.
Notes: 2010021823 by Barbara deRubertis ; illustrated by R.W. Alley. col. ill. ; 23 cm. Grades PreK-3.


Reference Type: Audiovisual Material
Record Number: 57
Author: Congress), Copyright Collection (Library of
Year: 2011
Title: The fabulous Beekman boys. Llama drama
Extent of Work: 1 videocassette of 1 (Digital Betacam) (30 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in.
Accession Number: 17456090
Call Number: VAP 3394 (viewing copy)
Keywords: Reality television programs. Nonfiction television programs.
Notes: Llama drama
2012607781 PA0001791806 U.S. Copyright Office Episode no. 201. Sources used: video container; Copyright catalog online.


Reference Type: Book Section
Record Number: 883
Author: Cardeti, G.; Brozzi, A.; Eleni, C.; Polici, N.; D’Alterio, G.; Carletti, F.; Scicluna, M. T.; Castilletti, C.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Di Caro, A.; Autorino, G. L.; Amaddeo, D. DO - 10.3201/eid1708.101912 LA - eng
Year: 2011
Title: Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy
Book Title: Emerg Infect Dis
Pages: 1513-5 ST - Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy SV - 8
Edition: 17
Label: 507
Abstract: Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. CPXV-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a CPXV isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to CPXV-MonKre08/1–2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in Germany. AN - 21801638
Notes: TY - CHAP
Cardeti, Giusy Brozzi, Alberto Eleni, Claudia Polici, Nicola D’Alterio, Gianlorenzo Carletti, Fabrizio Scicluna, Maria Teresa Castilletti, Concetta Capobianchi, Maria R. Di Caro, Antonino Autorino, Gian Luca Amaddeo, Demetrio Emerging Infectious Diseases 10-1912 [pii] Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Aug;17(8):1513-5. doi:10.3201/eid1708.101912.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1708.101912


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 58
Author: Braun, Kathryn.
Year: 2011
Title: The influence of translation on meaning : a comparative analysis of English translations of San Juan de la Cruz' Llama de amor viva
Label: 765307476 LA - English
Abstract: "Given its reliance on a wide variety of linguistic elements, including sound effects and highly figurative language, poetry lacks a single formula for translation. Thus, this genre presents a significant challenge to translators, who must often choose which of these elements to preserve at the expense of others, and produces considerable variety among translations of the same work. This paper examines this complex process of poetry translation and particularly its impact on meaning by comparing the translations of Kieran Kavanaugh and Otilio Rodriguez (1964), Willis Barnstone (1972), and Loren G. Smith (2005) of sixteenth-century Spanish mystic San Juan de la Cruz' Llama de amor viva. Using these translators' approaches to meter and rhyme scheme, original metaphors, Spanish grammatical constructions lacking an equivalent in English, and individual problematic words as criteria of evaluation, this study concludes that although no translation entirely preserves the meaning of San Juan's original work, each effectively transmits part of this meaning through at least one of the above areas while simultaneously developing individual shades of meaning through others, thus emerging as both translation and independent poem"--Abstract.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 884
Author: Beltra\n, Fernando CN - 861/.64 22 British Library HMNTS YF.2012.a.3959
Year: 2011
Title: Donde nadie me llama : poesi\0301a 1980-2010
City: Madrid
Publisher: Hiperio\0301n
ISBN: 9788475179650 ST - Donde nadie me llama : poesi\0301a 1980-2010
Label: 199
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - (SP-BaPL)pu110008089
Fernando Beltra\0301n ; pro\0301logo de Leopoldo Sa\0301nchez Torre. Poesi\0301a Hiperio\0301n ; 614


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 885
Author: Tynes, Valarie V.
Year: 2010
Title: Behavior of exotic pets
City: Chichester, West Sussex
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Number of Pages: xiii , 234 p. ST - Behavior of exotic pets
ISBN: 9780813800783 (pbk.)
Label: 1556
Keywords: Behavior, Animal Animals, Domestic psychology Mental Disorders veterinary
Abstract: "Behavior of Exotic Pets is the first and only book on exotic pet behavior written by behavioral experts. The book is divided into chapters devoted to particular species or group of species commonly kept as exotic pets. The animals' normal behaviour natural history is explained. Descriptions of common behavioural problems are included along with recommendations for their treatment or management. Separate chapters on learning, welfare and behavioural pharmacology are also included, all with practical application for those treating or caring for exotic pets"--Provided by publisher. AN - 1523021
Notes: TY - BOOK
2010001845 edited by Valarie V. Tynes. ill. Includes bibliographical references and index. Machine generated contents note: 1. Birds: Passerines.2. Birds: Psittacines.3. Snakes.4. Lizards.5. Chelonia.6. Amphibians.7. Ferrets.8. Rabbits.9. Guinea pigs.10. Mice, rats, and gerbils.11. Llamas.12. Miniature pet pigs.13. Miscellaneous exotic pets (Hedgehogs, prairie dogs and sugar gliders).14. Understanding how animals learn.15. Welfare concerns for captive wild animals.16. Behavioral pharmacology.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 59
Author: Stockland, P.M.; Ouren, T.
Year: 2010
Title: In the Llama Yard
Publisher: Magic Wagon
ISBN: 9781602709324
URL: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=iQm0p3XWIJwC


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 61
Author: Perruchini, Claire; Duyckaerts, Charles.; (Paris)., Université Pierre et Marie Curie
Year: 2010
Title: <>.
City: [S.l.]
University: [s.n.]
Label: 758834118 LA - French
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 62
Author: Parisien, Albert.
Year: 2010
Title: Surexpression chez Escherichia coli de l'anticorps à domaine simple ToxA5.1 provenant du lama et ayant pour cible l'entérotoxine A produite par Clostridium difficile = Over-expression in Escherichia coli of the ToxA5.1 llama single domain antibody targeting Clostridium difficile enterotoxin A.
City: Ottawa
University: Library and Archives Canada = Bibliothèque et Archives Canada
Label: 758059484 LA - Text in English; includes abstract in French.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 63
Author: Niedbalska, Jolanta.
Year: 2010
Title: Severe hepatic necrosis and thromboembolic disease in a llama
Label: 669268002 LA - English
Abstract: A 6 year old llama was evaluated for an acute onset of neurological behavior. Upon presentation, the llama was obtunded, in lateral recumbency, displaying opisthotonus, and intermittently paddling the hindlimbs. Physical examination revealed cranial nerve deficits, areflexia in all four limbs, increased hindlimb muscle tone and grade III/VI apical heart murmur on the left. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included a mildly elevated lactate, moderate azotemia, marked hyperammonemia and marked elevation of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). On ultrasound, approximately 60-80% of the liver parenchyma was effaced by variably sized, encapsulated, irregular masses. Treatment with intravenous isotonic fluids, mannitol, flunixin meglumine and thiamine hydrochloride was attempted, but due to lack of response, the llama was euthanized. Massive hepatocellular necrosis and thromboembolic disease were evident on gross necropsy and confirmed by histopathology. A pure culture of E. coli was isolated from the liver and vascular thrombi. Based on the pattern of lesions, the presumptive pathogenesis of disease was coliform ascension into the portal vein or bile duct, seeding the liver, and causing multifocal septic thrombi throughout hepatobiliary circulatory tree. (Abstract.).
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 64
Author: Markemann, André DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 2010
Title: Functions and selection criteria for a llama population in the Bolivian Andes
Date: 2010 ST - Functions and selection criteria for a llama population in the Bolivian Andes
Label: 1862
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://opus.ub.uni-hohenheim.de/volltexte/2011/525/


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 65
Author: Lowe-Phelps, K.
Year: 2010
Title: Yama, the Llama: Off to Bethlehem
Publisher: Tate Publishing & Enterprises
ISBN: 9781616631789
URL: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8Y_c2BzDrbMC


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 66
Author: Lette, Kathy 1958- [Main author]
Year: 2010
Title: The llama parlour
City: London
Publisher: Bloomsbury
Number of Pages: 343 p. ; 20 cm. LA - English
ISBN: 9781408805091
140880509X NT - Originally published: London: Bloomsbury, 1992. HL - British Library ; National Library of Scotland ; National Library of Wales / Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru ; Trinity College Dublin Library ; University of Cambridge Libraries ; University of Oxford Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 67
Author: Laube, L.
Year: 2010
Title: Llama for Lunch
Publisher: Wakefield Press
ISBN: 9781862549029
URL: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=74P3jeKZJzMC


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 68
Author: García López, Mónica.
Year: 2010
Title: Desarrollo de nuevas metodologías para la determinación de plastificantes y retardantes de llama organofosforados y sus derivados en muestras medioambientales memoria para optar al grado de Doctor en Química
City: [Santiago de Compostela
University: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Servizo de Publicacións e Intercambio Científico
Label: 868823167 LA - Texto en español; resumen y anexos en inglés; conclusiones en inglés y español.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 69
Author: Fugal, Rachel A; Anderson, Val Jo; Roundy, Bruce
Year: 2010
Title: Exotic grass and shrub production evaluation and llama preference on the Bolivian Altiplano
Journal: Small Ruminant Research
Volume: 94
Issue: 1
Pages: 150-160
Alternate Journal: Small Ruminant Research


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 70
Author: Fowler, Murray E. [Main author]; Bravo, P. Walter.; ebrary Academic Complete
Year: 2010
Title: Medicine and surgery of camelids : [llama, alpaca, vicuña, guanaco, dromedary & Bactrian camels]
City: Ames, Iowa
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Number of Pages: 1 online resource (xii, 630 pages) : illustrations LA - English
Edition: 3rd ed.
ISBN: 081380616X
9780813806167
9780813806167 NT - Includes bibliographical references and index. NT - Electronic resource Palo Alto, Calif. : ebrary, 2008. NT - Print version record. NT - Contents: Machine generated contents note: 1. General Biology and Evolution -- 2. Feeding and Nutrition -- 3. Restraint and Handling -- 4. Clinical Diagnosis: Examination and Procedures -- 5. Anesthesia -- 6. Surgery -- 7. Infectious Diseases -- 8. Parasites -- 9. Multisystem Disorders -- 10. Integumentary System -- 11. Musculoskeletal System -- 12. Respiratory System -- 13. Digestive System -- 14. Endocrine System -- 15. Hemic and Lymphatic Systems -- 16. Cardiovascular System -- 17. Reproduction (Murray E. Fowler and P. Walter Bravo) -- 18. Urinary System -- 19. Organs of Special Sense -- 20. Nervous System -- 21. Neonatology (Murray E. Fowler and P. Walter Bravo) -- 22. Congenital/Hereditary Conditions -- 23. Toxicology -- 24. Conformation and Gaits -- 25. Disaster and Emergency Management. NT - Summary: Medicine and Surgery of Camelids is the classic comprehensive reference on llamas, alpacas, vicunas, guanacos, and camels. With information on topics ranging from nutrition and management to infectious diseases and emergency care, this book provides information on the health and maintenance of these species. Updates to the Third Edition include new information on camels; full color throughout; significant revisions to the parentage verification, infectious diseases, anesthesia, restraint, and nutrition sections; and additional information on the alpaca genome. This is an essential resource for practicing veterinarians, zoo veterinarians, and veterinary students."--Provided by publisher.
Keywords: Camelidae -- Diseases.
Camelidae -- Surgery. HL - SOAS Library, University of London ; University of Aberdeen Libraries ; University of Liverpool Libraries ; University of Manchester Libraries ; University of Southampton Libraries ; University of Warwick Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK
URL: http://liv.ac.uk.libanswers.com/a.php?qid=627773
http://man-fe.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/openurl/44MAN/44MAN_services_page?u.ignore_date_coverage=true&rft.mms_id=992975913581101631
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/book/10.1002/9781118785706


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 71
Author: Fagiolini, Mariarita; Lia, Riccardo P.; Laricchiuta, Piero; Cavicchio, Paolo; Mannella, Riccardo; Cafarchia, Claudia; Otranto, Domenico; Finotello, Riccardo; Perrucci, Stefania
Year: 2010
Title: GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN MAMMALS OF TWO ITALIAN ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 41
Issue: 4
Pages: 662-670
Abstract: The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was investigated in mammals housed in two of the main Italian zoological gardens: the Zoo Safari of Fasano (province of Bindisi, Apulia, Italy) and the Giardino Zoologico of Pistoia (Tuscany, Italy). In November 2007, fecal samples were collected at the Zoo Safari of Fasano (n = 96) and at the Giardino Zoologico of Pistoia (n = 60), from primates, carnivores, perissodactyls, artiodactyls and proboscideans. In most of the cases, the same animal species or genera were considered in both the zoos. One or more intestinal parasites were detected in 61.5% of the examined samples. However, very different percentages of protozoa- and helminth-positive samples were obtained in the animals from the two zoos, with an overall gastrointestinal parasitic infection of 77.1% in the Zoo Safari of Fasano and 36.7% in the Giardino Zoologico of Pistoia. Overall, 10% (Cryptosporidium sp.) and 43.3% (Toxocara cati, Strongyloides stercoralis, Toxascaris leonina, and hookworms) of carnivores, 66.7% (Cryptosporidium spp.) and 100% (Trichuris spp. and Strongyloides f&#xfc;lleborni) of primates, 25.0% (Eimeria spp., Cryptosporidium spp.), and 57.1% (Trichuris sp., Toxocara [Neoascaris] vitulorum, gastrointestinal strongyles, and Paramphistomidae) of artiodactyls were infected with protozoa and helminthes parasites, respectively. Only gastrointestinal strongyles were diagnosed in 16.7% of proboscideans and in 50.0% of perissodactyls examined. The results of this study suggest that zoonotic protozoans and gastrointestinal helminths are common in zoo mammals and that these animals may serve as a potential reservoir and transmit these parasites to humans. The different animal management in the two zoos indicates that the regular monitoring of parasitic diseases and the use of selective treatments can represent effective measures for the control of several gastrointestinal infections in zoological gardens.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40962311


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 72
Author: Estrada Cárdenas, Bárbara Esparta; Meyran, Daniel; (1971-....)., Université de Perpignan
Year: 2010
Title: Homme et chien dans Agua quemada de Carlos Fuentes, Hasta no verte Jesús mío d'Elena Poniatowska, El llano en llamas de Juan Rulfo et El día que fuimos perros d'Elena Garro du simil à l'allégorie
City: Lille
University: Atelier national de reproduction des thèses
Label: 758700634 LA - Spanish
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 887
Author: Eo, Kyung-Yeon; Kwak, Dongmi; Shin, Taekyun; Yeo, Yong-Gu; Jung, Kyu-Yong; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Kim, Seungjoon; Kwon, Oh-Deog C1 - Full publication date: March 2010
Year: 2010
Title: SKIN LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH <em>DEMODEX</em> SP. IN A LLAMA <em>(LAMA PERUANA)</em> [corrected title: SKIN LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH <em>DEMODEX</em> SP. IN A LLAMA <em>(LAMA GLAMA)</em>]
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 41
Issue: 1
Pages: 178-180 ST - SKIN LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH <em>DEMODEX</em> SP. IN A LLAMA <em>(LAMA PERUANA)</em> [corrected title: SKIN LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH <em>DEMODEX</em> SP. IN A LLAMA <em>(LAMA GLAMA)</em>]
Label: 39
Abstract: A 2.5-yr-old female llama (Lama peruana) with skin lesions was presented to the Animal Health Center in Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Korea. Mites of the genus Demodex in the absence of other mites or fungi were identified from the lesions by skin scrapings. The bodies were elongated, tapered, and 200-280 um in length; four pairs of stumpy legs were present at the front of the body, and the striated opisthosoma constituted about half of the body length. Histologic examination of the skin biopsy showed typical folliculitis, hyperkeratinization of epidermis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells, consisting mainly of eosinophils and monocytes, in dermis. Although mites were undetected in the dilated hair follicles, the histologic features are consistent with descriptions of infestation by Demodex spp. This is believed to be the first case of skin lesions associated with Demodex sp. in L. peruana. Incidental findings were previously described in a different species of llamas (Lama glama) without any recognized symptoms. Treatment with amitraz (0.025%) eliminated the mites and resolved the clinical signs.
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40665087


Reference Type: Electronic Source
Record Number: 73
Author: Concha-Albornoz, Ismael
Year: 2010
Title: Anatomy of the osseous external acoustic meatus, middle ear and surrounding soft tissue in llamas (Lama glama)
Producer: State Univ.
Last Update Date: 2010///
Label: 935796839 LA - English
Abstract: Anatomy, llama, ear, titis. - Llamas (Lama glama) appear to have predisposing anatomical features for developing otitis media such as a long and narrow external acoustic meatus and a trabecular tympanic bulla. However, there is limited information available about the morphology of the ear in this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osseous structures of external acoustic meatus, tympanic cavity and tympanic bulla using CT, and the soft tissue surrounding the ear using dissections. Ten heads were collected from healthy llamas slaughtered for meat production. Using a CT scanner with slices acquired at 1 mm, measurements of the bony structures of the external and middle ear of each head were obtained. The surrounding soft tissue was examined using dissection, a 6-inch protractor and a digital caliper. The osseous external acoustic meatus was ventrally curved with an obtuse angle facing ventrally. Its narrowest portion was located medially at the level of the tympanic annulus. The conformation of the tympanic bulla was the most different in appearance compared to other domestic animals. It was divided into caudo-lateral and caudo-medial processes, body, apex, and stylohyoid fossa to study its morphometry. The interior of the tympanic bulla had a honeycombed structure with pneumatized cells similar to the human's mastoid process. The nerves, vessels, muscles and tendons had the general distribution of those structures in herbivorous domestic animals. The present study supplied new information about the shape and measurements of the osseous external and middle ear and surrounding soft tissue in adult llamas. This study also supplied specific landmarks of the location of these structures in relationship with each other. Based on our observations and measurements, a new surgical approach to perform a tympanic bulla osteotomy was suggested to treat otitis media in llamas.
Notes: TY - ELEC DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org
URL: https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/15120/concha-albornozismael2010.pdf?sequence=1


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 888
Year: 2010
Title: ERRATUM: SKIN LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH DEMODEX SP. IN A LLAMA (LAMA PERUANA)
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 41
Issue: 3
Pages: 576-576 ST - ERRATUM: SKIN LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH DEMODEX SP. IN A LLAMA (LAMA PERUANA)
Label: 160
Notes: TY - JOUR C1 - Full publication date: September 2010
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40962272


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 75
Author: Zanolari, Patrik; Robert, N; Lyashchenko, KP; Pfyffer, GE; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Meylan, Mireille
Year: 2009
Title: Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti in South American camelids
Journal: Journal of veterinary internal medicine
Volume: 23
Issue: 6
Pages: 1266-1272
Alternate Journal: Journal of veterinary internal medicine


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 76
Author: Van Saun, Robert J
Year: 2009
Title: Nutritional requirements and assessing nutritional status in camelids
Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice
Volume: 25
Issue: 2
Pages: 265-279
Alternate Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 77
Author: Tuco Cano, Eloy.
Year: 2009
Title: Medidas zoométricas de llamas (Lama glama) de unidades de producción familiar campesina en campos naturales de pastoreo T'olar y Pajonal en el municipio Santiago de Machaca - departamento de La Paz
Label: 793863307 LA - Spanish
Abstract: Llamas have provided, and continue to provide, fiber, meat, skins, fertilizer and transport for the Andean people. In addition, they are part of the traditional and religious culture of the Aymara and the Quechua. Both are currently unaware of the productive qualities of llamas, especially those related to meat production, which is the principle product responsible for generating greater income for farmers. For this reason, 554 llamas were evaluated from a total of 3,693 in 2005. The llamas came from T'olar and Pajonal grasslands in the Santiago de Machaca region of La Paz, Bolivia and represented males and females from four age categories (newborn, 1-2 years, juvenile, and adult). They were evaluated with the objective of determining the zoometric measurements of llamas fed on T'olar and Pajonal grasses. Evaluations were categorized according to gender and age group, while also applying descriptive statistics of zoometric measurements of llama anatomy including the head, neck, thorax, and abdomen regions, as well as height, weight, and fur thickness. The Pv measurement for T'olar fed llamas (64.4 kg) was higher than that of the Pajonal fed llamas (59.9 kg). With respect to gender, females (67.1 kg) were larger than males (53.0 kg). Adults were the largest age group (89.7 kg), followed by juveniles (85.9 kg), 1-2 years (58.7 kg) and newborns (34.1 kg). The T'olar llamas achieved better results than the Pajonal llamas. Furthermore, females were superior to males, most likely due to the large number of females as compared to males in the llamas. Zoometric measurements increased with age, generally reaching a statistically significant margin (P<0.01) between age groups. Growth was greatest between the newborn and juvenile groups but it ultimately slowed down afterwards.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 79
Author: Ticona Benique, Eduardo.
Year: 2009
Title: Concentración de metabolitos y comportamiento de peso vivo en llamas (Lama glama) alimentadas con pasto natural y heno de cebada durante la gestación, postpartum y crías en Turco - departamento de Oruro
Label: 793863305 LA - Spanish
Abstract: The llama, a potential socioeconomic resource in the Bolivian highlands, faces serious nutritional deficiencies during the gestational and postpartum stages that negatively affect production. This study was conducted at the Tika Huta Experimental Center in the Llachu community of the Oruro prefecture. Our objectives were to determine metabolite concentration in blood plasma as well as live weight performance of pregnant and postpartum female llamas. Adult and juvenile llamas were fed diets of either plain natural grass or natural grass combined with 0.4 kg of barley hay. In addition, we determined metabolite concentrations in blood plasma and live weight performance of newborns until three months of age. Ten newborn llamas and nine pregnant adult llamas were used. We collected 133 blood plasma samples from mothers and 57 blood plasma samples from newborns. The samples were sent to laboratories at Brigham Young University for analysis. Results showed the following metabolite concentrations in pregnant llamas: 7.23 ± 1.80 g/dl total proteins, 36.31 ± 1.32 mg/dl urea, 84.72 ± 3.58 mg/dl triglycerides, 55.89 ± 2.32 mg/dl cholesterol, and 7.11 ± 1.34 mg/dl creatinine. In newborn llamas, blood plasma metabolite concentrations were as follows: 7.20 ± 1.54 g/dl total proteins, 48.41 ± 1.30 mg/dl urea, 103.25 ± 2.60 mg/dl triglycerides, 89.09 ± 3.30 mg/dl cholesterol, and 2.39 ± 0.33 mg/dl creatinine. The average live weights were 76.82 ± 8.57 kg and 15.95 ± 2.47 kg for mothers and newborns, respectively. Animals fed diets of natural grass and barley hay yielded results with significant differences. It is recommended that llama diets be supplemented with barley hay during the first two months of gestation, the last third of gestation, and postpartum.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Electronic Source
Record Number: 80
Author: Reed, Shannon Kelly
Year: 2009
Title: A molecular and morphologic study of idiopathic fetlock hyperextension and suspensory apparatus breakdown in the llama
Producer: State Univ.
Last Update Date: 2009///
Label: 935797623 LA - English
Abstract: Llama, suspensory, fetlock, collagen, hyperextension . - Suspensory apparatus breakdown and hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal (fetlock) joints is a common condition in the llama and has been observed in llamas of all ages. Llama breeders refer to the condition as "down in the pasterns" or "down in the fetlocks." The condition can result in debilitating lameness, most likely due to mineralization of soft tissues including the tendons and ligaments and/or osteoarthritis of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. Two forms exist, an induced form occurring from abnormal weight bearing such as a severe lameness in a contralateral limb, and an idiopathic form that affects multiple limbs. The idiopathic form is poorly characterized in the llama and has not been reported in the literature prior to the studies performed as part of this thesis. The specific aims of this thesis were to characterize the nature of suspensory apparatus breakdown in the llamas by use of ultrasonographic and radiographic evaluation, histologic evaluation, biochemical assessment of collagen, copper concentrations and lysyl oxidase activity, and molecular techniques to identify specific gene expression alterations and matrix connective tissue changes. The specific hypotheses were: 1) affected llamas would have ultrasonographic and histologic evidence of disruption of fibers in the suspensory ligament 2) affected llamas would have decreased copper concentrations and lysyl oxidase activity 3) affected llamas would have decreased gene expression of collagen type I and lysyl oxidase, and increased gene expression of collagen type III and matrix metalloproteinases as a result of ongoing repair of tendons and ligaments. High serum zinc concentration coupled with low liver copper concentration were found in llamas having metacarpo(tarso)phalangeal hyperextension. However, lysyl oxidase activity was no different between the affected and controls, even though the copper levels were lower in affected animals. In addition, other expected changes on radiographs and ultrasound were not as prevalent as hypothesized. No significant difference was appreciated between affected and control animals in expression levels of collagen types I or III, LOX or MMP-13, although there was a trend towards decreased expression of MMP-13 in affected animals. Mild proteoglycan accumulation was appreciated in the suspensory ligament of two of the six affected animals. No difference in distribution of collagen types I or III was appreciated on histologic section, and elastic fiber appearance was similar between the affected and control animals. This thesis suggests a different etiology to fetlock hyperextension than initially hypothesized.The lack of radiographic, ultrasonographic, histologic, and biochemical differences between affected and control animals supports a nondegenerative etiology for this condition.
Notes: TY - ELEC DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org
URL: https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/8958/Final%20copy%20thesis%20Shannon%20Reed.pdf?sequence=1


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 81
Author: Parisien, Albert DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 2009
Title: Over-expression in Escherichia coli of the ToxA5.1 llama single domain antibody targeting Clostridium difficile enterotoxin A
Label: 1842
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 82
Author: Meyer, Gilles; Lacroux, Caroline; Leger, Sebastien; Top, Sokunthea; Goyeau, Katel; Deplanche, Martine; Lemaire, Mylene
Year: 2009
Title: Lethal bluetongue virus serotype 1 infection in llamas
Journal: Emerging infectious diseases
Volume: 15
Issue: 4
Pages: 608-611
Alternate Journal: Emerging infectious diseases


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 83
Author: Koh, W. W. L. author
Year: 2009
Title: Characterisation of subtype C HIV-I envelope glycoproteins and their recognition by llama antibody fragments
University: University College London (University of London)
Accession Number: Thesis (Ph.D.)
Notes: Subtype C HIV-1 is currently responsible for the majority of new infections in the world, particularly in parts of Africa where the adult prevalence rate is as high as 15%. In the absence of a viable vaccine in the near future, the study of new neutralising antibodies that can inhibit virus entry is urgently needed. To understand the subtype C HIV-1 envelopes, the env gene was cloned directly from 15 patient plasma samples obtained from a few countries in Africa and in the UK, and 18 replication-competent chimeric viruses were created. These envelopes were then characterised and compared with other envelopes in standard reference panels. We then exploited the unique properties of llama heavy-chain antibodies to create antibody fragments (VHH) that can recognise HIV-1 envelopes and prevent infection. Four VHH that recognise a conformation dependent epitope on gp41 were isolated from a llama that was immunised with recombinant gp140 derived from a subtype B\2019/C isolate after panning of the phage libraries on recombinant gp41. These VHH were more potent in neutralising subtype C isolates than subtype B isolates. Based on the success of an earlier study on VHH that recognise an epitope overlapping the CD4 binding site on gp120, a novel strategy was used to isolate variants of the VHH to create a family-specific VHH library. Thirty-one new VHH were characterised and grouped according to their neutralisation breadth against 3 subtype C viruses. The neutralisation breadth of the VHH correlated with its dissociation rate with gp120, and was found to be dependent on 3 amino acid residues in the third complementarity determining region of the VHH. These VHH may have further use in applications such as HIV-1 microbicides development and immunogen design through reverse immunology. Includes bibliographical references. University College, London, degree granting institution.
URL: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/18999/


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 84
Author: Kapil, Sanjay; Yeary, Teresa; Evermann, James F
Year: 2009
Title: Viral diseases of new world camelids
Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice
Volume: 25
Issue: 2
Pages: 323-337
Alternate Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 890
Author: Hart, Henry C1 - Full publication date: Winter, 2009/2010
Year: 2009
Title: Riding the SPCA's Llama in the Christmas Parade
Journal: Ploughshares
Volume: 35
Issue: 4
Pages: 74-75 ST - Riding the SPCA's Llama in the Christmas Parade
Label: 154
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40354575


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 891
Author: Forsman, A. M. M. author CN - 616.079 23 British Library DSC DRT 564646 Available for immediate download
Year: 2009
Title: Characterisation of llama antibody fragments able to act as HIV-1 entry inhibitors
University: University College London (University of London)
Thesis Type: Thesis (Ph.D.)
Label: 191
Notes: TY - THES
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into cells is mediated by the functional envelope spike, which consists of trimers of gp120 bound to gp41. Most variants of HIV-1 enter cells through attachment of the envelope spike to the main cellular receptor CD4, allowing interaction with a co-receptor and eventually fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Neutralising antibodies inhibit HIV-1 entry by targeting epitopes on the functional spike. HIV-1 has, however, evolved several ways to evade recognition by antibodies, including variable regions, carbohydrates, and conformational masking. As a result, the neutralising antibody response in HIV-1 infection and post-immunisation is generally narrow, and only a handful of broadly neutralising monoclonal antibodies have been reported. In this thesis, the isolation and characterisation of novel, broadly neutralising antibody fragments derived from llamas is described. Llamas produce antibodies devoid of light chains, which have their antigen-binding properties confined to a single fragment, the VHH, and a preference for cleftrecognition. VHH were isolated from llamas immunised with recombinant gp120 using phage display-based methods. In order increase the chances of isolating neutralising VHH, a functional selection strategy was employed, involving a competitive elution with soluble CD4. Three VHH able to neutralise HIV-1 primary isolates of subtype B and C were characterised. These VHH bound to gp120 with high affinities and competed with soluble CD4 and antibodies to the CD4-binding site for this binding, indicating that their mechanism of neutralisation involves interacting with the functional envelope spike prior to binding to CD4. These results indicate that llama VHH can be potent HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Since VHH are stable and can be produced at a relatively low cost, they may be considered for HIV-1 microbicide development. Anti-gp120 VHH might also prove useful in defining neutralising and non-neutralising epitopes on HIV-1 envelope proteins, with implications for HIV-1 vaccine design. Includes bibliographical references. University College, London, degree granting institution.
URL: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/17426/


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 87
Author: Flannery, Kent V. [Main author]; Marcus, Joyce.; Reynolds, Robert G.; ebrary, Inc.
Year: 2009
Title: The flocks of the Wamani : a study of llama herders on the punas of Ayacucho, Peru
City: Walnut Creek, Calif
Publisher: Left Coast Press
Number of Pages: xii, 239 p. : ill., maps. LA - English
ISBN: 9781598744606
1598744607
9780122598364
9781598747720 (e-book)
Stock no.: EBrary Academic: History and Political Science NT - This is a multi-user e-book. You may download a chapter or page range (subject to the same limits as for printing) as a permanent PDF image file for use on a computer or e-book reading device (including a Kindle). For most multi-user ebrary e-books you may download the entire e-book for 14 days to most types of e-reader, including iPad but not Kindle, via Adobe Digital Editions. See our HELP pages for full details, including publishers that do not permit this feature. NT - Includes bibliographical references and index. NT - Electronic resource Palo Alto, Calif. : ebrary, 2013.
Keywords: Wamani Indians -- Domestic animals.
Llamas -- Peru -- Ayacucho (Dept.)
Indians of South America -- Domestic animals -- Peru -- Ayacucho (Dept.)
Indians of South America -- Peru -- Ayacucho (Dept.) -- Antiquities.
Ayacucho (Peru : Dept.) -- Antiquities.
Peru -- Antiquities. HL - Queen's University Belfast ; SOAS Library, University of London ; University of Aberdeen Libraries ; University of Liverpool Libraries ; University of Southampton Libraries ; University of York Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK
URL: http://liv.ac.uk.libanswers.com/a.php?qid=627773


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 88
Author: Castillo Marti\nez, Paloma; More, Thomas Sir Saint Works Selections Spanish
Year: 2009
Title: El camino espiritual de Toma\0301s Moro
City: Madrid
Publisher: San Pablo
ISBN: 9788428534475 (pbk.) 8428534470
Accession Number: 198
Keywords: Christian martyrs England Biography.
Humanists England Biography.
Statesmen England Biography.
Great Britain History Henry VIII, 1509-1547 Biography.
Notes: Toma\0301s Moro
Paloma Castillo. Llama viva ; 7 Includes bibliographical references.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 893
Author: Anderson, David E.; Whitehead, Claire E. CN - British Library DSC 9227.017900 v.25:pt.2
Year: 2009
Title: Alpaca and llama health management
City: Philadelphia, Pa.
Publisher: W. B. Saunders Co.
ISBN: 9781437712834 1437712835 ST - Alpaca and llama health management
Label: 201
Keywords: Alpaca Health Handbooks, manuals, etc. Llamas Health Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - (OCoLC)317917880
guest editors, David E. Anderson, Claire E. Whitehead. Veterinary clinics of North America. Food animal practice ; v. 25, no. 2 "July 2009." Includes bibliographical references and index.
URL: BLDSS http://www.elsevier.com/journals 1850-9999


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 90
Author: Van Saun, RJ
Year: 2008
Title: Effect of nutrition on reproduction in llamas and alpacas
Journal: Theriogenology
Volume: 70
Issue: 3
Pages: 508-514
Alternate Journal: Theriogenology


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 91
Author: United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe. Working Party on Agricultural Quality Standards.
Year: 2008
Title: Llama / alpaca meat : carcases and cuts : UNECE standard.
City: New York
Publisher: United Nations
Number of Pages: vi, 36 p. : col. ill. ; 30 cm. LA - English
Edition: 2006 ed.
ISBN: 9789211169553 (pbk.) NT - "Sales No. E.07.II.E.3" NT - "ECE/TRADE/368."
Keywords: Meat industry and trade -- Standards.
Meat cutting -- Standards.
Meat -- Packaging -- Standards. HL - University of Cambridge Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 92
Author: Tan, R. H.; Dascanio, J. J.
Year: 2008
Title: Infertility associated with persistent hymen in an alpaca and a llama
Journal: Can Vet J
Volume: 49
Issue: 11
Pages: 1113-7
Accession Number: 19183735
Abstract: Perforation and dilation of the persistent hymen in an alpaca and a llama, detected by vaginal examination and endoscopy, was achieved by use of a sigmoidoscope and incremental dilation using cylindrical instruments to a maximum diameter of 38 mm. Outcome and subsequent fertility are dependent on length of time the obstruction has been present and secondary uterine disease.
Notes: Tan, Rachel H.H.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 94
Author: Maceda Tintaya, Edwin Eddy DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - Spanish
Year: 2008
Title: Efecto de tres dilutores sobre la motilidad y vitalidad espermática en la crioconservación del eyaculado de llama (Lama glama) bulbouretrectomizado, departamento de La Paz
Label: 1740
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different diluents used during the cryopreservation process on the motility and vitality of sperm cells. The three diluters used in this study were: A) trice-serum-egg yolk-glycerin, B) serum-egg yolk-glycerin, and C) Dulbecco's serum-egg-yolk- glycerin. Diluters were tested in proportions of 64-15-15-6% (N1), 54-20-20-6% (N2), and 44-35-15-6% (N3). Llama semen was collected at the Mejoramiento Genético y Diagnóstico Clínico Del Servicio Agropecuario (SEDAG) in the Los Andes Province of the Department of La Paz. The procedure took place at the Unidad Académica Campesina de Tiahuanaco by a direct optimized bulbourethral collection method with an artificial vagina.
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 95
Author: Lopez Lopez, Lino Constancio.
Year: 2008
Title: Hair, feces and breath isotope fractionation in alpacas (llama pacos), llamas (llama glama) and guanacos (llama guanacoe) from Bolivia and Chile
Label: 367884598 LA - English
Abstract: This study was conducted to determinate carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation in Bolivian and Chilean alpaca, llama and guanaco, hair, breath, plasma and feces. We also wanted to determine forage selection for these camelids using stable isotope technology. From the data, niche feeding and diet selection habits will determinate based on fecal composition. Bolivian sites were located near the high snow Altiplano Mountains at Tomarapi, Sajama, and at the Technical University Oruro's research center at Condoriri, Bolivia. Chilean samples were collected at INIA's (Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria) Kampenaike Research Station, Punta Arenas, Chile. Bolivian alpacas and llamas were 3 to 5 years of age from producer herds and the Oruro University's camelid herd. Chilean animals were selected from INIA- Kampenaike's camelid herd. The alpacas, llamas and guanacos were selected based on heath status: no conformation defects, illness, genetic abnormalities or apparent nutrition problems. Samples were taken of fiber, feces, and blood from alpacas, llamas, and guanacos. Forage samples from pastures and grazing areas were taken. Forage species that were collected came from the asteraceae, berberidaceae, gramineae, caryophyllaceae, leguminoseae, plantaginaceae, gentianiaceae and the chenopodaceae families and ranged from -15.5% to -33.9%?13C and -3.0% to 6.4%?15N. Isotope values for feces and fiber were similar for the two Bolivian sites, but the Chilean values were significantly more depleted. This was attributed to the forage isotopic values being significantly more depleted than those found in Bolivia. Forage selection, based on fecal and forage isotopic signatures supported the observation that alpacas, llamas and guanacos eat different forages. This is dependent on forage source and time of year (dry versus wet season). Stable isotope technology will be a useful tool in determining forage selection and species competition or interactions in South American Camelids.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 96
Author: Calhoun, Ward
Year: 2008
Title: The Llama sutra : getting wild in the wild kingdom
City: London
Publisher: Michael O' Mara Books
ISBN: 9781843173151 : ¹6.99
Accession Number: 4
Keywords: Sexual behavior in animals Humor.
Notes: GBA909374 bnb Ward Calhoun.


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 896
Author: Barreto, Reina C1 - Full publication date: Invierno 2008
Year: 2008
Title: Blurred Boundaries: Julieta Campos's Theory and Practice in "Tiene los cabellos rojizos y se llama Sabina"
Journal: Letras Femeninas
Volume: 34
Issue: 2
Pages: 31-44 ST - Blurred Boundaries: Julieta Campos's Theory and Practice in "Tiene los cabellos rojizos y se llama Sabina"
Label: 130
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23021924


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 98
Author: Ali Quisbert, Edwin Eddy DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - Spanish
Year: 2008
Title: Efecto de la privación de alimentos en el perfil metabólico de llamas (Lama glama) en la estación experimental de Letanias - Viacha
Label: 1753
Abstract: In the highlands, where regular agriculture and livestock are not viable, raising camelids is the only means of subsistence for rural families. While grazing during the dry season in the high Andean region, llamas face serious nutritional deficiencies due to limited forage availability. This study was done at the experimental station of the Benson Agriculture and Food Institute located in the community of Letanias which is in the municipality of Viacha. The objective was to determine the effect of food deprivation on the metabolic profile of blood plasma (concentration of urea-nitrogen, total protein, albumin, and creatinine) as well as the concentration of nitrogen in feces and urine of four and five year old llamas. These llamas were fed on a diet of 80% barley hay and 20% alfalfa hay during two periods of study (before and after food deprivation). Eight male Q'ara llamas were cannulated with a one meter tube in the jugular vein for blood sampling and trained to stay in metabolic cages. The study took place over a period of seven weeks, in which there was a four week period where food was reduced to 30%. The statistical analysis used was the paired t test. The results obtained were: urea-nitrogen concentration = 23.31 ± 8.73 mg/dl, total protein = 9.15 ± 1.50 mg/dl, albumin = 4.47 ± 0.41 mg/dl, and creatinine = 2.39 ± 0.49 mg/dl. The results for nitrogen concentration (%) in feces and urine were 1.61 ± 0.09 and 0.82 ± 0.15 respectively. The average weight loss for the animals was 13.25 kg. According to the results obtained in this study, the concentration of metabolites in blood plasma is within the range reported in other investigations. Statistical analysis indicates no significant differences (p<0.05) in the study periods before and after food deprivation for urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, and nitrogen in the feces. In contrast, there was a significant difference (p<0.01) in plasma creatinine, nitrogen in the urine, and animal body weight.
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Electronic Source
Record Number: 100
Year: 2008
Title: Biological Characterization of Ovulation-Inducing Factor (OIF) in Llama Seminal Plasma.
Producer: University of Saskatchewan
Last Update Date: 2008///
Label: 654967004 LA - English.
Abstract: The purpose of the studies reported in this thesis was to provide a better understanding of the effects of purified ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) from llama seminal plasma in reflex ovulators (lama glama) and spontaneous ovulators (Bos taurus). The objective of the first study was to determine if the dose of OIF of llama seminal plasma required to elicit ovulation is physiologically relevant, and to test the hypothesis that CL form and function is affected by OIF in a dose-dependent manner. Llamas were treated with four different doses (500 £gg, 250 £gg, 125 £gg and 60 £gg) based on knowledge that for every ejaculate there is approximately 3 mg of OIF. Results supported the hypothesis that OIF affects ovulation and CL form and function in a dose-dependent manner. The high dose of OIF (500 Ýg) was associated with the highest incidence of ovulation, maximum CL diameter, plasma progesterone concentrations and plasma LH concentrations. The low dose of OIF (60 Ýg) was minimally effective for induction of ovulation and associated with smaller CL diameter and lower plasma concentrations of progesterone and LH. The second study was carried out to test the hypotheses that OIF will induce ovulation and affects CL form and function in cattle (Experiment 1), and that OIF given at different stages of development of the first follicular wave will induce atresia of the dominant follicle and hasten emergence of a new follicular wave (Experiment 2). Heifers were treated on Day 5 (Day 0 = wave emergence; Experiment 1) or on Days 3, 6 and 9 (Experiment 2) with a) 1ml of saline, b) 100 £gg of GnRH, or c) 1.0 mg purified OIF per 100 kg of body weight. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that OIF did not induce ovulation in cattle but it did induce atresia of the dominant follicle and earlier emergence of a new follicular wave. Results from the second study suggested that the effect previously demonstrated could be accomplished in sexually mature females after treatment on Day 6 corre.
Notes: TY - ELEC DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org
URL: http://library.usask.ca/theses/available/etd-06262008-162932/


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 101
Author: Stewart, Christine S.
Year: 2007
Title: Selection and characterization of alpha-cobrotoxin specific llama single-domain antibodies
City: Ottawa DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
University: Library and Archives Canada = Bibliothèque et Archives Canada
Label: 1832
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 897
Author: Sherwood, Laura J.; Osborn, Lisa E.; Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L.; Hayhurst, Andrew C1 - Full publication date: Nov. 15, 2007
Year: 2007
Title: Rapid Assembly of Sensitive Antigen-Capture Assays for Marburg Virus, Using in vitro Selection of Llama Single-Domain Antibodies, at Biosafety Level 4
Journal: The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume: 196
Pages: S213-S219 ST - Rapid Assembly of Sensitive Antigen-Capture Assays for Marburg Virus, Using in vitro Selection of Llama Single-Domain Antibodies, at Biosafety Level 4
Label: 143
Abstract: There is a pressing need for rapid and reliable approaches to the delivery of sensitive yet rugged diagnostic assays specific for emerging viruses, to hasten containment of outbreaks when and wherever they occur. Within 3 weeks, we delivered an antigen-capture assay for Marburg virus (MARV) that was based on llama singledomain antibodies (sdAbs) selected at biosafety level 4. Four unique sdAbs were capable of independently detecting MARV variants Musoke, Ravn, and Angola without cross-reactivity with the 4 Ebola virus species. The unoptimized assays could be performed in <30 min and, at best, provided a visual read of 10-100 pfu in a 100-&#x3bc;L sample when a colorimetric substrate was used and 0.1-1 pfu when a chemiluminescent substrate was used. All the sdAbs were specific for nucleoprotein, with an assay sensitivity that was reliant on detergentmediated exposure of polyvalent antigen. Our strategy highlights the potential of direct antibody selection on filoviruses as a guide for effective and fast diagnostic development.
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30086758


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 103
Author: Sánchez, Daisy
Year: 2007
Title: La que te llama vida : Inés M. Mendoza Rivera, su vida interior en sus diarios y cartas
City: San Juan, Puerto Rico
Publisher: Grupo Editorial Norma
ISBN: 9789580499763 (pbk.) 9580499764 (pbk.)
Accession Number: 205
Keywords: Governors' spouses Puerto Rico Biography.
Notes: Inés M. Mendoza Rivera, su vida interior en sus diarios y cartas
Daisy Sánchez. Includes bibliographical references (p. 225-253).


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 105
Author: Mantero, Manuel. [Main author]
Year: 2007
Title: Poesía : como llama en el diamante (1954-2004) SE - Obras completas 1
City: Sevilla
Publisher: R D Editores
Number of Pages: 1044 p. : 1 port. ; 25 cm. LA - English
ISBN: 9788496672505 (complete works)
9788496672444 (v. 1) NT - "Obras de Manuel Mantero": p. 1011-1023. NT - Bibliographical references: p. 42. NT - Contents: Mínimas del ciprés y los labios -- Tiempo del hombre -- La lámpara común -- Misa solemne -- Poemas exclusivos -- Ya quiere amanecer -- Memorias de Deucalión -- Fiesta -- Primavera del ser -- Equipaje. HL - University of St Andrews Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 106
Author: Lyashchenko, KP; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Meylan, M; Burri, I Hengrave; Zanolari, P
Year: 2007
Title: Antibody responses in New World camelids with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti
Journal: Veterinary microbiology
Volume: 125
Issue: 3
Pages: 265-273
Alternate Journal: Veterinary microbiology


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 107
Author: Lewis, William John Kenneth.
Year: 2007
Title: Novel llama antibody fusion proteins as deposition aids for particles containing encapsulated actives for use in industrial applications
Label: 926285834 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 108
Author: Foster, AP; Houlihan, MG; Holmes, JP; Watt, EJ; Higgins, RJ; Errington, J; Ibata, G; Wakeley, PR
Year: 2007
Title: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection of alpacas (Vicugnapacos) in the UK.
Journal: Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association
Volume: 161
Issue: 3
Alternate Journal: Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 109
Author: Byers, Stacey R; Parish, Steven M; Holmes, Shannon P; Donahoe, Shannon L; Barrington, George M
Year: 2007
Title: A fungal granuloma of the frontal sinus in a llama
Journal: The Canadian Veterinary Journal
Volume: 48
Issue: 9
Pages: 939-941
Date: 2007/09/
Abstract: A 12-year-old, castrated male llama (Lama glama) presented with a 12-cm diameter cranial mass. Computed tomography and postmortem examination revealed that the mass invaded the calvarium and compressed the rostral part of the brain. Light microscopic examination confirmed a fungal granuloma.
Notes: TY - JOUR DB - PMC
U1 - cvj48pg939[PII] AN - PMC1950119
U1 - 17966336[pmid] J1 - Can Vet J
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1950119/


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 900
Author: Borkowski, Rose; Moore, Phillip A.; Mumford, Sonia; Carastro, Susan C1 - Full publication date: Sep., 2007
Year: 2007
Title: Adaptations of Subpalpebral Lavage Systems Used for Llamas (Lama glama) and a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 38
Issue: 3
Pages: 453-459 ST - Adaptations of Subpalpebral Lavage Systems Used for Llamas (Lama glama) and a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)
Label: 75
Abstract: Subpalpebral lavage systems (SPLSs) were adapted for use in zoo llamas (Lama glama) and a wild harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) during therapy for severe ulcerative keratitis or corneal perforation. One llama presented with a melting corneal ulcer caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which necessitated frequent application of a topical ophthalmic antibiotic. The lavage system was used routinely during the day and was connected to a balloon infusion system at night to allow for continuous medication administration. The ulcer healed soon after therapy was extended to include overnight treatment with the infusion system. A SPLS system was also combined with a balloon infusor during postoperative treatment of a second llama that had sustained a corneal perforation. Both llamas tolerated the infusor/lavage systems well and regained vision. One llama had minor conjunctival irritation from the SPLS that resolved quickly without treatment. Bilateral SPLS were placed in a wild harbor seal for treatment of severe ulcerative keratitis associated with Candida albicans infection. The seal tolerated the lavage systems well throughout 14 wk of their use in an aquatic environment with other seals. Partial detachment of the lavage systems from the skin of the seal occurred a few times during treatment and was easily corrected. Severe keratitis resolved with administration of antimicrobials through the lavage systems, and the seal was returned to the wild. The use of SPLSs alone or in combination with balloon infusion systems warrants consideration for exotic, wild, and aquatic animals that cannot tolerate repetitive manual applications of topical ophthalmic medication.
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20460385


Reference Type: Book Section
Record Number: 901
Author: Wheeler, Jane C.; Chikhi, Loun; xc; Bruford, Michael W.
Year: 2006
Title: Genetic Analysis of the Origins of Domestic South American Camelids
Editor: Bradley, Daniel G.; Emshwiller, E. V. E.; Smith, Bruce D.
Book Title: Documenting Domestication
Publisher: University of California Press
Pages: 329-341 ST - Genetic Analysis of the Origins of Domestic South American Camelids
Series Editor: Zeder, Melinda A.
Series Title: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms
Edition: 1
Label: 44
Abstract: <p>Ancestors of the family Camelidae originated in North America during the Eocene, 40&#x2013;45 MYA, with the division between Lamini and Camelini (the tribes of New and Old World camelids, respectively) dating to 11 MYA (Webb 1974; Harrison 1979). Their subsequent migration to South America and Asia occurred 3 MYA (Webb 1974), with representatives of the extant New World genera<em>Lama</em>and<em>Vicugna</em>appearing 2 MYA (Hoffstetter 1986) in South America.</p><p>Two branches of the Lamini evolved from the ancestral North American<em>Pliauchenia</em>(11&#x2013;9 MYA). The first exclusively North American branch contains<em>Alforjas</em>(10&#x2013;4.5 MYA) and<em>Camelops</em>(4.5&#x2013;</p>
Notes: TY - CHAP
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1pnvs1.28


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 111
Author: Van Saun, Robert J
Year: 2006
Title: Nutrient requirements of South American camelids: A factorial approach
Journal: Small Ruminant Research
Volume: 61
Issue: 2
Pages: 165-186
Alternate Journal: Small Ruminant Research


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 113
Author: Ugarte Huanca, Edwin Gonzalo.
Year: 2006
Title: Valor energético en llamas (Lama glama) alimentadas con heno de alfalfa (Medicago sativa) y cebada (Hordeum vulgare) por digestibilidad aparente in vivo en el Banco Nacional de Germoplasma Camélidos - C.E.A.C
Label: 793863309 LA - Spanish
Abstract: In this experiment, we used four male llamas that were three to four years of age from the Khara race. They were divided into two ad libitum feeding groups. The digestible energy (ED) was determined using samples that were sent to the laboratory. These samples were derived from a conventional in vivo assay using the method of total fecal collection in order to determine the difference between energy consumed and energy excreted. Metabolizable energy was calculated by deducting digestible energy, energy loss in the urine and energy loss in the gases (methane). Urinary energy was determined through the measurement of nitrogen in the urine as urea. Other studies have reported the energy values of alfalfa hay and barley as 414.05 Kcal/100g and 405.11 Kcal/100g, respectively. Additionally, alfalfa hay and barley have been recorded as having gross energy values of 6,973.92 Kcal/day and 4,373.65 Kcal/day, respectively. In this study, the energies excreted in the feces were 2,365.42 Kcal/day for alfalfa and 1,643.26 Kcal/day for barley. In order to determine the value of metabolizable energy, it is first necessary to obtain the urinary energy values (EU) by measuring the amount of nitrogen excretion as well as the energy of the gases (methane). Then, by deducting the energy calculated from the digestible energy, metabolizable energy may be estimated. The nitrogen content in urinary excretions from the llamas tested was highly variable from one treatment to another. With barley, the observed content was 0.59 g/day whereas with alfalfa hay it was 7.36 g/day. According to the data obtained for nitrogen content in urinary excretions, the amount of urea excreted each day was also obtained. It was also found to be variable from one food to another. Values of urea excretion for alfalfa and barley were 15.76 and 1.27 grams of urea/day respectively. By multiplying the daily amount of urea excreted by its caloric value (2.528 Kcal/g), the energy lost in the urine was determined to be 38.84 Kcal/day for alfalfa and 3.23 Kcal/day for barley. It was not possible to determine the energy of the gases. Instead, we used data obtained from llamas fed with forage (Engelhardt and Schneider, 1977). The data established that the energy loss as methane gas is approximately 7.1% of the gross energy. With this value as a reference for llamas, the energy losses as methane gas in this study were 495.08 Kcal/Kg/MS for alfalfa hay and 310.53 Kcal/Kg/MS for barley. By definition, the metabolic energy (EM) is the amount of energy from food that is calculated by determining the difference between the digestible energy (ED) and the energy lost in urine (EU) and gases (EG) according to the following equation (NRC, 1981): EM = ED - (EU + EG). Based on the equation, the metabolizable energy of alfalfa hay and barley are as follows: EB = 4140.49 Kcal/Kg/MS and EM = 2408.43 Kcal/Kg/MS for alfalfa compared to EB = 4051.20 Kcal/Kg/MS and EM = 2061.32 Kcal/Kg/MS for barley.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 114
Author: Tibary, A; Fite, C; Anouassi, A; Sghiri, A
Year: 2006
Title: Infectious causes of reproductive loss in camelids
Journal: Theriogenology
Volume: 66
Issue: 3
Pages: 633-647
Alternate Journal: Theriogenology


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 115
Author: Riek, Alexander
Year: 2006
Title: Investigations on milk composition, milk intake and body weight development in the Llama (Lama glama)
City: Göttingen DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
University: Cuvillier
Label: 1710
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 116
Author: Ratto, Marcelo Hector
Year: 2006
Title: Ovarian follicular synchronization, ovulation and oocyte development in llamas and alpacas
City: Ottawa DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
University: Library and Archives Canada = Bibliothèque et Archives Canada
Label: 1788
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 117
Author: Pant, Neha; Hultberg, Anna; Yaofeng, Zhao; Svensson, Lennart; Pan, Hammarstr; xf; m, Qiang; Johansen, Kari; Pouwels, Peter H.; Ruggeri, Franco M.; Hermans, Pim; Frenken, Leon; Bor; xe; n, Thomas; Marcotte, Harold; Hammarstr; m, Lennart C. Full publication date Dec
Year: 2006
Title: Lactobacilli Expressing Variable Domain of Llama Heavy-Chain Antibody Fragments (Lactobodies) Confer Protection against Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea
Journal: The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Volume: 194
Issue: 11
Pages: 1580-1588
Accession Number: 135
Abstract: Background. Rotavirus-induced diarrhea poses a worldwide medical problem in causing substantial morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. We therefore developed a system for passive immunotherapy in which recombinant lactobacilli constitutively express neutralizing variable domain of llama heavy-chain (VHH) antibody fragments against rotavirus. Methods. VHH were expressed in Lactobacillus paracasei, in both secreted and cell surface-anchored forms. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the binding efficacy of VHH-expressing lactobacilli. To investigate the in vivo function of VHH-expressing lactobacilli, a mouse pup model of rotavirus infection was used. Results. Efficient binding of the VHH antibody fragments to rotavirus was shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and scanning electron microscopy. VHH fragments expressed by lactobacilli conferred a significant reduction in infection in cell cultures. When administered orally, lactobacilli-producing surface-expressed VHH markedly shortened disease duration, severity, and viral load in a mouse model of rotavirus-induced diarrhea when administered both fresh and in a freeze-dried form. Conclusions. Transformed lactobacilli may form the basis of a novel form of prophylactic treatment against rotavirus infections and other diarrheal diseases.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30087532


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 118
Author: Middleton, J. R.; Chigerwe, M.; Fine, D. M.; Turk, J. R.; Lattimer, J. C.
Year: 2006
Title: Pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure in an adult llama with hepatic disease
10.2460/javma.228.5.756
Journal: J Am Vet Med Assoc
Volume: 228
Issue: 5
Pages: 756-9
Date: Mar
Accession Number: 16506943
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Diagnosis, Differential Electrocardiography Fatal Outcome Female Heart Failure Hypertension, Pulmonary Liver Diseases
Abstract: A 13-year-old llama was examined because of lethargy, inappetence, and syncope.|Physical examination revealed muffled heart and lung sounds and peripheral edema. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included lymphopenia, hyperglycemia, prerenal azotemia, mild hyponatremia, mild hypoalbuminemia, and high gamma-glutamyltransferase and creatine kinase activities. On ultrasonography, the liver appeared hyperechoic and ascites and pleural effusion were seen. Echocardiography revealed severe dilatation of the right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary artery; severe tricuspid regurgitation; and high right ventricular systolic pressure consistent with right-sided heart failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension.|Treatment with furosemide was attempted, but because of failing health, the llama was euthanized 4 weeks later. Macronodular cirrhosis of the liver, glomerulonephritis, and intimal fibrosis and medial hypertrophy of muscular pulmonary arteries were seen on histologic examination of postmortem specimens.|Findings in this case were similar to those reported for human patients with portopulmonary hypertension secondary to hepatic cirrhosis. Pulmonary hypertension secondary to hepatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right-sided heart failure.
Notes: eng
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16506943


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 119
Author: Haurie Ibarra, Laia; Fernández Renna, Ana Inés; Velasco Perero, José Ignacio; Universitat de, Barcelona; Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria, Metal·lúrgica
Year: 2006
Title: Estudio de la hidromagnesita sintética como retardante de llama en EVA y mezclas LDPE/EVA
Accession Number: 803445190


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 121
Author: Fernández Iglesias, Daniel; Guilemany, J. M.; Universitat de, Barcelona; Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria, Metal·lúrgica DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - Text en castellà, articles en anglès.
Year: 2006
Title: Caracterización de recubrimientos poliméricos y compuestos obtenidos mediante proyección térmica de llama
Label: 1730
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 122
Author: D Alterio, GL; Knowles, TG; Eknaes, EI; Loevland, IE; Foster, AP
Year: 2006
Title: Postal survey of the population of South American camelids in the United Kingdom in 2000/01
Journal: Veterinary record
Volume: 158
Issue: 3
Pages: 86
Alternate Journal: Veterinary record


Reference Type: Book Section
Record Number: 123
Author: Bradley, Daniel G.; Emshwiller, E. V. E.; Smith, Bruce D.; Wheeler, Jane C.; Chikhi, Loun; xc; Bruford, Michael W.
Year: 2006
Title: Genetic Analysis of the Origins of Domestic South American Camelids
Editor: Zeder, Melinda A.
Book Title: Documenting Domestication
Publisher: University of California Press
Pages: 329-341
Series Title: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms
Accession Number: 44
Abstract: <p>Ancestors of the family Camelidae originated in North America during the Eocene, 40&#x2013;45 MYA, with the division between Lamini and Camelini (the tribes of New and Old World camelids, respectively) dating to 11 MYA (Webb 1974; Harrison 1979). Their subsequent migration to South America and Asia occurred 3 MYA (Webb 1974), with representatives of the extant New World genera<em>Lama</em>and<em>Vicugna</em>appearing 2 MYA (Hoffstetter 1986) in South America.</p><p>Two branches of the Lamini evolved from the ancestral North American<em>Pliauchenia</em>(11&#x2013;9 MYA). The first exclusively North American branch contains<em>Alforjas</em>(10&#x2013;4.5 MYA) and<em>Camelops</em>(4.5&#x2013;</p>
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1pnvs1.28


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 124
Author: Bolland, Jamie; Streich, Inga
Year: 2006
Title: My llama for a dromedary
City: Glasgow
Publisher: G.F.M. Productions
ISBN: 9780955441202 (pbk.) : No price 095544120X (pbk.) : No price
Accession Number: 207
Keywords: Experimental fiction.
Notes: GBB015299 bnb text, Jamie Bolland ; images, Inga Streich. Includes index.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 125
Author: Ajata Avircata, Meliton DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - Spanish
Year: 2006
Title: Perfil metabólico y balance de nitrógeno en llamas (Lama glama) alimentadas con jipi de quinua y heno de cebada, municipio de Viacha - departamento de La Paz
Label: 1741
Abstract: This research was completed in Letanías, Viacha, La Paz, Bolivia, to determine the metabolic profile in blood plasma (total protein, glucose, urea, albumin, total lipids, creatinine, triglycerides, and cholesterol concentrations), live weight gain, and Nitrogen balance in adult llamas fed with 4 rations of barley and quinoa residue. Eight adult (4-5 year old) Q'ara type llamas were used in this study. Study llamas were trained to stay in metabolic cages with feces collection harnesses. Llamas were given one of the following feed rations: ration A (20% quinoa residue, 80% barley), ration B (40% quinoa residue, 60% barley), ration C (60% quinoa residue, 40% barley), and ration D (80% quinoa residue 20% barley). The results were protein concentration 7.44±0.39 g/dl; albumin 4.66±0.80 mg/dl; urea 13.87±3.70 mg/dl; creatinine 1.65±0.19 mg/dl; glucose 127.67±50.32 mg/dl; total lipids 318.2±144.14 mg/dl; triglycerides 39.35±13.49 mg/dl; cholesterol 53.85±13.53 mg/dl. Live weight gain was -0.0094±1.44 kg. Nitrogen balance was 0.610±0.0868 g/kg. According to the results of this research, metabolites in blood plasma are higher when compared to other research. Gain in body weight was negative in rations A and D and positive in rations B and C. This is attributed to a better equilibrium among energy levels and protein in these last rations. The nitrogen balance was positive for all four rations due to an adequate source of protein in the feed.
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 127
Author: Zachary, V. Anderson C. Full publication date Aug
Year: 2005
Title: Winter Grazing at 13,000 Feet: Improving Forages for Subsistence Agriculture in the Bolivian Altiplano
Journal: Rangelands
Volume: 27
Issue: 4
Pages: 15-17
Accession Number: 372
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4002118


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 128
Author: Whitehead, Claire Elizabeth
Year: 2005
Title: The effect of maternal supplementation of vitamin D on transplacental and transmammary transfer to neonatal llamas and alpacas
Label: 63518513 LA - English
Abstract: Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency is common among llamas and alpacas residing at low altitude and non-equatorial latitudes. In young animals (crias) this is characterized by rickets and results in stunted growth, angular limb deformities and lameness. Llamas and alpacas have two sources of vitamin D - dietary and by exposure to ultraviolet light when vitamin D is formed in the skin. Vitamin D may be transferred to crias by transplacental or transmammary routes. We believe that supplementation of vitamin D in dams and crias is key to prevention of rickets. We hypothesize that serum vitamin D concentration in dams affects vitamin D concentration in crias at birth and throughout lactation and that supplementation of dams can improve the vitamin D status of their crias. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of supplementation of injectable and dietary vitamin D on serum vitamin D concentrations in dams and their crias. The study was carried out in summer and winter periods. Sixteen adult female alpacas and llamas and their crias were used in the summer period: seventeen females and their crias were used in the winter period. Eight summer and 7 winter females received 2000 IU/kg BW of vitamin D subcutaneously 23 to 99 days pre-partum. In the winter study, 5 females were fed a supplement containing 22,000 IU/kg of vitamin D<sub>3</sub> for 7-10 days prior to parturition and throughout the period of study. Eight females in the summer and 5 females in the winter acted as controls. Females and crias had serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) concentrations measured on the day of parturition, and one, four, eight, and sixteen weeks later. There was excellent correlation (r=0.906 and r=0.859 in summer and winter, respectively) between 25(OH)D concentrations in dams and their crias on day of parturition. However, correlation decreased markedly by four weeks post-partum. 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly higher in summer than in winter (p=0.0001) and cria 25(OH)D concentrations were lower than those of their dams at all times p<0.0001). There was a significant effect of increasing vitamin D status of injected groups compared to control groups (p=0.0469) over the first month of the crias' lives. However, this effect was mainly due to the effect of supplementation on dam 25(OH)D concentration and did not significantly increase the vitamin D status of their crias. There was no difference between diet and control groups. Summer crias born to injected dams had higher 25(OH)D concentrations (mean 96.8 ± SD 18.9 nmol/L) compared with crias born to control dams (mean 39.5 ± 18.9 nmol/L) which was significant on the day of parturition (p<0.0001) but not significant over the first month of life. Winter crias born to injected dams had higher 25(OH)D concentrations (mean 95.4 ± 66.2 nmol/L) than diet or control group crias (mean 63.4 ± 25.7 nmol/L and 38.4 ± 13.0 nmol/L, respectively) although this was not significant.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 129
Author: Uhrig, Samantha Rayroux DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 2005
Title: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of morphine in llamas
Label: 1772
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 130
Author: Smith, Andrea Meador.
Year: 2005
Title: Do you hear what Rulfo hears? : the function of sound in El llano en llamas
Label: 62253281 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 131
Author: Ramsey, Paul Michael DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 2005
Title: Synchronization of the follicular wave exogenesis hormone therapy in llamas and alpacas
Label: 1775
Abstract: Abstract: Researchers have attempted to capture and synchronize the follicular waves if South American Camelids. There are two major hormonal mechanisms that have been examined. One method is through the administration of hormones (e.g. GnRH) to induce ovulation at a predetermined set time. The second method is through the suppression of follicular activity with hormonal therapy (e.g. progesterone). These hormones have been selected based upon their efficacy in synchronization in the cattle and horse industries. Both human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) have been shown to be effective in inducing ovulation. Therefore, we designed a project to examine the efficacy of these two hormones and determine if synchronization was possible following two timed intramuscular injections of either hormone. 80% of those that ovulated after the 1st injection of GnRH, ovulated after the 2nd injection. While only 20% of those that ovulated after the 1st injection of hCG ovulated after the 2nd injection. Based on the results of this study, it would appear difficult to synchronize the follicular waves of alpacas and llamas using hCG injection seven days apart. This project did indicate that one injection of 150 ug of GnRH may be the most successful way to produce ovulation in an alpaca or llama. Two injections of GnRH at set intervals may be advantageous to synchronize their follicular activity when compared to the success rate of synchronization in the cattle industry. In an attempt to further increase the success rate of synchronization of the South American camelid via the induction route, a second hormone regimen was utilized. The second project was design to determine if two timed injections of GnRH and two consecutive injections of dinoprost can result in synchronization of follicular activity. Following the first injection, 80% of the animals ovulated. It was determined that all those participating in this study ovulated following the second injection of GnRH. Finally, suppression of follicular activity thorough exogenous hormone therapy was examined due to its success in the horse industry. Preliminary results have shown promise in suppressing follicular activity, but they have been inconsistent at best. The final project examined if follicular activity could be suppressed by any of the following combinations: An oil-based progesterone with and without 17[beta]-estradiol and an oral progesterone with and without 17[beta]-estradiol. When either form of progesterone was administered with estradiol, follicles decreased to non-ovulatory size within 7 days. After this decrease, follicle's ability to initiate growth was suppressed for 14 days. When hormonal treatments were removed, follicles reached ovulatory size 10 days later.
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 132
Author: Moya, Sara Llamas.
Year: 2005
Title: Effects of husbandry and low-dose lipopolysaccharide challenge on the acute phase reponse of young pigs : y Sara Llamas Moya.
Label: 264750674 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 133
Author: Miglino, MA; Iturrizaga, D; Morini, AC; Verechia, FT; Kfoury Jr, JRo; Monteiro, JM; Bazer, FW
Year: 2005
Title: 137 IRON TRANSFER ACROSS THE LLAMA PLACENTA (LAMA GUANICOE GLAMA)
Journal: Reproduction, Fertility and Development
Volume: 18
Issue: 2
Pages: 177-177
Alternate Journal: Reproduction, Fertility and Development


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 134
Author: Magne Colque, Ninfa Jacqueline DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - Spanish
Year: 2005
Title: Digestibilidad aparente en llamas (Lama glama) alimentadas con (Stipa ichu) tratada con úrea y melaza en el C.E.A.C
Label: 1755
Abstract: The following work was conducted at the Agricultural Experimental Center under the title of : Apparent digestibility in llamas feed with stipa ichu (Peruvian feather grass) treated with urea and molasses, for which 3 assays were performed in reference to the study : 1) percentage of assimilation of the treated and non- treated grass, 2) apparent digestibility of fiber and protein after and before feeding, and 3) determine the adequate levels of urea and molasses for the chemical treatment of the grass (Stipa ichu). For the first assay, the greater consumption was obtained at the level of 3 (3% of urea) reporting a consumption index of 1895.67 gr, the least amount of consumption was found to be 0(0% of urea) reporting a consumption index of 1450.93 gr. The administered food prepared with (grass + urea + molasses) at the different levels of 3%, 2%, and 4%, we had a variability coefficient of 12.56%. The highest index of water consumption was obtain with the 0% untreated grass with a volume of 882.12 ml, and the least was found at level 2 (2%) with a volume of 335.71 ml, with an average of 424.27 ml/day with a variability coefficient of 77.02%. The amount of excreted feces were found to be produced in a greater amount when fed with grass with at 3 (3%) type of treatment with a total of 1059.8 gr, and the least amount of excretions was shown when fed with treatment 4 (4%) with 60.8 gr, with an average of 826.51 gr/day with a variability of 22.35%. For the second assay, we found that the apparent digestibility of fiber at the 3 different levels of treatment, the greater percentage of fiber assimilated by the organism was with those that received food at level 3 (3%) with a 76.78%, and the least with a 0 (0%) in relationship to the other treatments . The greater percentage of protein was obtained at level 4 (4%) with 49.48%, decreasing the protein level 2%, 3%, and 0%, we can say that the difference is due to the different levels of urea found in the treatments. For the third assay, the most consumed was level 3 (3%) of urea with an average of 94.83%, the second one is level 2 (2%) with an average of 85.71%, followed by level 4(4%) with 74.59%. We concluded that 2.6% of urea is acceptable for the supplementation of stipa ichu (Bolivian feather grass) for the feeding of llamas.
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 135
Author: Llanos Pérez, Martha Jesusa DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - Spanish
Year: 2005
Title: Digestibilidad in vivo en llamas (Lama glama), alimentadas con heno de cebadilla y paja brava en el C.E.A.C
Label: 1743
Abstract: The Highlands of Bolivia present a great diversity of native botanical species with strong forage characteristics, providing them with a considerable potential for usage as a resource in the feeding of cattle. The following work was performed with the idea of taking advantage of the zone's native species as a source for the feeding of llama cattle. In order to accomplish it, we took into consideration the following variables: food consumption, water consumption, amount of fecal excretions, urine volume, body weight, and the digestibility of the nutrients found in the food prepared with paja brava and barley (ash, protein, fiber, and total digestibles). The experiments were conducted in metabolic cages for 30 days; with 4 llamas of the K'ara breeds, between the ages of 4 and 5 years old, and an average weight in between 105 and 125 kg of life weight. The statistical analysis was conducted using a completely random cross test. We concluded barley and paja brava in their natural state are forage species which nutrient composition does not allow optimal development in llamas.
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 136
Author: Joosten, Vivi
Year: 2005
Title: Production of bifunctional proteins by Aspergillus awamori : llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHS) coupled to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP)
City: S.l. DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
University: s.n.]
Label: 1853
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 137
Author: Illanes Callejas, Janette.
Year: 2005
Title: Bloques nutricionales en la suplementación de llamas (Lama glama) en el último tercio de gestación en el CEAC
Label: 793925231 LA - Spanish
Abstract: The present work consisted in the use of biochemical and molecular nutrition blocks (BMN) in llamas during the last third of the gestation period, at the Agricultural Experiment Center of Condori (CEAC), located 49 km north of the city of Oruro, and 12 km north of the Caracollo population, in the province of Cercado. For this research work, we used 20 pregnant llamas in the last third of their gestation period, between the ages of 2 and 3 years old, 10 of which belonged to the Khara breed, and 10 to the Thampulli breed. Two corrals of 7 x 7 m., with adobe walls of a height of 1.80 m., a soil floor, and a metallic door, were built for the placement of the animals. The following ingredients were used for the preparation of the BMN blocks: 100 L of molasses, 75 kg of barley flour, 18 kg of alfalfa flour, 12 kg of sorghum flour, 30kg of mineral salt, 30 kg of Urea to the 46%, and 30 kg, of clay. The following variables were considered: Final body weight of the mother (before birth), increment of live weight of the mother by date, body weight of the mother (after birth), body weight of the llama calf, body weight gain of the mother, mother's food consumption, and physical-chemical analysis of the feeding blocks. The variables of the study were analyzed under a completely randomized design test, and for the discrimination of variable averages we used the Duncan test to a 95% of reliability. We came to the following conclusions: The greater increment of live weight was reported by llamas that received the BMV block as a dietary supplement, the gain was of 107.91 Kg/Llama, and the least was reported by those who did not received the BMV blocks as a dietary supplement with and increment of 102.07 Kg/Llama. For the final live weight of the mothers, the greater number was reported by llamas that received the BMV blocks, reporting 112.0 Kg/Llama, the least was reported by those who did not received the supplement with an increase of 105.10 Kg/Llama. Post-partum Llamas that received supplementation reported a live weight increase of 97.43 Kg/Llama, whereas those who did not received the supplement reported an increase of 88.40 Kg/Llama. According to breed the Khara Llama reported an increase of 96.56 Kg/llama, while the Thampulli line reported an increase of 89.10 Kg/Llama. The greater live weight of the calf at birth was reported by those whose mothers were given the BMN supplements; reporting 11.50 Kg/Calf, while those whose mothers did not received the supplement reported 9.60 Kg/ Calf. Therefore, we recommend the supplementation of the diet with biochemical and molecular nutrition blocks in the feeding of llamas in the last third of the gestation period to obtain calves with higher body weight at birth.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 905
Author: Ferna\ndez, Pablo Armando CN - British Library HMNTS YF.2013.a.4112
Year: 2005
Title: Esta llama de amor viva
City: Las Tunas
Publisher: Editorial Sanlope
ISBN: 9592512094 9789592512092 ST - Esta llama de amor viva
Label: 193
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - (OCoLC)261400776
Pablo Armando Ferna\0301ndez ; seleccio\0301n, pro\0301logo y notas Waldo Gonza\0301lez Lo\0301pez. Montaraz


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 139
Author: Feracho, Lesley
Year: 2005
Title: Linking the Americas : race, hybrid discourses, and the reformulation of feminine identity
City: New York
Publisher: State University of New York ; Bristol : University Presses Marketing [distributor]
ISBN: 0791464032 (hbk.) : No price
Accession Number: 211
Keywords: Latin American literature Women authors History and criticism.
Autobiography Women authors.
Women in literature.
Self in literature.
Race in literature.
America Literatures Women authors.
Notes: GBA519022 bnb Lesley Feracho. SUNY series in Latin American and Iberian thought and culture Includes bibliographical references and index.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 140
Author: Estévez, Dulce María.
Year: 2005
Title: Internal sociology of El llano en llamas
Label: 731041560 LA - Spanish
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 141
Author: Duckett, Lynda A.
Year: 2005
Title: A case of megaesophagus in a llama
Label: 60651725 LA - English
Abstract: Megaesophagus was diagnosed in a llama. This llama presented with a chief complaint of chronic choke. His megaesophagus was diagnosed via history, clinical signs, imaging, and endoscopy. An attempt to find a distinct etiology was made, exploring a variety of differential diagnoses extrapolated from other species. The conclusion was that of an idiopathic etiology. Further research of megaesophagus in the camelid species is needed to discover the most common causes of the disorder in this species.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 142
Author: Davies, Heather Loree DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 2005
Title: Digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites in llama and alpaca fed barley and barley alfalfa forages
Label: 1762
Abstract: These projects were conducted to determine the digestibility of forage diets with differing CP levels in llamas and alpacas. The Utah study was designed to compare llama and alpaca nutritional parameters to determine if nutritional recommendations for llamas can be directly extrapolated to alpacas. The first study evaluated the effects of forage quality on blood metabolites and nitrogen balance in mature, intact male llamas (n = 4, 36 l 4.4 months, 87 l 17 kg) at high altitude in Letanias, Bolivia (4,267 m = aprox. 14,000 ft above sea level). A second experiment was conducted with eight adult gelded camelids (n = 8; 4 llamas, 24-36 months, 90 l 10.7 kg; 4 alpacas, 24-36 months, 50 l 4 kg) at Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (altitude 1370 m). Animals were randomly fed barley hay (B) and 80% barley/20% alfalfa hay (BA). A fresh cut grass pasture (P) was included as the third forage for Bolivian llamas. Animals were housed in metabolism crates and diets were fed for a 7 d adjustment period followed by a 5 d collection period. Feed, feed refusal, feces and urine were collected, dried and N content determined by combustion analysis. Venous blood samples were collected on d 12 at 30 min intervals over a 6 h period. Plasma was harvested and analyzed for electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, Ca, Ca++, P, Mg) and metabolites (glucose, non- esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), urea N, creatinine, albumin, total protein (TPP), osmolality (Osm)). Llamas and alpacas demonstrated differences with respect to nitrogen metabolism when consuming forage diets with differing protein concentration. Llamas showed a N maintenance requirement of 0.75 g crude N/ W0.75. Using the standard CP to digestible protein (DP) conversion factor of 0.8, llamas required 0.60 digestible N/W0.75. When consuming the same high protein barley alfalfa diet, llamas had a much greater increase in N retention than alpacas. These species differences indicate that alpacas have a higher N requirement to meet metabolic needs, and extrapolations with respect to nitrogen requirements and balance are not valid between llamas and alpacas. In the Bolivian llama trial, locally grown and harvested hycrested and Siberian wheat grass pasture (P), barley (B), and barley80%/alfalfa20% (BA) hays were fed. The Bolivian llamas were in negative N balance when fed the B and P diets. Dry matter digestibility was greater with the B and BA than P forage, and N digestibility was significantly higher with BA than either the B or P forages. Nitrogen maintenance requirement for Bolivian llamas at 4,267 m was 0.58 compared to 0.75 g crude N/W0.75 for Utah llamas, an increased digestive efficiency and a lower N maintenance requirement at higher altitude.
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 143
Author: Cirlot, Juan Eduardo; Granell, Enrique
Year: 2005
Title: En la llama : poesía, 1943-1959
City: Madrid
Publisher: Ediciones Siruela
ISBN: 847844873X
Accession Number: 208
Notes: Juan Eduardo Cirlot ; edición de Enrique Granell. Libros del tiempo. Poesía 219


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 908
Author: Andino, Peky CN - British Library HMNTS YF.2007.a.8960
Year: 2005
Title: Medea llama por cobrar : teatro
City: Quito
Publisher: Tribal Editores
ISBN: 9789978446928 (pbk.) 9978446923 (pbk.) ST - Medea llama por cobrar : teatro
Label: 209
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - (OCoLC)68005510
Peky Andino. Colección Faja de plata teatro


Reference Type: Electronic Source
Record Number: 146
Year: 2005
Title: Ovarian follicular synchronization, ovulation and oocyte development in llamas and alpacas.
Producer: University of Saskatchewan
Last Update Date: 2005///
Label: 654961504 LA - English.
Abstract: The purpose of the studies reported in this thesis was to increase our understanding of the reproductive physiology of South American camelids. Studies were conducted in llamas and alpacas to investigate methods to electively control ovarian follicular dynamics, to determine the effects of hormone preparations or biological factors derived from seminal plasma on ovulation induction, and to evaluate the establishment of superstimulatory protocols to induce a consistent ovarian follicular response for oocyte collection. The first study was designed to compare the efficacy of treatments intended to induce follicular wave synchronization among llamas, and to determine the effect of these treatments on pregnancy rates after fixed-time natural mating. In the first experiment, lutenizing hormone (LH) and follicular ablation treatments were most effective for inducing follicular wave synchronization, while estradiol plus progesterone (E/P) treatment was intermediate. In the second experiment, llamas were assigned randomly to Control, (E/P), and LH groups. A single, fixed-time natural mating was permitted 10 to 12 days after treatment. The pregnancy rate was higher (P<0.05) for synchronized llamas (LH and E/P groups combined) than for non-synchronized llamas (Control group). The second study was done to compare the effects of hormonal treatments and natural mating on ovulation induction, interval to ovulation, and luteal development in llamas. No differences were detected among groups (mated, LH, and GnRH) in ovulation rate (80%, 91%, 80%, respectively; P = 0.6), or interval from treatment to ovulation (30.0 ¡À 0.5, 29.3 ¡À 0.6, 29.3 ¡À 0.7 h, respectively; P = 0.9). Similarly, no differences were detected among groups (mated, LH, and GnRH) in maximum corpus luteum (CL) diameter. The third study documents the existence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. In Experiment 1, female alpacas were given alpaca seminal plasma or saline.
Notes: TY - ELEC DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org
URL: http://library.usask.ca/theses/available/etd-07192005-192753/


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 147
Author: Wernery, U; Kaaden, O-R
Year: 2004
Title: Foot-and-mouth disease in camelids: a review
Journal: The Veterinary Journal
Volume: 168
Issue: 2
Pages: 134-142
Alternate Journal: The Veterinary Journal


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 148
Author: Waldridge, Bryan M; Duran, Sue H; Ravis, PhDa William R; Paxton, Ralph; Herdt, PhDc Thomas H; Pugh, David G; DACT, DACVN
Year: 2004
Title: Pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous selenium in adult llamas
Journal: Veterinary therapeutics: research in applied veterinary medicine
Volume: 5
Issue: 4
Pages: 272
Alternate Journal: Veterinary therapeutics: research in applied veterinary medicine


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 149
Author: Vallance, Elizabeth C. Full publication date Jul
Year: 2004
Title: The Adventures of Artemis and the Llama: A Case for Imaginary Histories in Art Education
Journal: Art Education
Volume: 57
Issue: 4
Pages: 7-12
Accession Number: 45
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3194119


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 150
Author: Szynol, A.; de Soet, J. J.; Sieben-van Tuyl, E.; Bos, J. W.; Frenken, L. G.
Year: 2004
Title: Bactericidal Effects of a Fusion Protein of Llama Heavy-Chain Antibodies Coupled to Glucose Oxidase on Oral Bacteria
Journal: Antimicrob Agents Chemother
Volume: 48
Issue: 9
Pages: 3390-5
Accession Number: 512
Abstract: Enzymes such as lactoperoxidase and glucose oxidase (GOx) are used as antimicrobial agents in oral care products. Their low specificities and substantiveness can be reduced by covalent coupling of antimicrobial molecules to antibodies. Variable domains (VHH) derived from llama heavy-chain antibodies are particularly suited for such an approach. The antibodies are composed solely of heavy-chain dimers; therefore, production of active fusion proteins by using molecular biology-based techniques is less complicated than production by use of conventional antibodies. In this study, a fusion protein consisting of VHH and GOx was constructed and expressed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A llama was immunized with Streptococcus mutans strain HG982. Subsequently, B lymphocytes were isolated and cDNA fragments encoding the VHH fragments were obtained by reverse transcription-PCR. After construction of a VHH library in Escherichia coli and screening of the library against mutans group streptococci and Streptococcus sanguinis strains, we found two VHH fragments with high specificities for S. mutans strains. A GOx gene was linked to the two VHH genes and cloned into S. cerevisiae yeasts. The yeasts expressed and secreted the recombinant proteins into the growth medium. The test of binding of fusion proteins to oral bacteria through their VHH fragments showed that S. mutans had been specifically targeted by GOx-S120, one of the fusion protein constructs. A low concentration of the fusion protein was also able to selectively kill S. mutans within 20 min in the presence of lactoperoxidase and potassium iodide. These findings demonstrate that the fusion protein GOx-VHH is potentially valuable in the selective killing of target bacteria such as S. mutans.
Notes: Szynol, A. de Soet, J. J. Sieben-van Tuyl, E. Bos, J. W. Frenken, L. G. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1154-03 [pii] Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Sep;48(9):3390-5. doi:10.1128/AAC.48.9.3390-3395.2004.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/aac.48.9.3390-3395.2004
Author Address: Department of Periodontology, Section Oral Microbiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry, Amsterdam, Biotechnology Group, Unilever Research Vlaardingen, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands

Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 911
Author: Riquenes Garci\a, Yunier CN - British Library HMNTS YF.2008.a.4783
Year: 2004
Title: La llama en la boca
City: Bayamo, Granma
Publisher: Ediciones Bayamo
ISBN: 9789592230910 (pbk.) 9592230919 (pbk.) ST - La llama en la boca
Label: 204
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - (OCoLC)62934133
Yunier Riquenes Garci\0301a. Coleccio\0301n Guardarraya La llama en la boca -- Todos los gatos son negros -- El viejo y el mal.


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 153
Author: Mercado, EC; Rodríguez, SM; Elizondo, AM; Marcoppido, G; Parreño, V
Year: 2004
Title: Isolation of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from a South American camelid (Lama guanicoe) with diarrhea
Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology
Volume: 42
Issue: 10
Pages: 4809-4811
Alternate Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 154
Author: Mendoza-Serrano, Carolina DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 2004
Title: Land, family, and memory : a comparative approach to Go Down Moses and El Llano en Llamas [The Burning Plain]
Label: 1729
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 155
Author: Linden, Daniel Raymond
Year: 2004
Title: Apparent digestibility of chelated and non-chelated forms of zinc in Llama (Lama glama) and Alpaca (Lama pacos)
Label: 58037968 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 156
Author: León Titichoca, Gustavo Adolfo DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - Spanish
Year: 2004
Title: Determinación del nivel nutricional de minerales Ca y P en llamas (Lama glama) en dos épocas en el centro experimental agropecuario Condoriri
Label: 1744
Abstract: The concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined in 12 llamas from the Condoriri Agricultural Experiment Center (Oruro Technical University) of Oruro, Bolivia during two seasons (wet and dry) and at three ages (newborn, juvenile, and adult). Samples of flesh were taken from the arm, leg, back, rib, and neck. Pasture samples (grassland and prairie) were used to determine the rate of biting of each animal studied. The blood samples were taken by extracting blood from a jugular vein. The minerals (Ca and P) in the flesh are highest in the wet season, 113.78 mg/100 g. The newborns were found to have the highest concentrations of minerals during the wet and dry season, 113.78 and 93.98 mg/100 g. The mineral concentrations of calcium and phosphorus for the newborns and adults were 120.58 and 144.5 mg/100 g. The lower concentration of juveniles had 7.52 mg/100 g of calcium in the meat and reported a 9.59 mg/100 g concentration during the wet season and 6.78 mg/100 g for the dry season. The juveniles and adults recorded higher concentrations of calcium with 9.2 and 8.78 mg/100 g with the newborns having a lower value of 6.58 mg/100 g. The phosphorus in the flesh was reported to be 9.59 mg/100 g for the wet season and 6.78 mg/100 g for the dry season. The concentration of the calcium and phosphorus in the grazed pasture during the wet and dry seasons was 0.56 and 0.12 % respectively. The females recorded higher concentrations of calcium and phosphorus with 0.38% while the males recorded only a 0.30% concentration. The calcium content is higher in the pasture (0.55%) than the phosphorus (0.13%). In the wet season the biomass contains 0.91% calcium and 0.22% phosphorus. During the dry season the high calcium content was 0.19% and for phosphorus it was 0.04%. The calcium and phosphorus exist in smaller quantities in the blood during the wet season (7.25 mg/dl) and greater quantities during the dry season (9.88 mg/dl). Juvenile females have a higher quantity of calcium (10.15 mg/dl) while newborns and adults have a lower quantity (9.52 and 7.2 mg/dl).
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 157
Author: Clauss, Marcus; Lendl, Christine; Schramel, Peter; Streich, W Jürgen
Year: 2004
Title: Skin lesions in alpacas and llamas with low zinc and copper status–a preliminary report
Journal: The Veterinary Journal
Volume: 167
Issue: 3
Pages: 302-305
Alternate Journal: The Veterinary Journal


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 158
Author: Ch; xe; vez, Vel; squez, A.; xc; lvarez, Garc; xed; a, G.; Collantes, Fern; ndez, E.; Casas-Astos, E.; Rosadio, Alc; ntara, R.; Serrano, Mart; nez, E.; Ortega-Mora, L. M.
Year: 2004
Title: First Report of Neospora caninum Infection in Adult Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and Llamas (Lama glama)
Journal: The Journal of Parasitology
Volume: 90
Issue: 4
Pages: 864-866
Abstract: Neospora caninum is a cyst-forming coccidian that mainly affects bovines, although Neospora infection has also been described in other domestic and wild ruminant species. Serum samples from 78 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and 73 llamas (Lama glama) at a unique dilution of 1:50 tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) were further analyzed serologically by IFAT and Western blot in both ruminant species to avoid cross-reactions with closely related coccidian parasites and to confirm the existence of N. caninum-specific antibodies. IFAT titers ranging between 1:50 and 1:800 were found. When using Western blot, N. caninum tachyzoite-specific immunodominant antigens with apparent molecular weights of 17-18, 34-35, 37, and 60-62 kDa were also recognized, although some sera with 1:50 IFAT titers proved not to have N. caninum-specific antibodies. As expected, higher IFAT titers were associated with higher anti-N. caninum reactivity in Western blot. This report documents for the first time the presence of N. canicum infection in adult alpacas and llmas from Peru.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3286340


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 159
Author: Carageorge, Adrianne C. Full publication date Winter
Year: 2004
Journal: Journal of Film and Video
Volume: 56
Issue: 4
Pages: 50-51
Accession Number: 153
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20688473


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 913
Author: Burkholder, Tanya H.; Jensen, James; Chen, Hong; Junkins, Katherine; Chatfield, Jenifer; Boothe, Dawn C1 - Full publication date: Sep., 2004
Year: 2004
Title: Plasma Evaluation for Ivermectin in Llamas (Lama glama) after Standard Subcutaneous Dosing
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 35
Issue: 3
Pages: 395-396 ST - Plasma Evaluation for Ivermectin in Llamas (Lama glama) after Standard Subcutaneous Dosing
Label: 66
Abstract: Plasma levels of the parasiticide ivermectin were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography in five llamas (Lama glama) after single 200 &#x3bc;g/kg s.c. injections. Ivermectin levels were undetectable in plasma samples drawn up to 4 wk after injection, suggesting that the dosage used was insufficient to reach therapeutic concentrations in this species.
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20096361


Reference Type: Electronic Source
Record Number: 161
Year: 2004
Title: Stability of llama heavy chain antibody fragments under extreme conditions
Last Update Date: 2004///
Label: 871137162 LA - English
Notes: TY - ELEC DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1874/251


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 914
Author: Oxford, Jeffrey C1 - Full publication date: Sep., 2003 DO - 10.2307/20062887
Year: 2003
Journal: Hispania
Volume: 86
Issue: 3
Pages: 514-515
Date: 2003 RI - Antolog&#xed;a de la prensa peri&#xf3;dica isabelina escrita por mujeres (1843-1894), &#xcd;&#xf1;igo S&#xe1;nchez Llama
Label: 163
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20062887


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 915
Author: Kiupel, Matti; VanAlstine, William; Chilcoat, Clayton C1 - Full publication date: Sep., 2003
Year: 2003
Title: Gross and Microscopic Lesions of Polioencephalomalacia in a Llama (Lama glama)
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 34
Issue: 3
Pages: 309-313 ST - Gross and Microscopic Lesions of Polioencephalomalacia in a Llama (Lama glama)
Label: 36
Abstract: A 14-wk-old female llama (Lama glama) developed progressive neurologic disease characterized by stiff gait, circling, decreased mentation, and seizures. At necropsy, lesions were limited to the brain and consisted of bilateral necrosis of the cortical gray matter of the occipital lobes of the cerebral cortex. The primary microscopic alteration was bilateral laminar cerebrocortical necrosis, affecting mainly the deep laminae. Clinical disease, and gross and microscopic lesions were consistent with those of polioencephalomalacia.
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20460339


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 163
Author: Junkins, Kathryn; Boothe, Dawn Merton; Jensen, James; Herzog, Tanya; Chatfield, Jenifer; Junkkins, Kathryn C. Full publication date Mar
Year: 2003
Title: Disposition of Sulfadimethoxine in Male Llamas (Llama glama) after Single Intravenous and Oral Administrations
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 34
Issue: 1
Pages: 9-15
Accession Number: 42
Abstract: This study determined the disposition of sulfadimethoxine in six, healthy, adult, gelded male llamas (Llama glama) by using a nonrandomized crossover design with i.v. dosing (58.8 &#xb1; 3.0 mg/kg based on metabolic scaling) followed by oral dosing (59.3 mg/kg &#xb1; 8.3). Blood samples were collected intermittently for a 72-hr period, and serum sulfadimethoxine concentrations were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum sulfadimethoxine concentrations across time were subjected to standard pharmacokinetic analysis based on linear regression. Mean maximum serum concentration after oral dosing was 23.6 &#xb1; 14.9 &#x3bc;g/ml, and extrapolated peak concentration after i.v. administration was 246.6 &#xb1; 15.8 &#x3bc;g/ml. Total clearance of sulfadimethoxine was 45.4 &#xb1; 13.9 L/kg. Half-lives after i.v. and oral administration were 541 &#xb1; 111 min and 642.4 &#xb1; 204.8 min, respectively. Oral bioavailability was 52.6 &#xb1; 15%. These data suggest that the oral dose administered to llamas in this study, based on metabolic scaling from cattle, may be inadequate when compared with the reported minimum inhibitory concentration (512 &#x3bc;g/ml) breakpoint for sulfadimethoxine.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20096254


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 164
Author: Eufracio, Patricio
Year: 2003
Title: Octavio Paz : ensayo y ensayística
City: Puebla, México
Publisher: El Colegio de Puebla
ISBN: 9687771097 (pbk.)
Accession Number: 212
Keywords: Paz, Octavio, 1914-1998. Llama doble Crítica e interpretación.
Paz, Octavio, 1914-1998. Arco y la lira Crítica e interpretación.
Notes: Patricio Eufracio. Includes bibliographical references. Colegio de Puebla.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 165
Author: Delgado Santivanez, Diego Javier
Year: 2003
Title: Perspectivas de la produccion de fibra de llama en Bolivia : potencial y desarrollo de estrategias para mejorar la calidad de la fibra y su aptitud para la comercializacion
City: Göttingen DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - Spanish
University: Cuvillier
Label: 1738
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 918
Author: Bieder, Maryellen C1 - Full publication date: Primavera 2003
Year: 2003
Journal: Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hisp&#xe1;nicos
Volume: 27
Issue: 3
Pages: 561-563
Date: 2003 RI - Antolog&#xed;a de la prensa peri&#xf3;dica isabelina escrita por mujeres (1843&#x2013;1894). Textos y Estudios de Mujeres. Serie 2, &#xcd;&#xf1;igo S&#xe1;nchez Llama
Label: 157
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/27763870


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 166
Author: Wernery, Ulrich; Kaaden, Oskar Ruger
Year: 2002
Title: Infectious diseases in camelids
Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag
ISBN: 3826333047


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 167
Author: Sukon, Peerapol; Oregon State, University
Year: 2002
Title: The physiology and anatomy of the esophagus of normal llamas and llamas with megaesophagus
Accession Number: 793534047
Abstract: Solid-state esophageal manometry was used to study physiology of the normal llama esophagus. Esophageal baseline pressures, esophageal response to water swallows and to balloon distention, and other motor activity of the esophagus during experiments were measured throughout the entire length of the esophagus. Gross and histologic anatomy, muscle fiber type classification, and ultrastructural morphology were used to study anatomy of the normal llama esophagus. The methods as described were also applied to study the physiology and anatomy of two llamas with megaesophagus and one llama with esophageal motor abnormalities. Primary peristalsis in response to a water swallow is unique in the llama esophagus. Duration of contraction is very short. Propagation velocity of the peristaltic wave is fast, approximately ten times of that of the human. Amplitude of contraction and mean rate of pressure change per unit time are the greatest in the pharyngoesophageal region and the lowest in the lower esophageal sphincter region. Length of the cervical portion of the esophagus is almost twice that of the thoracic portion in keeping with long neck. Submucosal glands are abundant throughout the esophagus. Type 2 muscle fibers are predominant throughout the esophagus. Type 1 muscle fibers are also present and gradually increase in the distal portion of the esophagus. Generally, ultrastructure of the striated muscle of the esophagus is similar to that of the skeletal muscle. Primary peristalsis was abnormal in llamas with megaesophagus. More than a half of the distal esophagus was aperistaltic. Manometric findings corresponded to anatomical findings. Esophageal dilation was remarkable in the distal portion of the esophagus. Evidence of denervation atrophy of the esophageal striated muscle was not found in the cranial cervical region, but was found in the middle cervical region through the distal thoracic region. This study provides extensive normal data on the llama esophagus to serve as a baseline for further study of esophageal pathology in the llama. Findings from this study suggest that denervating disease is a cause of megaesophagus in the llama, although the exact nature of this disease is still unknown.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 168
Author: Methvin, Holly Marie DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 2002
Title: Me and my llama
Label: 1813
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 919
Author: Laube, Lydia CN - British Library HMNTS YA.2003.a.12204
Year: 2002
Title: Llama for lunch
City: Kent Town, S. Aust.
Publisher: Wakefield Press
ISBN: 1862545766 (pbk.) ST - Llama for lunch
Label: 221
Keywords: Laube, Lydia, 1948- Journeys South America. South America Description and travel.
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - bld00K8988
Lydia Laube.


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 920
Author: Frederick, Bonnie C1 - Full publication date: VERANO 2002
Year: 2002
Journal: Letras Femeninas
Volume: 28
Issue: 1
Pages: 179-180
Date: 2002 RI - Galer&#xed;a de escritoras isabelinas: La prensa peri&#xf3;dica entre 1833 y 1895, I&#xf1;igo S&#xe1;nchez Llama
Label: 159
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23021401


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 170
Author: Flores, Demetrio Laruta
Year: 2002
Title: Componentes bioquimicos en la secrecion de las galdnulas bulbouretrales de llama (Lama glama) en tres edades
City: La Paz, Bolivia DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - Spanish
Label: 1735
Abstract: The present study was performed in the Zoo-Technical Engineering department of ofthe the Tiahuanaco Rural Academic Unit of ofthe the Bolivian Catholic University. The biochemical components of ofthe the secretions produced by the bulb urethral glands of male llama that were studied are glucose, inorganic phosphorus, creatinine, total proteins, albumin, total lipids, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Spectrophotometer standardized techniques were used in nine animals of three, four, and five years of age from communities of ofthe the Ingavi province. Groups comprised of three animals each were selected by age criteria. After dissecting and separating the pelvic urethra, gland secretion was obtained by finger pressure. The process was made after beneficiating the animals. The bulb urethral gland secretions present a white color and a hard viscous consistency. The results of biochemical analysis in the three ages are as follows : glucose 535.79 ., mg/dl mg dl/ ; inorganic phosphoms phosphorus, 30.67 . mg/dl mg dl/ ; creatinine, 25.34 . mg/dl mg dl/ ;; total proteins, 11.78 . g/dl gdl / ; albumin, 8.596 . g/dl gdl / ; total lipids, 1022.55 . mg/dl mg dl/ ; cholesterol, 168.83 . mg/dl mg dl/ ; and triglycerides, 605.10 . mg/dl mg dl/ . Animal age significantly influences on the concentrations of glucose, creatinine, and total lipids with a probability of (p> = 0.05). Animal age has no influence over the concentrations of inorganic phosphorus, total proteins, albumin, cholesterol, and triglycerides with a probability of (p <= 0.05).
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 171
Author: Delgado Callisaya, Pedro Ángel DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 2002
Title: Biochemical components of llama seminal plasma at three ages
Label: 1827
Abstract: The present research project work was done at the Rural Academic Unit in Tiahuanaco of the UCB, located in the community of Achaca, third municipal section in the Ingavi province department of La Paz. It is 57 km. from the International freeway at 68 degrees 42"28' South and 16 degrees 35"41' West at an altitude of 3,856 meters above sea level. The study was conducted from October 2000 to September 2001. The study consisted of determining biochemical component concentrations in llama semial plasma for three ages: glucose, inorganic phosphorus, creatinine, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Twelve male llamas were selected and taken from the Choquecota zone in the province of Carangas in the department of Oruro. The llamas were 3, 4 and 5 years old (four animals per age). They were trained for semen collection for two months with an artificial group designed for this effort. Of these, the six that responded the best were used for research. Eight collections have been obtained from each animal, which were submitted to the lab for analysis. the results were analyzed under the Jerárquico factorial design that included a mixed analysis (nested and crossed) of the age factors and collections (the measurements were analyzed that corresponded to the weekly collection). Each weekly average of collection for each age constituted one experimental unit, thus there were four experimental units per age. The statistical packet, version 6.12 S.A.S. was used for statistical analysis.
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 173
Author: Ramsey, Paul M.
Year: 2001
Title: Termination and synchronization of the follicular wave in alpacas and llamas
Label: 840122275 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 174
Author: Kadwell, Miranda; Fernandez, Matilde; Stanley, Helen F.; Baldi, Ricardo; Wheeler, Jane C.; Rosadio, Raul; Bruford, Michael W. C. Full publication date Dec
Year: 2001
Title: Genetic Analysis Reveals the Wild Ancestors of the Llama and the Alpaca
Journal: Proceedings: Biological Sciences
Volume: 268
Issue: 1485
Pages: 2575-2584
Accession Number: 33
Abstract: The origins of South America's domestic alpaca and llama remain controversial due to hybridization, near extirpation during the Spanish conquest and difficulties in archaeological interpretation. Traditionally, the ancestry of both forms is attributed to the guanaco, while the vicu&#xf1;a is assumed never to have been domesticated. Recent research has, however, linked the alpaca to the vicu&#xf1;a, dating domestication to 6000-7000 years before present in the Peruvian Andes. Here, we examine in detail the genetic relationships between the South American camelids in order to determine the origins of the domestic forms, using mitochondrial (mt) and microsatellite DNA. MtDNA analysis places 80% of llama and alpaca sequences in the guanaco lineage, with those possessing vicu&#xf1;a mtDNA being nearly all alpaca or alpaca-vicu&#xf1;a hybrids. We also examined four microsatellites in wild known-provenance vicu&#xf1;a and guanaco, including two loci with non-overlapping allele size ranges in the wild species. In contrast to the mtDNA, these markers show high genetic similarity between alpaca and vicu&#xf1;a, and between llama and guanaco, although bidirectional hybridization is also revealed. Finally, combined marker analysis on a subset of samples confirms the microsatellite interpretation and suggests that the alpaca is descended from the vicu&#xf1;a, and should be reclassified as Vicugna pacos. This result has major implications for the future management of wild and domestic camelids in South America.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3067673


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 922
Author: Carrasco Notario, Guillermo CN - British Library HMNTS YF.2005.a.3040
Year: 2001
Title: El corazo\0301n en la llama : ensayos de historia agustiniana
City: Santiago de Chile
Publisher: Cervantes & Cia.
ISBN: 9562911837 (pbk.) ST - El corazo\0301n en la llama : ensayos de historia agustiniana
Label: 214
Keywords: Augustinians Chile History. Chile Church history.
Notes: TY - BOOK
Guillermo Carrasco Notario. Includes bibliographical references.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 176
Author: Barea, Arturo; Barea, Arturo Forja; Barea, Arturo Ruta; Barea, Arturo Llama
Year: 2001
Title: The forging of a rebel
City: London
Publisher: Granta
ISBN: 1862074364 (pbk.) : ¹15.00
Accession Number: 278
Keywords: Rif Revolt, 1921-1926 Personal narratives.
Spain Social life and customs.
Spain History Civil War, 1936-1939 Personal narratives.
Notes: Forja de un rebelde. English
GBA1Y4578 bnb Arturo Barea ; translated by Ilsa Barea ; introduced by Nigel Townson. First published in one collected vol.: New York : Reynal & Hitchcock, 1946. Contents: The forge - The track - The clash.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 177
Author: Woolven, Ben.
Year: 2000
Title: The mechanisms of antibody generation in the llama.
Publisher: University of Kent at Canterbury
Label: 556859405 LA - English
Notes: TY - BOOK DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 178
Author: Welch-Mooney, Irene
Year: 2000
Title: La sangre llama : a case study of a Mexican-American teacher in Georgia
Label: 49347505 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 179
Author: Siekmeier, James F. C. Full publication date Feb
Year: 2000
Title: A Sacrificial Llama? The Expulsion of the Peace Corps from Bolivia in 1971
Journal: Pacific Historical Review
Volume: 69
Issue: 1
Pages: 65-87
Accession Number: 138
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3641238


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 181
Author: Melendez, Jeffrey.
Year: 2000
Title: Serological analysis of llama immunoglobulins
Label: 78167080 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 182
Author: Meadows, Laurie E.; Knowlton, Frederick F. C. Full publication date Autumn
Year: 2000
Title: Efficacy of Guard Ilamas to Reduce Canine Predation on Domestic Sheep
Journal: Wildlife Society Bulletin (1973-2006)
Volume: 28
Issue: 3
Pages: 614-622
Accession Number: 64
Abstract: Coyotes (Canis latrans) can pose serious economic threats to sheep producers throughout the western United States. At the same time, important segments of the public prefer environmentally benign means to resolve conflicts with wild species. We evaluated the effectiveness of guard Ilamas to reduce canine predation on domestic sheep by placing 20 Ilamas with Utah sheep producers and comparing data collected from these flocks over 20 months with similar data collected from flocks without Ilamas. Comparisons included proportion of flocks with losses to predators and mean predation rates on ewes and lambs. We also conducted surveys to assess producer opinions about including Ilamas in their sheep management programs. In all comparisons of lamb losses between treatments and controls, losses sustained by control flocks in the first summer grazing season (SGS1) were significantly greater than in flocks with Ilamas. Among treatment flocks, losses were similar for SGS1 and the second summer grazing season (SGS2). Among controls, losses were greater in SGS1 and dropped to levels similar to treatment flocks in SGS2. The results suggest that predation may have to reach a threshold before guard Ilamas have noticeable effects on losses. Surveys of producers with Ilamas indicated strong support for using Ilamas as guard animals for sheep.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3783611


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 183
Author: Drufke, Natasha Katherine.
Year: 2000
Title: The use of llamas to protect goats, cattle, and poultry from canid predators
Label: 44140071 LA - English
Abstract: Previous research has shown that llamas can be very effective as guard animals for protecting sheep from predators. In this study, we interviewed 136 ranchers who were using 237 llamas to protect goats, cattle, and poultry in order to determine if llamas were effective guards and what management practices were used in successful and unsuccessful cases. Llamas decreased the amount of yearly predation from 13% to 1% of the herd on goat ranches, 13% to 0% on cattle ranches, and 40% to 6% on poultry ranches. In 78% of cases, predation on a ranch dropped to zero after introduction of the llama. The use of guard llamas resulted in an average annual savings per ranch of $848 for goat owners, $2,509 for cattle owners, and $1,167 for poultry owners. Fifty-four percent of llamas were seen protecting the livestock from predators. Common behaviors included standing at attention, running towards the predator, chasing the predator, and alarm calling. Ranchers rated their llamas as either effective or very effective as guards in 89% (goats), 92% (poultry), and 100% (cattle) of the cases. The average guard llama was a 5 year old gelded male costing $532 with an additional expense of $135 per year to maintain. Llamas were accepted by livestock in 10 days or less 89% of the time, and livestock were accepted by llamas in 10 days or less 86% of the time. Although we were not able to determine which llama characteristics, if any, were correlated with guarding success, respondents listed alertness, good disposition, and aggressiveness to predators as characteristics to look for when choosing a guard llama. Llamas were an effective, low-cost, low-maintenance, non-lethal method to reduce predation on goat, cattle, and poultry ranches.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 184
Author: Beard, Laura J. C. Full publication date Mayo
Year: 2000
Title: NAVIGATING THE METAFICTIONAL TEXT: JULIETA CAMPOS' "TIENE LOS CABELLOS ROJIZOS Y SE LLAMA SABINA"
Journal: Hispan&#xf3;fila
Issue: 129
Pages: 45-58
Accession Number: 51
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/43807083


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 928
Author: Barriga Gomes, Kesia Rut CN - 783.242166 21 British Library MUSIC G.297.jj.(19.)
Year: 2000
Title: Quiero verte ; Hay algo más allá ; Esta llama ; Vuela ; Yo te perdonaré ; Por mí : voz y piano
City: Madrid
Publisher: Unión musical ediciones ; Bury St. Edmunds : exclusive distributors, Music Sales, 2002
Label: 222
Keywords: Rock music 1991-2000. Rap (Music) LA - Spanish words
Notes: TY - BOOK
0601 Kesia. For voice and keyboard. Words and music by Kesia Rut Barriga Gomes.


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 185
Author: Wackwitz, Birgit; Castellaro, G; Schwartz, HJ; Raggi, A; Berlin, Humboldt Universityof
Year: 1999
Title: Botanical composition of the diets of alpaca (Lama pacos) and llama (Lama glama) in the Andean rangelands of Chile
Journal: Sustainable Technology Development in Animal Agriculture
Alternate Journal: Sustainable Technology Development in Animal Agriculture


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 186
Author: Van Gessel, Yvonne DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1999
Title: Congenital defects of llamas : a case of congenital facial deformity
Label: 1773
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 188
Author: Sutmoller, P.
Year: 1999
Title: Risk of disease transmission by llama embryos
Journal: Rev Sci Tech
Volume: 18
Issue: 3
Pages: 719-28
Date: Dec
Accession Number: 10588016
Keywords: Animals Bluetongue Brucellosis Camelids, New World Computer Simulation Embryo Transfer Foot-and-Mouth Disease International Cooperation Models, Biological Probability Rhabdoviridae Infections Risk Assessment Risk Factors Tuberculosis Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus
Abstract: An assessment was made of the risk of transmission of foot and mouth disease (FMD), vesicular stomatitis, bluetongue, tuberculosis and brucellosis by llama embryos. The study suggests that embryo transfer is a safe method for the international movement of llama embryos despite the special characteristics of these embryos, such as the absence of a zona pellucida, and despite the lack of data on pathogen-embryo interactions. For acute viral diseases such as FMD, vesicular stomatitis or bluetongue, embryo transfer reduces the risk of international embryo movement by a factor of 10(4). Therefore, if favourable epidemiological or ecological conditions exist in the region of origin of the embryos, the risk of contamination of a batch of llama embryos with the above agents is close to zero. The risk of contamination with Mycobacterium or Brucella depends on the incidence of these diseases, but under the most unfavourable prevalence levels, the risk does not exceed 10(-3.3), given that the results of diagnostic tests of the herd and of donor animals are negative before and after collection of the embryos. This study demonstrates that risk assessment can be a valuable tool to facilitate international movement of embryos, particularly for those species for which little or no data are available regarding embryo-pathogen interactions.
Notes: eng
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10588016


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 929
Author: Stone, Lynn M. CN - SF401.L6 S68 1999
Year: 1999
Title: Llama farms
Series Title: Funky farms
City: Vero Beach, Fla.
Publisher: Rourke Corporation
Number of Pages: 24 p. ST - Llama farms
ISBN: 0865935416
Label: 19
Keywords: Llama farms Juvenile literature. Llamas Juvenile literature. Llamas. Llama farms.
Abstract: Describes the physical characteristics and habits of llamas and how they are now raised domestically across the United States. AN - 4521712
Notes: TY - BOOK
99025303 Lynn M. Stone. col. ill. ; 19 x 20 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. 24) and index. Stone, Lynn M. Funky farms.


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 190
Author: Sivasankar, M.
Year: 1999
Title: Immunodeficiency syndrome in a 3-year-old llama
Journal: Can Vet J
Volume: 40
Issue: 4
Pages: 271-2
Date: Apr
Accession Number: 10200887
Abstract: An adult, castrated male llama was presented for evaluation of a chronic respiratory problem. Complete blood analyses indicated a leukopenia and hypoproteinemia. Radial immunodiffusion, bone marrow core, and lymph node biopsies supported a tentative diagnosis of juvenile llama immunodeficiency syndrome. This diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem findings.
Notes: Sivasankar, M


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 191
Author: Powell, Susan A.
Year: 1999
Title: The relationship of estradiol to embryo-maternal interactions in the llama
Label: 43558794 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 931
Author: Nancy, Zafris C1 - Full publication date: Spring, 1999
Year: 1999
Title: Stealing the Llama Farm
Journal: The Kenyon Review
Volume: 21
Issue: 2
Pages: 55-61 ST - Stealing the Llama Farm
Label: 34
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4337881


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 193
Author: Linden, Richard van der
Year: 1999
Title: Unique characteristics of llama heavy chain antibody fragments
City: S.l. DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
University: s.n.]
Label: 1712
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 932
Author: Kik, Maria J. L.; van der Hage, Marein H. C1 - Full publication date: Sep., 1999
Year: 1999
Title: Cecal Impaction Due to Dysautonomia in a Llama (Lama glama)
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 30
Issue: 3
Pages: 435-438 ST - Cecal Impaction Due to Dysautonomia in a Llama (Lama glama)
Label: 41
Abstract: A llama (Lama glama) died after 1 wk of obstipation, lethargy, and rolling. Necropsy showed that the stomach and small intestine were distended with gas and fluid. The cecum was impacted with dry contents and the colon was empty. No gross lesions were found in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract or other organs. Histologic changes consisted of chromatolysis of neurons of autonomic ganglia, enteric plexi, and the accessory cuneate nucleus, consistent with lesions associated with dysautonomia in other domestic animals.
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095892


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 195
Author: Jarvinen, J. A.; Dubey, J. P.; Althouse, G. C. C. Full publication date Feb
Year: 1999
Title: Clinical and Serologic Evaluation of Two Llamas (Lama glama) Infected with Toxoplasma gondii during Gestation
Journal: The Journal of Parasitology
Volume: 85
Issue: 1
Pages: 142-144
Accession Number: 40
Abstract: Two pregnant llamas (Lama glama) infected with Toxoplasma gondii and their offspring were evaluated clinically and serologically. Llama 1 was inoculated orally with 1,000 infective oocysts of the P89 strain of T. gondii at 82 days of gestation (DOG). Llama 2 became naturally infected with T. gondii between 26 and 119 DOG. Both llamas remained clinically normal and delivered healthy offspring. Sera collected from both llamas during pregnancy and from their offspring before and after colostral ingestion were evaluated for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT), latex agglutination test (LAT), indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), and the Sabin-Feldman dye test (DT). In llama 1, MAT antibody titers were <1:20, 1:320, 1:1,280, 1:640, and 1:80 at 82, 97, 109, 132, and 152 DOG, respectively. The MAT titers in naturally infected llama 2 were <1:32, 1:320-1:640, and 1:1,280 at 26, 119-200, and 346 DOG, respectively. In both llamas, antibody titers in the DT were of similar magnitude as the MAT, but titers in the LAT and IHAT were inconsistent. Antibodies to T. gondii were not detected in precolostral sera obtained from offspring of both llamas suggesting there was no fetal T. gondii infection.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3285721


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 196
Author: Isaza, Ramiro.
Year: 1999
Title: Degenerative myelopathy as a cause of spinal ataxia in llamas
Label: 52175940 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 197
Author: DeHart, Malissa DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1999
Title: Bilateral cataracts in a three month old llama
Label: 1817
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 198
Author: Carmen Aguilar, Jacqueline.
Year: 1999
Title: Supplementation of alfalfa hay and ensilage to increase live weight in male Ancuta Llamas
Label: 738527651 LA - English
Abstract: The present research work was done at the Agricultural Experimental Center in Codoriri, located 49 km from the city of Oruro and 12 km from the city of Caracollo. It belongs to the Faculty of Agriculture at the Technical University of Oruro. The study was 90 days long from October 15, 1997 to January 13, 1998. The main objective was to determine live weight gain through alfafa hay and ensilage supplement. The collection of food supplies was done during the month of March and April, preparing the ensilage at the same time. The hay was grounded at a later time. Thirty male ancuta llamas were used in the study. Ten were used for alfalfa hay supplementation, ten for ensilage supplementation, and 10 were used as controls without supplementation. The supplementation rations were offered after the animals grazed, for which 3 corrals were used. A random block design was used with three treatments, each one consisting of 10 repetitions, two of which are supplemental and one is a control. The data was analyzed through variance analysis according to a SAS program. The following statistics were taken: monthly live weight, weight of offered food, weight of refused food, body weight, meat yield, weight of cut parts. According tot he variance analysis done on the statistical analysis, there were highly significant differences between treatments in live weight increases. TA obtained an average increase of 12.5 kn, TB increased 11.5 kg, and finally TC increased 8.35 kg. The highest consumption was recorded for the TA supplement of 847 g/llama/day, followed by TB with 731 g/llama/day. These numbers are averages obtained from the entire study. With respect to body yield, we obtained the following results: TA 54.78%, TB 53.76% and TC 51.14%. From the economic analysis we learn that the TA (ensilage) treatment had the best total cost benefit/llama of 26.48 Bs. Followed by TB (hay) with 31.76 Bs/llama, thus justifying the supplementation. The TA was the most beneficial in terms of body weight gain, but economically has the least benefit.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 199
Author: Beier, Ernest DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1999
Title: Oral pharmacokinetic and clinical efficacy profiles of fenbendazole in Llamas, South American Camelids
Label: 1803
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 200
Author: Antkowiak, Matthew.
Year: 1999
Title: Malnutrition and hypothermia in a neonatal llama
Label: 51487557 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 201
Author: Aguilar Cabrera, Jacqueline Carmen.
Year: 1999
Title: Suplementación de heno y ensillaje de alfalfa para el incremento de peso vivo en llamas ancutas machos
Label: 700205772 LA - English
Abstract: No abstract supplied.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 202
Year: 1999
Title: Llamas
Publisher: Clay Press
ISBN: 0887-9923
URL: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=tV5MAAAAYAAJ


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 934
Author: Waschevski, Michael C1 - Full publication date: NOVEMBER 1998
Year: 1998
Journal: The Choral Journal
Volume: 39
Issue: 4
Pages: 75-75
Date: 1998 RI - Llama de amor viva (Living Flame of Love), Frank Ferko
Label: 169
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23552738


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 203
Author: Potts, Leah K. DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1998
Title: Of lentils and llamas, and other stories from the Palouse & writing truthfully in fiction an essay
Label: 1774
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 204
Author: Karesh, William B.; Uhart, Marcela M.; Dierenfeld, Ellen S.; Braselton, W. Emmett; Torres, Alfonso; House, Carol; Puche, Helena; Cook, Robert A.
Year: 1998
Title: Health Evaluation of Free-Ranging Guanaco (Lama guanicoe)
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 29
Issue: 2
Pages: 134-141
Abstract: Twenty free-ranging guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in Chubut Province, Argentina, were immobilized for health evaluations. All but two animals appeared to be in good condition. Hematology, serum chemistry, and vitamin and mineral levels were measured, and feces were evaluated for parasites. Serology tests included bluetongue, brucellosis, bovine respiratory syncitial virus, bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease, equine herpesvirus 1, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Johne's disease (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis), foot and mouth disease, leptospirosis (17 serovars), parainfluenza-3, and vesicular stomatitis. Blood samples from 20 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) maintained in the same reserve with the guanaco were also collected at the same time for serology tests. No guanaco had positive serologic tests. Sheep were found to have antibody titers to bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Johne's disease, leptospirosis, and parainfluenza-3. There was no apparent difference in external appearance or condition, or statistical difference in blood test values, between the animals that were positive or negative for parasite ova.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095735


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 935
Author: Gustafson, Laura L.; Franklin, William L.; Sarno, Ronald J.; Hunter, Russel L.; Young, Karen M.; Johnson, Warren E.; Behl, Michael J. C1 - Full publication date: Jan., 1998 DO - 10.2307/3802261
Year: 1998
Title: Predicting Early Mortality of Newborn Guanacos by Birth Mass and Hematological Parameters: A Provisional Model
Journal: The Journal of Wildlife Management
Volume: 62
Issue: 1
Pages: 24-35 ST - Predicting Early Mortality of Newborn Guanacos by Birth Mass and Hematological Parameters: A Provisional Model
Label: 396
Abstract: We measured hematological determinants, endocrine parameters, and birth mass of 145 newborn (chulengo) guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile, to determine if these factors were predictors of early mortality. Within 10 days of life, 16% of chulengos died in 1991 and 14% died in 1992. The principal cause (68%) of chulengo mortality was predation by the Patagonian puma (Felis concolor patagonia), but the role of compromised health was unknown. We assessed the health status of hand-captured chulengos by measuring white blood cell (WBC) count, differential leukocyte count, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (N:L), metarubricyte count, cortisol levels, total T3 and T4, and birth mass. We evaluated the prognostic relation of these parameters on neonatal mortality through Chi-square and Bayesian analyses. Band neutrophil count >1000/&#x3bc;L, lymphocyte count >4000/&#x3bc;L, N:L ratio <2, metarubricyte count >300/&#x3bc;L, and birth mass <10 kg categorized the nonsurvivor group more than the survivor group. A Bayesian model using band neutrophil count and N:L ratio labeled 9% of the newborns as "unhealthy," and correctly predicted 44% of the mortalities and 96% of the survivors. Variations between cohorts suggested that a low N:L ratio (possible prematurity) and metarubricytosis were more common in 1991, but that sepsis was more important in 1992. Within the category of correctly predicted mortalities, none (0/3) of the carcasses of animals with band counts >1000/&#x3bc;L (suggestive of sepsis) showed signs of puma predation, while 100% (4/4) with an N:L ratio <2.0 (possible prematurity) showed signs of puma predation. The hematological parameters showing the strongest relation with mortality were also some of the least expensive and easiest parameters to measure. Readers should consider this Bayesian model groundwork for future studies assessing health-related neonatal mortality in guanacos. The approach also has research and management implications for other wildlife species.
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3802261


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 206
Author: Fowler, Murray E.
Year: 1998
Title: Medicine and surgery of South American camelids : llama, alpaca, vicun\0303a, guanaco
City: Ames
Publisher: Iowa State University Press
Edition: 2nd ed.
ISBN: 0813803977
Accession Number: adv0102255539
Call Number: 636.296 21 British Library DSC 98/27057
Keywords: Lama (Genus) Diseases. Vicun\0303a Diseases. Lama (Genus) Surgery. Vicun\0303a Surgery.
Notes: Murray E. Fowler. Previous ed.: 1989. Includes bibliographical references and index.


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 937
Author: Cebra, Margaret L.; Cebra, Christopher K.; Garry, Franklyn B.; Boon, June A.; Orton, E. Christopher C1 - Full publication date: Jun., 1998
Year: 1998
Title: Atrioventricular Septal Defects in Three Llamas (Lama glama)
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 29
Issue: 2
Pages: 225-227 ST - Atrioventricular Septal Defects in Three Llamas (Lama glama)
Label: 70
Abstract: Two half-sibling neonatal llamas (Lama glama) and one unrelated adult llama were presented with various complaints, including failure to thrive, respiratory distress, and excessive recumbency. The related camelids were born in successive years to the same dam but from unrelated sires. Thoracic auscultation revealed significant systolic and diastolic murmurs on both sides of the chest in all three llamas, and arterial blood gas evaluation revealed hypoxemia in two llamas. Echocardiographic examinations revealed large atrioventricular septal (AVS) defects in all three llamas. Two llamas were euthanized after diagnosis and the third died 4 mo later. Postmortem examination confirmed large AVS defects in all animals. There also was marked cardiomegaly in each animal. The discovery of such a cardiac anomaly in these three camelids suggests that it may be common in this species and may have a genetic basis.
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095751


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 208
Author: Beattie, Linda
Year: 1998
Title: Making the most of your llama
City: Kalama, WA
Publisher: Kopacetic inK
Number of Pages: 89 p.
ISBN: 0961963417
Accession Number: 17
Keywords: Pack llamas.
Notes: 98067195 Linda Beattie. ill. ; 23 cm. Includes index.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 209
Author: Aba, Marcelo Alfredo
Year: 1998
Title: Hormonal interrelationships in reproduction of female llamas and alpacas
City: Uppsala DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
University: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Label: 1854
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 210
Author: Schantz, Heidi A.
Year: 1997
Title: Comparing forage selection and evaluating trampling impacts of horses and llamas in wilderness and backcountry meadows
Label: 42068131 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 939
Author: Mene\ndez, Ricardo CN - British Library HMNTS YA.2001.a.6957
Year: 1997
Title: La 'seguridad' siempre llama dos veces-- : y los orichas tambie\0301n
City: Miami, Fla.
Publisher: Ediciones Universal
ISBN: 0897298179 ST - La 'seguridad' siempre llama dos veces-- : y los orichas tambie\0301n
Label: 224
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - 0897298179
Ricardo Mene\0301ndez. Coleccio\0301n Caniqui\0301


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 212
Author: Kasiwong, Srirat.
Year: 1997
Title: Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, and omeprazole in llamas
Label: 38526026 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 213
Author: Hutchison, Jennifer McKenzie.
Year: 1997
Title: Measurable aspects of the immune response in llamas : an epidemiologic approach
Label: 46464810 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 214
Author: Chávez, Karen M. DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1997
Title: Llamas at home, on the range and in the therapist's chair : trends in the llama industry in Montana
Label: 1849
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 215
Author: Waller, Marian. [Main author]; Waller, Ruth. SE - A little ark book
Year: 1996
Title: The leaping llama carpet
City: London
Publisher: Allen & Unwin
Number of Pages: 32p. : chiefly col. ill.. ; 27 cm. LA - English
ISBN: 1863739580
Keywords: Children's stories, English.
Picture books for children. HL - National Library of Scotland ; National Library of Wales / Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru ; Trinity College Dublin Library ; UCL Institute of Education Library, University of London ; University of Oxford Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 216
Author: Waldridge, Bryan Meredith
Year: 1996
Title: The effect of subcutaneous selenium administration on whole blood selenium and glutathione peroxidase in llamas
Label: 36346056 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 217
Author: Veen, Otto van 1556-1629. [Main author]; Horace.; Veen, Gijsbert van 1558-1630 [engr] SE - Serie Una elección que se llama Europa 1
Year: 1996
Title: Quinti Horatii Flacci emblemata
City: Villaviciosa de Odón (Madrid)
Publisher: Universidad Europea de Madrid-CEES
Number of Pages: xxix, [214] p. : ill. ; 24 cm. LA - Dutch ; French ; Italian ; Latin ; Spanish ; Spanish (summary)
ISBN: 8488881541 NT - Facsimile. Original published Antwerp: Prostant apud Philippum Lisaert, 1612. NT - Engravings attributed to Gijsbert van Veen. NT - Title vignette of Horace. NT - Latin texts from Horace and other authors, Spanish, Dutch, Italian and French. NT - Latin texts from Horace and other authors, with glosses on the facing plates in Spanish, Dutch, Italian and French; introduction in Spanish.
Keywords: Horace.
Emblems.
Emblem books, Latin.
Emblems -- Early works to 1800.
Literatura y pintura -- Facsímiles. HL - Senate House Libraries, University of London ; University of Liverpool Libraries ; V\&A Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 940
Author: Stobart, Henry C1 - Full publication date: Aug., 1996
Year: 1996
Title: The Llama's Flute: Musical Misunderstandings in the Andes
Journal: Early Music
Volume: 24
Issue: 3
Pages: 471-482 ST - The Llama's Flute: Musical Misunderstandings in the Andes
Label: 133
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3128262


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 219
Author: Smith, Bradford B. (Bradford Bixby) 1952- [Main author]; Timm, Karen I.; Long, Patrick O.
Year: 1996
Title: Llama and alpaca neonatal care
City: Jackson, Calif
Publisher: Clay Press
Number of Pages: 112 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm. LA - English
Edition: First edition.
ISBN: 0964661837 NT - Includes index. NT - Contents: Anatomy and physiology of pregnancy -- Preparation for birth -- Birth -- Dystocias -- Care of the newborn -- Problems of the newborn -- Care of the dam.
Keywords: Llamas.
Alpaca.
Veterinary neonatology. HL - University of Edinburgh Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 220
Author: Reed, Pamela J.
Year: 1996
Title: Studies on luteinizing hormone and gonadal steroids in male and female llamas (Lama glama)
Label: 37532753 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 221
Author: Patterson, William A.
Year: 1996
Title: Influence of llama, horse, and foot traffic on soil erosion from established recreation trails in western Montana
Label: 42065913 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 222
Author: Oplinger, Hans; Roger Williams, University; School of, Architecture
Year: 1996
Title: Kinesthesia : University of Pennsylvania graduate school of veterinary studies and large animal research : in conjunction with Berry Acres Llamas
City: Bristol, R.I. DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
University: Roger Williams University
Label: 1721
Notes: TY - THES
(Bristol, R.I.)


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 223
Author: Anderson, Barbara Norris
Year: 1996
Title: Llama babies : up, dry, and nursing
City: Salem, OR
Publisher: A+ Llamas
Number of Pages: 183 p.
ISBN: 0965479102
Accession Number: 16
Keywords: Llamas Infancy.
Llamas Parturition.
Llamas Oregon Salem Region Anecdotes.
Anderson, Barbara Norris.
Notes: 96086675 Barbara Norris Anderson. ill. ; 22 cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. 172) and index.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 224
Author: Sammells, Clare A.
Year: 1995
Title: The negotiation of ethnic identity : multifaceted images of llama meat in La Paz, Bolivia
Label: 33966059 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 942
Author: Peauroi, John R.; Mohr, F. Charles; Fisher, David J.; Misheff, Martha; Grindley, G. Joan; Campo, M. Saveria C1 - Full publication date: Jun., 1995
Year: 1995
Title: Anemia, Hematuria, and Multicentric Urinary Neoplasia in a Llama (Lama glama) Exposed to Bracken Fern
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 26
Issue: 2
Pages: 315-320 ST - Anemia, Hematuria, and Multicentric Urinary Neoplasia in a Llama (Lama glama) Exposed to Bracken Fern
Label: 49
Abstract: An adult male llama (Lama glama) was euthanized because of severe chronic hematuria and accompanying anemia. Pathology was limited to the urinary system and consisted of multicentric bilateral transitional cell carcinoma of the renal calyces, ureteral transitional cell papilloma, and diffuse urothelial hyperplasia. This animal had been pastured for years in an area contaminated with the carcinogen-containing plant bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). The lesions in this animal resembled those seen in cattle consuming bracken fern, and it appears that llamas may be susceptible to the urinary carcinogenic effects of bracken fern.
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095481


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 944
Author: Nieva, Francisco CN - British Library HMNTS YA.1997.a.75
Year: 1995
Title: La llama vestida de negro : novela de misterios y sobrecogimientos
City: Barcelona
Publisher: Seix Barral
ISBN: 8432207160 ST - La llama vestida de negro : novela de misterios y sobrecogimientos
Label: 235
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - 8432207160
Francisco Nieva. Biblioteca breve


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 228
Author: Miller, George R.; Burger, Richard L. C. Full publication date Jul
Year: 1995
Title: Our Father the Cayman, Our Dinner the Llama: Animal Utilization at Chavin de Huantar, Peru
Journal: American Antiquity
Volume: 60
Issue: 3
Pages: 421-458
Accession Number: 62
Abstract: Analysis of the animal bones recovered from the excavations of residential contexts at Chavin de Huantar reveals a mixed economy that included the herding and hunting of camelids (llama and vicuna) at Chavin de Huantar as early as the Urabarriu Phase (900-500 B.C.). It also suggests that a pattern of trade in dried llama meat (ch 'arki) from high altitude environments (punas) to lower ones had developed by the Chakinani phase (500-400 B.C.), while the consumption of hunted animals (especially deer) sharply declined in importance. During the apogee of Chavin de Huantar (400-200 B.C.), socioeconomic stratification is reflected in differential access to tender meat from younger animals. The role of Chavin de Huantar in the spread of camelid pastoralism and the importance of highland vs. tropical rain forest animals in Chavin ideology is discussed as well.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/282258


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 229
Author: Lichtenwalner, Anne DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1995
Title: Mechanism of oviductal transport in the mare and reproductive behavior, ejaculatory pattern and seminal parameters in the male llama
Label: 1763
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 948
Author: Gipps, Ruth CN - 788.58 British Library MUSIC f.353.j.(5.)
Year: 1995
Title: Llama's lullaby : for bassoon & piano
City: Bridgend
Publisher: Griffiths Edition
ISBN: No price ST - Llama's lullaby : for bassoon & piano
Label: 282
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - mu9620163
9601 Pl. no. GE0117.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 230
Author: Aba, Marcelo Alfredo
Year: 1995
Title: Studies on the reproductive endocrinology of llamas and alpacas : from mating throughout early pregnancy
City: Uppsala DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
University: Department of Clinical Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Label: 1848
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 949
Author: Yurkie\vich, Sau l CN - British Library HMNTS YA.1996.a.16266
Year: 1994
Title: El cristal y la llama
City: Caracas
Publisher: FUNDARTE, Alcaldi\0301a de Caracas
ISBN: 9802532304 ST - El cristal y la llama
Label: 260
Keywords: Spanish American literature 20th century History and criticism.
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - 9802532304
Sau\0301l Yurkie\0301vich. Coleccio\0301n Breves ; 51


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 232
Author: Voss, Gisela; Sweet, Melissa; Boston., Museum of Fine Arts
Year: 1994
Title: Llama in pajamas
City: Boston, Mass.
Publisher: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Number of Volumes: 1
ISBN: 0878464085
Accession Number: 3080928
Call Number: PZ7.V976 Ll 1994
Keywords: Toy and movable books Specimens. Llamas Fiction. Bedtime Fiction. Andes Fiction. Toy and movable books.
Abstract: Illustrations under flaps reveal a little llama hiding from his mother.
Notes: 97184247 by Gisela Voss ; pictures by Melissa Sweet. col. ill. ; 19 cm. Adapted from Stuff and nonsense, a book in the Museum's print collection.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 233
Author: Thonemann, Lesley Betty
Year: 1994
Title: Does the violence in Juan Rulfo's short stories reflect Mexican society from the era of the Revolution to contemporary times? : a study of some stories from "El Llano en llamas"against the cultural and socio-historic background of Mexico, discussing how the stories relate to violence within the society
Label: 222379883 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 951
Author: Thompson, Colin P. C1 - Full publication date: APRIL 1994
Year: 1994
Journal: The Journal of Theological Studies
Volume: 45
Issue: 1
Pages: 464-465
Date: 1994 RI - 'Juan de la Cruz, Esp&#xed;ritu de Llama'. Estudios con ocasi&#xf3;n del cuarto centenario de su muerte (1591&#x2014;1991.) (Vacare Deo, 10. Studies in Spirituality, Supplement 1.), Otger Steggink, O. Carm
Label: 170
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23967043


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 952
Author: Sua\rez, Jose Manuel CN - British Library HMNTS YA.1996.a.7171
Year: 1994
Title: En sigilo de llama
City: Madrid
Publisher: Rialp
ISBN: 8432130478 ST - En sigilo de llama
Label: 236
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - 8432130478
Jose\0301 Manuel Sua\0301rez. Adonais ; 510


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 235
Author: Stanley, Helen F.; Kadwell, Miranda; Wheeler, Jane C. C. Full publication date Apr
Year: 1994
Title: Molecular Evolution of the Family Camelidae: A Mitochondrial DNA Study
Journal: Proceedings: Biological Sciences
Volume: 256
Issue: 1345
Pages: 1-6
Accession Number: 67
Abstract: We report the first molecular evolutionary analysis of the family Camelidae by analysing the full DNA sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Estimates for the time of divergence of the Old World (Camelini) and New World (Lamini) tribes obtained from sequence data are in agreement with those derived from the fossil record. The DNA sequence data were also used to test current hypotheses concerning the ancestors of the domesticated llama and alpaca. The results show that hybridization has occurred in the ancestry of both domesticated camelids, obscuring the origin of the domestic species.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/49586


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 236
Author: Smith, C. L.; Peter, A. T.; Pugh, D. G.
Year: 1994
Title: Reproduction in llamas and alpacas: a review
Journal: Theriogenology
Volume: 41
Issue: 3
Pages: 573-92
Date: Feb
Accession Number: 16727414
Abstract: In this review we attempt to compile and summarize the diverse and often contradictory material presented on the reproduction of llamas and alpacas (hereafter referred to as lamoids). Lamoids have recently gained international popularity, and theriogenologists are often asked to intervene in clinical management of reproductive problems of these animals. We therefore present a discussion of the reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior of llamas as well as the follicular dynamics as observed with ultrasonography. The nonsurgical embryo transfer procedure and the nutrient requirements of llamas are also discussed.
Notes: eng
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16727414


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 954
Author: Rickard, Lora G.; Gentz, Edward J.; Pearson, Erwin G.; Smith, Bradford B.; Frank, Anthony A.; Walker, Lori L.; Pybus, Margo J. C1 - Full publication date: Sep., 1994
Year: 1994
Title: Experimentally Induced Meningeal Worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) Infection in the Llama (Lama glama): Clinical Evaluation and Implications for Parasite Translocation
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 25
Issue: 3
Pages: 390-402 ST - Experimentally Induced Meningeal Worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) Infection in the Llama (Lama glama): Clinical Evaluation and Implications for Parasite Translocation
Label: 50
Abstract: Six adult llamas (Lama glama) were experimentally infected with five larval Parelaphostrongylus tenuis each. Neurologic, anatomic, and cerebrospinal fluid changes were assessed, and the potential for llamas to develop patent meningeal worm infections was evaluated. Clinical signs first appeared on days 45-53 postinfection. Onset of clinical signs was significantly associated with the age of the llama. Neurologic deficits characteristically appeared in the hind limbs first and progressed to the front limbs. Four of six llamas developed fatal infections, with clinical signs lasting between 20 and 80 days. No consistent abnormalities were present in cerebrospinal fluid total protein, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, or creatine kinase, thus limiting their value as diagnostic indicators of infection. All llamas developed an eosinophilic pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid, but the day on which it appeared differed. Histologic lesions compatible with parasite migration were present, primarily in the cervical spinal cord, in five of six llamas. Although two of six llamas survived the duration of the study, evidence of reproducing meningeal worm populations was absent. Risk of llamas transporting patent meningeal worm populations to nonendemic areas is considered minimal.
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095392


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 240
Author: Pérez, Faustino
Year: 1994
Title: Ese libro se llama-- : relatos
City: Santo Domingo, República Dominicana
Publisher: Alfa y Omega
Accession Number: 252
Notes: Faustino Pérez. Cover title. Short stories


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 956
Author: Paz, Octavio CN - British Library HMNTS YA.1995.a.17165
Year: 1994
Title: La llama doble : amor y erotismo
City: Barcelona
Publisher: Seix Barral
ISBN: 843220692X ST - La llama doble : amor y erotismo
Label: 276
Keywords: Sex in literature. Love in literature. Erotica literature History and criticism.
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - oc30730511
Octavio Paz. Biblioteca breve Subtitle on cover: La conexio\0301n entre el sexo, erotismo y amor, desde la memoria histo\0301rica hasta la vida cotidiana ma\0301s inmediata.


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 241
Author: Ordoñez, T Hervas
Year: 1994
Title: Llamas, llama production and llama nutrition in the Ecuador highlands
Journal: Journal of arid environments
Volume: 26
Issue: 1
Pages: 67-71
Alternate Journal: Journal of arid environments


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 242
Author: Murdande, Sharad B.
Year: 1994
Title: The disposition of four therapeutically important antimicrobial agents in llamas
Label: 36212708 LA - English
Abstract: The disposition of four therapeutically important antimicrobial agents was studied in llamas following intravenous bolus administration. Six llamas were each given ampicillin, tobramycin, trimethoprim and enrofloxacin at a dose of 12 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg of body weight with a wash out period of 3 days between each treatment. Plasma concentrations of these antimicrobial agents over 12 hours following IV bolus dosing were determined by reverse phase HPLC. Dispositions of these four antimicrobial agents were described by two compartment open model with elimination from the central compartment, and also by non-compartmental methods. From compartmental analysis, the elimination rate constant, half-life, and apparent volume of distribution in the central compartment were determined. Statistical moment theory was used to determine non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters of mean residence time, clearance, and volume of distribution at steady-state. Based on the disposition parameters determined, a dose and dosing interval for each of the four antimicrobial agents was suggested for llamas. Steady state peak and trough plasma levels were also predicted for the drugs in this study for llamas.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 957
Author: Lindstrom, Naomi C1 - Full publication date: Autumn, 1994 DO - 10.2307/40150658
Year: 1994
Journal: World Literature Today
Volume: 68
Issue: 4
Pages: 795-795
Date: 1994 RI - La llama doble: Amor y erotismo, Octavio Paz
Label: 164
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40150658


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 243
Author: Limsakun, Tharin DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1994
Title: Disposition of C<sub>2</sub>--H<sub>2</sub><sub>2</sub>N<sub>4</sub>O<sub>3</sub>S in rats and three antiulcer agents in llamas
Label: 1782
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 244
Author: Krieger, R.; Krieger, M.
Year: 1994
Title: In Search of the Ideal Llama: Assessing Conformational Traits in Llamas : the Field Guide
Publisher: Saltspring Island Llamas and Alpacas
ISBN: 9780969907411
URL: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=xdoOAQAAMAAJ


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 245
Author: Johnson, Larue W
Year: 1994
Title: Llama nutrition
Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice
Volume: 10
Issue: 2
Pages: 187-201
Alternate Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 246
Author: Huidobro Bellido, Jose; Arce Helguero, Freddy; Quispe Condori, Pascual; Huidobro Bellido, Jose Culto a las montan as; Huidobro Bellido, Jose Sacrifico de la llama en la isla del Sol; Huidobro Bellido, Jose Dioses andinos no han muerto
Year: 1994
Title: La verdadera escritura aymara
City: La Paz
Publisher: Asociacio\0301n Socio Econo\0301mica de Productores Indi\0301genas del Tawantinsuyo \201CA-Sepiita\201D
Accession Number: 274
Keywords: Aymara language Alphabet.
Aymara language Writing.
Festivals Bolivia.
Indians of South America Bolivia Religion.
Notes: Jose\0301 Huidobro Bellido, Freddy Arce Helguero, Pascual Quispe Condori. Includes also: El sacrificio de la llama en la isla del Sol; Culto a las montan\0303as; and Dioses andinos no han muerto! by Jose\0301 Huidobro Bellido - Cover. Includes bibliographical references.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 247
Author: Fraser, Mariecia Dawn
Year: 1994
Title: Grazing ecology of goats, red deer and South American camelids
Accession Number: Doctoral
Abstract: A study was undertaken to determine and compare the grazing ecology of goats, red deer and South American camelids when pastured on three contrasting vegetation types typical of hill and upland ecosystems in Scotland: an established sown sward (Lolium perenne dominated); an indigenous grassland (Nardus stricta dominated); and a dwarf-shrub community (Calluna vulgaris dominated). Plots at each site were grazed in sequence with data collected during one spring (May/June) and two summer (August/September) experimental sessions. For each period at each site plant species composition, canopy structure and herbage biomass were characterized. Samples of the diet selected by up to five mature castrated goats, red deer and guanacos fistulated at the oesophagus were used to establish diet composition and in vitro digestibility of the diet. Herbage intake and diet digestibility of an additional five intact animals of each species were determined using n-alkane faecal markers. Total grazing time was estimated using vibracorders and bite rate data collected by observation. The influence of vegetation type and season on the diet composition and ingestive behaviour of each species was evaluated. Between species comparisons on each vegetation type were also made. Differences in selectivity for and against vegetation components indicate that guanacos are principally grazers while goats and red deer are intermediate feeders. On the Lolium sward the goats and red deer selected green leaf of both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants whereas the guanacos selected only graminoids. On the Nardus community the main dietary component for all three animal species was broad-leaved grasses selected from the species-rich intertussock areas. On the dwarf-shrub community there was strong selection for and against graminoid species and Calluna vulgaris respectively, with the dominant species of plant only making a substantial contribution to the red deer diet. Where differences between estimates of diet digestibility were identified the digestibility of material consumed by each species of animal on the sown sward was higher than that from either indigenous community; and the digestibility of material selected from the indigenous grassland was higher than that from the dwarf-shrub community.
URL: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?did=6&uin=uk.bl.ethos.651100


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 960
Author: Foster, David William C1 - Full publication date: Spring, 1994 DO - 10.2307/40150189
Year: 1994
Journal: World Literature Today
Volume: 68
Issue: 2
Pages: 347-348
Date: 1994 RI - Oscura llama silenciada, Juan Villegas Morales
Label: 165
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40150189


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 961
Author: Didier, Genin; Zenobio, Villca; Percy, Abasto C1 - Full publication date: May, 1994 DO - 10.2307/4003025
Year: 1994
Title: Diet Selection and Utilization by Llama and Sheep in a High Altitude-Arid Rangeland of Bolivia
Journal: Journal of Range Management
Volume: 47
Issue: 3
Pages: 245-248 ST - Diet Selection and Utilization by Llama and Sheep in a High Altitude-Arid Rangeland of Bolivia
Label: 43
Abstract: Botanical composition of llamas and sheep diets were quantified monthly during 1 year in the arid highlands of Bolivia to identify competition between these species for forage resources. Results indicated higher proportions of coarse bunchgrasses in llamas diets (48 to 75%) than in sheep (37 to 68%), while sheep consumed more soft herbs and grasses than llamas (25 to 45%, and 8 to 25%, respectively). Llamas had higher (P<0.05) digestion coefficients than sheep for organic matter, dry matter, crude protein, and fiber fractions of the principle bunchgrass paja brava (Festuca orthophylla) during the vegetative phenological stage. Shrubs represented less than 20% of the diet components in both llamas and sheep. A canonical discriminant analysis showed that there was not a strong dietary overlap between these species, and suggested that mixed herds could allow a better utilization of the overall available forage.
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4003025


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 249
Author: Brakel, Arthur C. Full publication date
Year: 1994
Title: MI LLAMA ES
Journal: Chiric&#xfa;
Volume: 7
Issue: 2
Pages: 59-59
Accession Number: 26
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/43506625


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 250
Author: Belmar Badillo, Mónica Loretto; Cox Ureta, José Francisco; Arias Villegas, Patricio; Briones Luengo, Mario; Universidad de, Concepción; Facultad de Medicina, Veterinaria; Departamento de Producción y Reproducción, Animal
Year: 1994
Title: Histología del aparato genital tubular de hembra llama <Lama glama>
City: Chillán
University: Universidad de Concepción
Accession Number: 503151385
Abstract: Los camélidos Sudamericanos, con su especie Llama Lama glama, ha sido poco estudiada reproductivamente. Para lograr comprender el funcionamiento reproductivo de estas especies, se recolectaron muestras del aparato genital tubular de la hembra, para estudios histológicos de microscopía óptica y microscopía electrónica de barrido. En este estudio se observó que el aparato geneital tubular de la llama presenta en su recorrido un epitelio cilíndrico a cúbico simple, excepto a nivel vaginal que presenta un epitelio estratificado cilíndrico, variando según la etapa del ciclo reproductivo. Es posible encontrar en el epitelio distintos tipos de células que van a participar en el proceso reproductivo cumpliendo una función específica.
Notes: (Chile)


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 963
Author: Bare, Colleen Stanley CN - SF401.L6 B37 1994
Year: 1994
Title: Love a llama
City: New York
Publisher: Cobblehill Books
Number of Pages: 31 p. ST - Love a llama
ISBN: 0525651462
Label: 15
Keywords: Llamas Juvenile literature. LLamas.
Abstract: Photographs and simple text introduce the physical characteristics, habits, and natural environment of the llama. AN - 617055
Notes: TY - BOOK
92039928 Colleen Stanley Bare ; photographs by the author. col. ill. ; 24 cm. Includes index.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 252
Author: Yusuf, Irwandi DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1993
Title: Antigenic comparison of bovine, ovine, equine, and llama adenoviruses
Label: 1819
Abstract: Fifteen adenoviruses from cattle, sheep, horses, and llamas were studied by virus neutralization to determine their degree of antigenic similarity. Prototype viruses included bovine adenoviruses species 1-8, ovine adenoviruses species 5 and 6, and equine adenovirus species 1. Unclassified viruses that were compared to the prototype viruses were isolated from different locations within Oregon and were represented by bovine isolate 32CN, ovine isolates 47F and 475N, and llama isolate 7649. Reciprocal virus neutralization tests were performed and the degree of antigenic similarity, i.e., species differentiation was determined by criteria established by the International Committee for the Nomenclature of Viruses. The study showed that many of the adenoviruses, both prototype and unclassified, shared minor antigenic components with each other. Prototype viruses possessed major antigenic differences and, as previously demonstrated by other investigators, should be classified as separate virus species. Bovine adenovirus isolate 32CN was shown to be of the same species as ovine adenovirus isolate 475N, but neither isolate was similar to any of the prototype virus species studied. Ovine adenovirus isolate 47F was shown to be of the same species as ovine adenovirus species 5 strain RTS 42. Llama adenovirus isolate 7649, while sharing minor antigens with different viruses from cattle and sheep, was shown to be a distinct species. This represents the first species of adenovirus from llama.
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 253
Author: Villegas Morales, Juan
Year: 1993
Title: Oscura llama silenciada
City: Santiago, Chile
Publisher: Mosquito Editores
ISBN: 9562650456
Accession Number: 273
Notes: Juan Villegas Morales.


Reference Type: Conference Proceedings
Record Number: 254
Author: San Martin, Felipe; Bryant, Fred C
Year of Conference: 1993
Title: Comparative Nutrition Of Sheep And Camelids
Conference Name: Proceedings, Small Ruminant Workshop
Publisher: Small Ruminant CRSP, University of California, Davis
Pages: 93


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 255
Author: Roney, Margaret Weatherly DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1993
Title: Symbolic commentary in El Llano en llamas
Label: 1768
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 256
Author: Picton, Rebecca Anne.
Year: 1993
Title: Serologic survey of llamas in Oregon for antibodies to viral diseases of livestock
Label: 36040962 LA - English
Abstract: Serums from 270 llamas representing 21 farms throughout Oregon were obtained and assayed for antibody levels against viruses of livestock. These viral diseases included: bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 (PI-3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine adenovirus species 3 (BA3), equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), equine adenovirus (EA), equine influenza, subtypes 1 and 2 (EI-1, EI-2), equine viral arteritis (EVA), ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP), bluetongue (BT), vesicular stomatitis, New Jersey strain and Indiana strain (VSV-NJ, VSV-IN), and llama adenovirus strain 7649 (LA7649). Antibodies to Ehrlichia risticii (ER), the rickettsia) organism causing Potomac horse fever (PHF), were also assayed. Of the 270 llamas, 252 had antibodies to LA7649. A total of 60 llamas possessed antibodies to various viruses associated with livestock disease. Seven of these llamas had antibodies to more than one virus (excluding LA7649). Forty three exhibited antibodies to EA, 12 to BVD, and 12 to PI-3. Four had antibodies to BTV, 2 to BHV-1, and 2 to EI-1. One had antibodies to EI-2, one to EHV-1, and one to BRSV. All 270 llamas lacked antibodies to EVA, BA3, VSV-NJ, VSV-IN, OPP and ER. Presence and type of livestock were noted on each farm. Whether a llama was born on the farm or purchased and the length of time the llama had been on the farm was also noted.
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 257
Author: Peters, Kathryn M.; Meneses, Vidaluz DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1993
Title: Practice in the translation of poetic discourse : a translation of selected poems from Llama en el Aire by Vidaluz Meneses
Label: 1757
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 258
Author: Palacios, Argentina. [Main author]; Reasoner, Charles. SE - Legends of the world
Year: 1993
Title: The llama's secret : a Peruvian legend
City: [s.l]
Publisher: Troll Associates
Number of Pages: 32 p. : col. ill. LA - English
ISBN: 0816730504 HL - UCL Institute of Education Library, University of London DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 259
Author: Paggi, Jeff DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1993
Title: Factors in a female birth of a llama cria
Label: 1818
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 965
Author: Nasta, Jose Daniel CN - British Library HMNTS YA.1995.a.7669
Year: 1993
Title: Sin tocayos : historias reales de co\0301mo se llama la gente
City: Asuncio\0301n
Publisher: N\0303anduti\0301 Vive
Label: 277
Keywords: Names, Personal Miscellanea.
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - oc29317663
Jose\0301 Daniel Nasta.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 261
Author: Lette, Kathy. [Main author]
Year: 1993
Title: The llama parlour.
Publisher: Picador
Number of Pages: 243p. LA - English
Edition: New ed.
ISBN: 0330326856 (pbk) HL - National Library of Wales / Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 967
Author: John of the Cross, Saint; Cuevas García, Cristóbal; John of the Cross, Saint Llama de amor viva CN - 861/.3 21 British Library HMNTS YA.2000.a.29308
Year: 1993
Title: Poesi\0301as : Llama de amor viva
City: Madrid J2 - Poems. Selections
Publisher: Taurus Ediciones
ISBN: 8430601457 ST - Poesi\0301as : Llama de amor viva
Label: 239
Keywords: John of the Cross, Saint, 1542-1591 Criticism and interpretation.
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - 8430601457
San Juan de la Cruz ; edicio\0301n de Cristo\0301bal Cuevas. Cla\0301sicos Taurus ; 18 Includes bibliographical references (p. 94-101)


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 263
Author: Barreto de Bonnemaison, Lilia
Year: 1993
Title: Jose\0301 Rafael Pocaterra y "La Llama de una vela" de Gasto\0301n Bachelard
Publisher: Valencia
ISBN: 9806276132
Accession Number: 275
Keywords: Pocaterra, Jose\0301 Rafael, 1889-1955.
Bachelard, Gaston, 1884-1962. Flamme d'une chandelle.
Notes: Lilia Barreto de Bonnemaison. Includes bibliographical references.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 969
Author: Ruck, Ruth Janette CN - 636.296 20 British Library HMNTS YK.1993.a.5760
Year: 1992
Title: Along came a llama
Publisher: Weavers Press
ISBN: 094601728X (pbk) : ¹6.50 ST - Along came a llama
Label: 269
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - b9312255
GB9312255 bnb 2235


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 265
Author: Rickard, L
Year: 1992
Title: Llama parasites
Journal: Large animal veterinarian covering health and nutrition (USA)
Alternate Journal: Large animal veterinarian covering health and nutrition (USA)


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 266
Author: Pipas, Michael Jon
Year: 1992
Title: Epizootiology of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in Pennsylvania and implications of transmission from white-tailed deer to llamas
Label: 29739427 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 970
Author: Orlove, Benjamin S. C1 - Full publication date: May, 1992
Year: 1992
Journal: American Ethnologist
Volume: 19
Issue: 2
Pages: 375-376
Date: 1992 RI - The Flocks of the Wamani: A Study of Llama Herders on the Punas of Ayacucho, Peru, Kent V. Flannery, Joyce Marcus, Robert G. Reynolds
Label: 155
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/645043


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 268
Author: Mach, Roman.
Year: 1992
Title: LLAMA : a multitasking mobile robot control language designed and optimized for intersystem communication to an expert system
Label: 27042695 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 971
Author: Lette, Kathy CN - 823.914 20 British Library HMNTS NOV.1992/1219
Year: 1992
Title: The llama parlour
Publisher: Bloomsbury
ISBN: 0747510172 : ¹14.99 ST - The llama parlour
Label: 247
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - b9236017
GB9236017 bnb 2164


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 270
Author: Foreyt, W. J.; Lagerquist, John C. Full publication date Oct
Year: 1992
Title: Experimental Infections of Eimeria alpacae and Eimeria punoensis in Llamas (Lama glama)
Journal: The Journal of Parasitology
Volume: 78
Issue: 5
Pages: 906-909
Accession Number: 54
Abstract: Four llamas (Lama glama) ranging in age from 1.5 yr to 7 yr each were inoculated orally with 10,000 (n = 2) or 50,000 (n = 2) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria alpacae (25%) and Eimeria punoensis (75%). The prepatent period for E. alpacae was 16-18 days, and it was 10 days for E. punoensis. Patent periods for E. alpacae and E. punoensis were approximately 9 days and 24 days, respectively. Although large numbers of oocysts were present in feces, no clinical sign of coccidiosis was observed. Based on this experiment, E. alpacae and E. punoensis at the numbers given are not likely pathogenic in healthy llamas older than 1 yr.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3283327


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 973
Author: Ca\rdenas Amador, Gale CN - 863 20 British Library HMNTS YA.1995.a.1533
Year: 1992
Title: Llama de todos los poros
City: [Honduras]
Publisher: Argos
Label: 219
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - oc27867528
Galel Ca\0301rdenas.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 273
Author: Allen, Judy.
Year: 1992
Title: Long-loan Llama
Publisher: Red Fox
Number of Pages: [64]p. : Ill ; 20cm. LA - English
Edition: New ed.
ISBN: 0099968002 (pbk) HL - Trinity College Dublin Library DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 272
Author: Allen, Judy. SE - A city farm story
Year: 1992
Title: The long-loan llama
City: London
Publisher: Red Fox
Number of Pages: 63p LA - English
ISBN: 0099968002 (pbk) NT - First published: London : Julia MacRae, 1991.
Keywords: English fiction -- Children's stories HL - British Library ; National Library of Scotland ; University of Oxford Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 274
Author: Steggink, Otger. SE - Vacare Deo 10 SE - Studies in spirituality. Supplement 1
Year: 1991
Title: "Juan de la Cruz, espiritu de llama" : estudios con ocasión del cuarto centenario de su muerte (1591-1991)
City: Roma
Kampen
Publisher: Institutum Carmelitanum
Kok Pharos
Number of Pages: viii, 945 pages LA - English ; French ; German ; Italian ; Spanish
ISBN: 9024224543 (Kok Pharos)
887288019x NT - Includes bibliographical references. NT - Contributions mainly in Spanish, but also in English, French, German and Italian.
Keywords: John of the Cross Saint 1542-1591. HL - University of Edinburgh Libraries ; University of Oxford Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 275
Author: Semalulu, Souleh S.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel C. Full publication date Sep
Year: 1991
Title: Streptococcus sanguis Type-1 Associated with Abortion in a Llama (Lama glama)
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 22
Issue: 3
Pages: 351-354
Accession Number: 38
Abstract: Streptococcus sanguis type-1 was isolated in pure culture from the lungs, spleen, liver, and stomach fluid and in mixed culture with Escherichia coli from placental tissues of an aborted llama (Lama glama) fetus. The fetus had lesions of bronchopneumonia in which many gram-positive coccoid bacterial colonies were evident.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095169


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 276
Author: Region, United States. Forest Service. Pacific Northwest
Year: 1991
Title: Packing with llamas: partners on the trail
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region
URL: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=S0bwMYxwHAEC


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 976
Author: Meneses, Vidaluz CN - British Library HMNTS YA.1995.a.18396
Year: 1991
Title: Llama en el aire
City: Managua
Publisher: Nueva Nicaragua
Label: 220
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - oc26052086
Vidaluz Meneses. Letras de Nicaragua ; 36


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 278
Author: Foreyt, William J.; Rickard, Lora G.; Dowling, Susan; Parish, Steven; Pipas, Michael C. Full publication date Sep
Year: 1991
Title: Experimental Infections of Two Llamas with the Meningeal Worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis)
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 22
Issue: 3
Pages: 339-344
Accession Number: 68
Abstract: Two adult female llamas (Lama glama) were inoculated orally with meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) larvae to determine the effects of infection. One llama given 48 larvae developed paralysis 51 days after inoculation and was euthanized. A second llama given six larvae developed incoordination and hypermetria 51-57 days after inoculation and died during transport 65 days after inoculation. Infection in both llamas was characterized by incoordination, hypermetria, reluctance to stand, eosinophilia of cerebrospinal fluid, and severe meningoencephalomyelitis associated with migrating P. tenuis larvae. Based on these experimental infections, signs and lesions occur within 2 mo of infection and can be fatal in llamas.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095166


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 279
Author: Fernandez, Francisco Manuel. [Main author]
Year: 1991
Title: Proteinas de la leche de llama (Lama glama)
City: Argentina
Publisher: Tucuman
Number of Pages: 69 p. : ill. ; 26 cm. LA - English NT - Opera Lilloana 1991 No. 38 In Spanish.
Keywords: YIZ.
CUV. HL - Zoological Society of London DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 280
Author: Ebling, Geoffrey Andrew.
Year: 1991
Title: The biochemical and antibiogram characteristics of aerobic gram negative enteric bacilli from Llamas (Lama glama) : a thesis ...
Label: 24823240 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 281
Author: Aldous, Kate. [Main author]; Allen, Judy. SE - City Farm stories SE - City Farm stories.
Year: 1991
Title: The long-loan Llama
City: London
Publisher: MacRae
Number of Pages: 63 p. ; : 20 cm. LA - English
ISBN: 1856810607 (hbk.)
9781856810609
Keywords: Children's stories.
English fiction. HL - National Library of Scotland ; National Library of Wales / Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru ; Newcastle University Libraries ; Trinity College Dublin Library ; University of Oxford Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 282
Author: Adams, Gregg Patrick DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1991
Title: Ovarian function in llamas and cattle : factors affecting follicular growth and emergence of follicular waves
Label: 1770
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 283
Author: Riggsby, Ernest D. C. Full publication date November December
Year: 1990
Title: The Llama
Journal: Science and Children
Volume: 28
Issue: 3
Pages: 56-56
Accession Number: 171
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/43164755


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 284
Author: Markowitz, Lisa C. Full publication date Dec
Year: 1990
Journal: American Anthropologist
Volume: 92
Issue: 4
Pages: 1047-1048
Accession Number: 161
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/680692


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 285
Author: Lubroth, J.; Yedloutschnig, R. J.; Culhane, V. K.; Mikiciuk, P. E.
Year: 1990
Title: Foot-and-mouth disease virus in the llama (Lama glama): diagnosis, transmission, and susceptibility
Journal: J Vet Diagn Invest
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Pages: 197-203
Date: Jul
Accession Number: 1965585
Keywords: Animals Antibodies, Viral Antigens, Viral Aphthovirus Camelids, New World Cattle Cattle Diseases Complement Fixation Tests Disease Susceptibility Foot-and-Mouth Disease Male Neutralization Tests Swine Swine Diseases
Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was shown to be transmitted from either cattle to llamas, llamas to swine (interspecies), or llamas to llamas (intraspecies). Response to FMDV varied greatly in the 6 llamas studied; 3 llamas developed generalized clinical disease with mild pyrexia, 2 after intradermolingual inoculation, and 1 after exposure to a calf infected with FMDV serotype A24. Another contact llama developed vesicular lesions on all 4 extremities but no oral lesions. Two contact llamas, in separate study groups, did not seroconvert or develop clinical signs of FMDV infection. All 4 llamas showing clinical disease developed virus-neutralizing antibodies against FMDV A24 and antibodies against the virus-infection-associated antigen. Virus-neutralizing antibody titers remained elevated for over 200 days postinoculation or exposure. Antibodies to virus-infection-associated antigen were detected several days after virus-neutralizing antibody appeared and became weaker 100-125 days post-FMDV exposure in 3 of the 4 clinically affected llamas. One inoculated llama was still positive for virus-infection-associated antigen at 360 days after inoculation. Foot-and-mouth disease virus A24 was not detected from esophageal-pharyngeal fluid specimens beyond 8 days postexposure using in vitro techniques.
Notes: eng
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1965585


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 286
Author: Hovda, LR; McGuirk, SM; Lunn, DP
Year: 1990
Title: Total parenteral nutrition in a neonatal llama.
Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume: 196
Issue: 2
Pages: 319
Alternate Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 980
Author: Gose, Peter C1 - Full publication date: Dec., 1990 DO - 10.2307/2803690
Year: 1990
Journal: Man
Volume: 25
Issue: 4
Pages: 729-729
Date: 1990 RI - The Flocks of the Wamani: A Study of Llama Herders on the Punas of Ayacucho., Kent V. Flannery
Label: 162
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2803690


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 288
Author: Foreyt, William J.; Parish, Steven C. Full publication date Dec
Year: 1990
Title: Experimental Infection of Liver Flukes (Fascioloides magna) in a Llama (Lama glama)
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 21
Issue: 4
Pages: 468-470
Accession Number: 32
Abstract: One llama (Lama glama) was used to evaluate the effect of an experimentally induced Fascioloides magna infection. The llama was given 250 viable metacercariae of F. magna orally in a gelatin capsule. Eight months after inoculation, the llama was euthanized, and three nonencapsulated mature F. magna were recovered from the parenchyma of the liver. Trematode eggs were present within the hepatic parenchyma but not in feces. Based on a sample of one animal, response of llamas to F. magna is similar to that of cattle, which are aberrant dead-end hosts for this parasite.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095100


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 289
Author: Corpas, Juan Ramo n
Year: 1990
Title: Dira\0301n del dan\0303o y de la llama
City: Murcia
Publisher: Editora Regional de Murcia
ISBN: 8475640907
Accession Number: 234
Notes: Coleccio\0301n Poesi\0301a ; 31


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 290
Author: Cavero Carrasco, Juan Ranulfo
Year: 1990
Title: Incesto en los Andes : las "llamas demoníacas" como castigo sobrenatural
City: Ayacucho, Perú
Publisher: Concytec
Number of Pages: 213 p.
Accession Number: 1557
Keywords: Incest ethnology
Incest psychology
Peru ethnology
Notes: Juan Ranulfo Cavero Carrasco. ill.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 291
Author: Burke, Robin L.
Year: 1990
Title: The llama figurine in Andean prehistory : analysis of llama figurines from the Callejon de Huaylas, Peru
Label: 22599549 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 292
Author: Atlee, Barbara Ann
Year: 1990
Title: The histology of normal llama skin and mucous membranes
City: [Davis, Calif. DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Label: 1823
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 295
Year: 1990
Title: From the Centers for Disease Control. Rabies in a Llama--Oklahoma
Journal: JAMA
Volume: 263
Issue: 16
Pages: 2166
Date: Apr
Accession Number: 2319679
Keywords: Animals Artiodactyla Camelids, New World Dog Diseases Dogs Goat Diseases Goats Male Oklahoma Quarantine Rabies
Notes: eng
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2319679


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 294
Year: 1990
Title: La Casa que se llama bosque : San Ignacio de Moxos (13 al 16 de julio)
City: La Paz
Publisher: Fundacio\0301n Friedrich Ebert, Instituto Latinoamericano de Investigaciones Sociales
Accession Number: 225
Keywords: Rain forest ecology Bolivia Congresses.
Notes: Selected items from a seminar "Bosques Tropicales en Bolivia: Dilemas y Perspectivas", held July 13-16, 1989. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 293
Year: 1990
Title: Rabies in a Llama &#x2013; Oklahoma
Journal: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Volume: 39
Issue: 12
Pages: 203-204
Accession Number: 48
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/24248316


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 296
Author: Warmington, BG; Wilson, GF; Barry, TN
Year: 1989
Title: Voluntary intake and digestion of ryegrass straw by llama× guanaco crossbreds and sheep
Journal: The Journal of Agricultural Science
Volume: 113
Issue: 01
Pages: 87-91
Alternate Journal: The Journal of Agricultural Science


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 297
Author: Thedford, Thomas R; Johnson, LaRue W
Year: 1989
Title: Infectious diseases of New-World camelids (NWC)
Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice
Volume: 5
Issue: 1
Pages: 145-157
Alternate Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 986
Author: Smailus, Ortwin CN - British Library HMNTS YA.1992.a.17019
Year: 1989
Title: Vocabulario en lengua Castellana y Guatemalteca que se llama Cakchiquel Chi : ana\0301lisis gramatical y lexicolo\0301gico del Cakchiquel colonial segu\0301n un antiguo diccionario ano\0301nimo
City: Hamburg
Publisher: Wayasbah
ISBN: 3925682147 ST - Vocabulario en lengua Castellana y Guatemalteca que se llama Cakchiquel Chi : ana\0301lisis gramatical y lexicolo\0301gico del Cakchiquel colonial segu\0301n un antiguo diccionario ano\0301nimo
Label: 279
Keywords: Cakchikel language Dictionaries Spanish. Cakchikel language.
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - oc21518254
Ortwin Smailus. Wayasbah publication ; no. 14 Half title: Cakchiquel Chi. Includes bibliographical references. Contents: t. 1. Grama\0301tica -- t. 2-3. Lexicologia. Cakchiquel Chi.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 987
Author: Prieto de Paula, Angel L. CN - British Library HMNTS YA.1992.b.7225
Year: 1989
Title: La llama y la ceniza : introduccio\0301n a la poesi\0301a de Claudio Rodri\0301guez
City: Salamanca
Publisher: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca
ISBN: 8474815460 ST - La llama y la ceniza : introduccio\0301n a la poesi\0301a de Claudio Rodri\0301guez
Label: 230
Keywords: Rodri\0301guez, Claudio Criticism and interpretation.
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - oc21885770
Angel L. Prieto de Paula. Acta Salmanticensia. Estudios filolo\0301gicos ; 219 Includes bibliographical references (p. [221]-224)


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 300
Author: O'Brien, Juan
Year: 1989
Title: El uno se llama Diego
City: Santiago
Publisher: Logos
Accession Number: 262


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 301
Author: Leon, Juan B. DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1989
Title: Reproductive endocrinology and vaginal cytology of the female llama (lama glama)
Label: 1718
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 302
Author: Johnson, LaRue W.
Year: 1989
Title: Llama medicine
City: Philadelphia, Pa.
Publisher: Saunders
Accession Number: 268
Notes: LaRue W. Johnson, guest editor. Veterinary clinics of North America. Food animal practice, 0749-0720 ; vol.5, no.1


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 303
Author: Harmon, David A. Rubin.
Year: 1989
Title: Llama packing : a guide for the low impact use of llamas in the backcountry
Label: 41784379 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 990
Author: Gattas, Mecha CN - British Library HMNTS YA.1993.a.1051
Year: 1989
Title: El tiempo se llama diez
City: Motevideo
Publisher: DestaBanda
Label: 231
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - oc21163652
Mecha Gattas.


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 305
Author: Fulton, Ian C.; Caron, J. P.; LeBlanc, Patrick C. Full publication date Dec
Year: 1989
Title: Surgical Repair of a Bilateral Choanal Atresia in a Llama
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 20
Issue: 4
Pages: 488-490
Accession Number: 30
Abstract: Repair of bilateral choanal atresia in a 2-day-old llama (Lama glama) was achieved with Steinman pin perforation of the choanal membranes. An endotracheal tube was used to protect nasal mucosa and guide the Steinman pin to the membrane. Patency of the choanae was maintained by endotracheal tube stents that were retained by sutures to the external nares. These were changed at 7 days and then removed at 14 days. Daily cleaning was necessary to maintain patency of the tubes. The llama had grown to a normal weight at 8 mo of age with no evidence of respiratory distress.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095006


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 992
Author: Fowler, Murray E. CN - British Library DSC q90/03787
Year: 1989
Title: Medicine and surgery of South American camelids : llama, alpaca, vicun\0303a, guanaco
City: Ames
Publisher: Iowa State University Press
Edition: 1st ed.
ISBN: 0813803934 ST - Medicine and surgery of South American camelids : llama, alpaca, vicun\0303a, guanaco
Label: 245
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - G01196507
Murray E. Fowler.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 307
Author: Flannery, Kent V.; Marcus, Joyce; Reynolds, Robert G.
Year: 1989
Title: The flocks of the Wamani : a study of llama herders on the punas of Ayacucho, Peru
City: San Diego ; London
Publisher: Academic
ISBN: 0122598369 (pbk) : No price 0122598350 (cased) : ¹49.50
Accession Number: b9152470
Call Number: 636.2960985292 20 British Library HMNTS YC.1992.b.3469
Keywords: Indians of South America Peru Ayacucho (Department) Antiquities. Indians of South America Peru Ayacucho (Department) Domestic animals. Llamas Peru Ayacucho (Department) Wamani Indians Domestic animals. Ayacucho (Peru : Department) Antiquities. Peru Antiquities.
Notes: GB9152470 bnb 2203 Kent V. Flannery, Joyce Marcus, Robert G. Reynolds. Bibliography: p219-231. - Includes index.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 308
Author: Warner, Michael. [Main author]; Warner, Maggie.; Conference., International Llama
Year: 1988
Title: [Proceedings of the International Llama Conference]
City: [S.l
Publisher: s.n.]
Number of Pages: 1 v. (various pagings) : ill ; 30 cm. LA - English NT - Title supplied by cataloguer.
Keywords: YIZ.
Lama, Vicugna.
AL.
Keeping animals in captivity. HL - Zoological Society of London DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 310
Author: Ober, Richard Holmes.
Year: 1988
Title: Mute llama
Label: 41787592 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 311
Author: Conboy, G. A.; O'Brien, T. D.; Stevens, D. L. C. Full publication date Apr
Year: 1988
Title: A Natural Infection of Fascioloides magna in a Llama (Lama glama)
Journal: The Journal of Parasitology
Volume: 74
Issue: 2
Pages: 345-346
Accession Number: 46
Abstract: A young, female llama (Lama glama) was euthanized following the onset of hindleg paresis and paralysis. Live trematodes, identified as Fascioloides magna, were identified from the liver of this animal. This represents the first report of F. magna in a llama.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3282468


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 995
Author: Carrillo Natteri, Miguel CN - British Library HMNTS YA.1993.a.2582
Year: 1988
Title: Amor esa inmensa llama
City: Lima
Publisher: Capuli
Label: 256
Keywords: Peruvian poetry 20th century.
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - r6722620


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 313
Author: Atencia, Mari a Victoria
Year: 1988
Title: De la llama en que arde
City: Madrid
Publisher: Visor
ISBN: 8475222293
Accession Number: 232
Notes: Mari\0301a Victoria Atencia. Coleccio\0301n Visor de poesi\0301a ; 229


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 314
Author: Arndt, Cheryl Anne.
Year: 1988
Title: Llama use on public lands
Label: 81668779 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 315
Author: Pla, Josefina
Year: 1987
Title: La llama y la arena
City: [Asuncio\0301n, Paraguay]
Publisher: Alca\0301ndara
Accession Number: 250
Notes: Josefina Pla\0301. Coleccio\0301n Poesi\0301a ; 53


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 316
Author: Gavier, Maria Dolores
Year: 1987
Title: Evaluation of the combination of xylazine, ketamine and halothane for anesthesia in llamas
City: [Davis, Calif. DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Label: 1798
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 317
Author: Masoliver, Juan Ramon C. Full publication date Agosto-Septiembre
Year: 1986
Title: Cuando el gran Meaulnes se llama Cris
Journal: El Ciervo
Volume: 35
Issue: 426/427
Pages: 27-28
Accession Number: 56
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40814285


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 318
Author: Güttler, Eva; Fischer, H.; Justus-Liebig-Universität, Giessen
Year: 1986
Title: Untersuchungen über die Haltung, Zucht, Physiologie und Pathologie der Fortpflanzung und Krankheiten von Lamas in den Anden Argentiniens
City: Giessen
University: Justus-Liebig-Universität
Accession Number: 641533382


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 999
Author: de Laguna, Asela Rodriguez C1 - Full publication date: Spring - Summer, 1986 DO - 10.2307/467231
Year: 1986
Journal: MELUS
Volume: 13
Issue: 1/2
Pages: 143-147
Date: 1986 RI - El hombre que no sudaba, Jaime Carrero; La Casa y la llama fiera, Carmelo Rodr&#xed;guez Torres; La noche oscura del nino Aviles, Edgardo Rodr&#xed;guez Julia
Label: 156
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/467231


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 1000
Author: Charry Lara, Fernando CN - British Library HMNTS YA.1989.b.5900
Year: 1986
Title: Llama de amor viva : Nocturnos y otros suen\0303os, Los adioses, Pensamientos del amante
City: Bogota\0301
Publisher: Procultura, Presidencia de la Repu\0301blic
Label: 263
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - r6716461
Nueva biblioteca colombiana de cultura


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 320
Author: Shimada, Melody; Shimada, Izumi C. Full publication date Jan
Year: 1985
Title: Prehistoric Llama Breeding and Herding on the North Coast of Peru
Journal: American Antiquity
Volume: 50
Issue: 1
Pages: 3-26
Accession Number: 73
Abstract: There is no clear-cut consensus or reliable body of published data in the Andean literature indicating whether llamas were bred and herded on the prehistoric North Coast of Peru or periodically imported from the highlands. Based on four lines of evidence-ethnographic, archaeozoological, physiological, and ethnohistoric-we argue that llamas (and perhaps even alpacas) were successfully bred and maintained on the North Coast from the early Middle Horizon (ca. A.D. 600) and perhaps since the Early Horizon. More specifically, we discuss population structure, representation of body parts, climatic and dietary adaptability, and abundance of coastal forage. Both llamas and alpacas are physiologically well-adapted for the coastal environment and can efficiently process a wide range of forage. By the Middle Horizon, domestic camelids served a wide range of functions including transport, sacrifice, tools, and meat. Species identification, coastal herd management, effects of disease vectors, and other related issues are also discussed.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/280631


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 321
Author: Reiner, Richard James
Year: 1985
Title: Nutrition of alpacas grazing high altitude rangeland in southern Peru
University: Texas Tech University


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 322
Author: Lizama, Jaime
Year: 1985
Title: Llama salida de la muerte
City: [Chile]
Publisher: Analogi\0301a
Accession Number: 264


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 323
Author: Lamigeon, Maryse. SE - Travels around the world
Year: 1985
Title: My friend the Llama : travels in the Andes
City: Twickenham (Middlesex)
Publisher: Hamlyn
Number of Pages: [42]p. LA - English ; French (translation)
ISBN: 0600309908
Keywords: Children's stories in French -- 1945- -- Texts HL - British Library ; National Library of Scotland ; Trinity College Dublin Library ; University of Cambridge Libraries ; University of Oxford Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 324
Author: Fowler, M. E.; Gillespie, D. C. Full publication date Mar
Year: 1985
Title: Middle and Inner Ear Infection in Llamas
Journal: The Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine
Volume: 16
Issue: 1
Pages: 9-15
Accession Number: 52
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20094725


Reference Type: Generic
Record Number: 325
Year: 1985
Title: Llamas
Place Published: Elk Grove, Calif.
Publisher: Bob Dal Porto
Pages: v.
ISBN/ISSN: 0887-9923
Accession Number: 22
Notes: Llamas Llamas magazine
sn 86013992 ill. ; 28 cm. 7 no. a year, <Mar./Apr. 1994-> Bimonthly, 1985- 8 no. a year, <July/Aug. 1993-> [No. 29] (Sept./Oct. 1985)- ; Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan./Feb 1987)- Title from cover. The June issue is the annual Herd sire edition. Imprint varies: Herald, Calif. : Clay Press, <Mar./Apr. 1986-> Issue for Sept./Oct. 1985 lacks numbering, but constitutes no. 29. Herd sire edition. 3L llama 0739-1064 (OCoLC)9680036


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 1006
Author: Mendoza, Plinio Apuleyo CN - British Library HMNTS YA.1988.a.16861
Year: 1984
Title: La llama y el hielo
City: Barcelona
Publisher: Planeta
ISBN: 8432043389 ST - La llama y el hielo
Label: 237
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - 8432043389
Coleccio\0301n Documento ; 154


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 327
Author: Barea, Arturo. [Main author]; Barea, Ilsa. SE - Flamingo
Year: 1984
Title: The clash : the forging of a rebel
City: London
Publisher: Fontana
Number of Pages: 396p ; 20 cm. LA - English ; Spanish (translation)
ISBN: 0006540929
9780006540922 NT - Originally published: London : Faber and Faber, 1946. NT - Translation of, La forja de unrebelde (La Uama).
Keywords: Barea, Arturo.
Spain -- Biography.
Spain -- Barea, Arturo -- Biographies HL - University of Sheffield Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 328
Author: Ruck, Ruth Janette. SE - Ulverscroft large print series
Year: 1983
Title: Along came a llama
City: Leicester
Publisher: Ulverscroft
Number of Pages: 368p : ill ; 23cm. LA - English
Edition: Large print ed
ISBN: 0708909353 NT - Originally published: London : Faber, 1978
Keywords: Llamas as pets. HL - National Library of Scotland DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 1007
Author: Reiner, Richard; Fred, Bryant C1 - Full publication date: Jun., 1983
Year: 1983
Title: A Different Sort of Sheep
Journal: Rangelands
Volume: 5
Issue: 3
Pages: 106-108 ST - A Different Sort of Sheep
Label: 382
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3900376


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 330
Author: Fowler, M. E. C. Full publication date Jun
Year: 1983
Title: The Jugular Vein of the Llama (Lama peruana): A Clinical Note
Journal: The Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine
Volume: 14
Issue: 2
Pages: 77-78
Accession Number: 61
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20094644


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 1009
Author: Bayley, E. CN - British Library HMNTS YA.1988.a.9042
Year: 1983
Title: Alguien llama
City: Buenos Aires
Publisher: Argonauta
ISBN: 9509282006 ST - Alguien llama
Label: 271
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - 9509282006


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 332
Author: Moseley, Marianne Lee DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1982
Title: Anion transport in llama, dog, and human red blood cells
Label: 1834
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 333
Author: Gareis, Iris
Year: 1982
Title: Llama und Alpaca in der Religion der rezenten Bewohner des zentralen und su\0308dlichen Andengebietes
City: Hohenscha\0308ftlarn
Publisher: Renner
Accession Number: 244
Notes: Iris Gareis. Mu\0308nchner Beitra\0308ge zur Amerikanistik ; Bd.6 Bibliography.


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 334
Author: Deavel, C. Christine.
Year: 1982
Title: Feeding the llamas and the world's smallest pony
Label: 77639998 LA - English
Notes: TY - THES DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 335
Author: Espinoza, J. Edmundo DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Year: 1981
Title: Mineral status comparisons between llamas and sheep in the Bolivian Altiplano
Label: 1766
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 1012
Author: Cardin, Gonzalez J. M. CN - British Library DSC 6976.740000 no 4
Year: 1980
Title: Analisis de las muestras del NBS SRM 1633 for absorcion atomica y fotometria de Llama
City: [S.l.]
Publisher: Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados
Label: 206
Notes: TY - BOOK
Publicacion INCAR Consejo superior de investigaciones cientificas ; no 4


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 1013
Author: Aguer, Carmen CN - British Library HMNTS X.958/13168
Year: 1980
Title: La santa llama
City: Buenos Aires
Publisher: Ediciones Agon
Label: 265
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - r6705945
Carmen Aguer.


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 338
Author: Merlian, C. P.; Sikes, J. D.; Read, B. W.; Boever, W. J.; Knox, D.; Merilan, C. Full publication date Mar
Year: 1979
Title: Comparative Characteristics of Spermatozoa and Semen from a Bactrian Camel, Dromedary Camel and Llama
Journal: The Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine
Volume: 10
Issue: 1
Pages: 22-25
Accession Number: 55
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20094405


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 1015
Author: Gonza\lez Vian\a, Eduardo CN - British Library HMNTS X.529/41772
Year: 1979
Title: ¡Habla, Sampedro : llama a los brujos!
City: Barcelona
Publisher: Argos Vergara
Label: 255
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - r6799036
Eduardo Gonza\0301lez Vian\0303a.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 340
Author: Ruck, Ruth Janette. [Main author]
Year: 1978
Title: Along came a llama
City: London [etc.]
Publisher: Faber
Number of Pages: 3-220p,[8]p of plates : ill., ports. ; 23cm. LA - English
ISBN: 0571112773
Keywords: Ruck, Ruth Janette.
Llamas as pets.
Llamas -- Biography.
Pets -- Llamas -- Gwynedd -- Carneddi -- Personal observations
Gwynedd -- Carneddi -- Pets -- Llamas HL - British Library ; National Library of Scotland ; National Library of Wales / Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru ; Trinity College Dublin Library ; University of Cambridge Libraries ; University of Oxford Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 1017
Author: Palomino, Angel CN - 861/.6/4 18 861/.64 19 British Library HMNTS X.989/84934
Year: 1978
Title: La luna se llama Pe\0301rez : poesi\0301a de humor
City: Barcelona
Publisher: Planeta
ISBN: 8432041254 ST - La luna se llama Pe\0301rez : poesi\0301a de humor
Label: 238
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - 8432041254
A\0301ngel Palomino. Coleccio\0301n Fa\0301bula ; 26


Reference Type: Thesis
Record Number: 342
Author: Lam, Chi-Ho
Year: 1978
Title: The physical properties and processing behaviour of llama fibres
City: Leeds DB - /z-wcorg/ DP - http://worldcat.org LA - English
Label: 1824
Notes: TY - THES


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 343
Author: Gibran, Kahlil; Ruiz, Carmen
Year: 1978
Title: Llama azul : cartas ineditas a Mayy Ziyadeh
City: Madrid
Publisher: Instituto Hispano-Arabe de Cultura
ISBN: 8450023254
Accession Number: 266
Keywords: Gibran, Kahlil, 1883-1931 Relations with women.
Ziya\0304dah, Mayy Correspondence.
Arabic letters Translations into Spanish.


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 1019
Author: Campos, Julieta CN - British Library HMNTS X.958/20958
Year: 1978
Title: Tiene los cabellos rojizos y se llama Sabina
City: Me\0301xico
Publisher: Joaqui\0301n Mortiz
Edition: 2a ed.
ISBN: 9682700272 ST - Tiene los cabellos rojizos y se llama Sabina
Label: 261
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - 9682700272
Julieta Campos. Nueva narrativa hispa\0301nica


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 345
Author: author], John of the Cross Saint 1542-1591. [Main; Peers, E. Allison (Edgar Allison) 1891-1952.
Year: 1977
Title: Living flame of love
City: London
Publisher: Burns & Oates
Number of Pages: v, 216 p. ; 22 cm. LA - English ; Spanish (translation)
ISBN: 086012049X NT - Previously published in The complete works of Saint John of the Cross, Doctor of the Church, new ed., rev., 1953. NT - Includes bibliographical references. NT - Translation of: Llama de amor viva.
Keywords: Mysticism -- Catholic Church. HL - University of Oxford Libraries ; University of Warwick Libraries DP - Jisc DB - Copac
Notes: TY - BOOK


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 1020
Author: Felipe, Leon C1 - Full publication date: 1976-77
Year: 1976
Title: POETICA DE LA LLAMA
Journal: Litoral
Issue: 67/69
Pages: 54-56 ST - POETICA DE LA LLAMA
Label: 58
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/43351686


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 347
Author: Pollard, Gordon C.; Drew, Isabella M. C. Full publication date Jul
Year: 1975
Title: Llama Herding and Settlement in Prehispanic Northern Chile: Application of an Analysis for Determining Domestication
Journal: American Antiquity
Volume: 40
Issue: 3
Pages: 296-305
Accession Number: 145
Abstract: A new technique involving microscopy distinguishes wild from domestic camelids in collections from archaeological deposits in the Atacama Desert. Results of the faunal analysis provide additional critical data which allow a more complete reconstruction of the changes in economic and settlement patterns and of the cultural processes these changes may have involved.
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/279691


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 348
Author: Meneses, Vidaluz
Year: 1975
Title: Llama guardada
City: Managua
Publisher: [s.n.]
Accession Number: 217
Notes: Poems. Selected poems
Vidaluz Meneses.


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 349
Author: King, Charles L. C. Full publication date Mar
Year: 1975
Journal: The Modern Language Journal
Volume: 59
Issue: 3
Pages: 144-144
Accession Number: 158
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/323974


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 1024
Author: Ferreiro, Celso Emilio CN - British Library HMNTS X.908/32977
Year: 1975
Title: Donde el mundo se llama Celanova = Onde o mundo chamase Celanova
City: Madrid
Publisher: Editora Nacional
ISBN: 8427612273 ST - Donde el mundo se llama Celanova = Onde o mundo chamase Celanova
Label: 240
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - 8427612273
[edicio\0301n bilingu\0308e] Celso Emilio Ferreiro. Alfar, coleccio\0301n de poesi\0301a ; v. 4


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 351
Author: Montes de Oca, Marco Antonio
Year: 1974
Title: Se llama como quieras
City: Me\0301xico
Publisher: Universidad Nacional Auto\0301noma de Me\0301xico
Accession Number: 228
Notes: Marco Antonio Montes de Oca. Coleccio\0301n poemas y ensayos


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 1026
Author: Johnson, Roberta C1 - Full publication date: Autumn, 1974 DO - 10.2307/40128221
Year: 1974
Journal: Books Abroad
Volume: 48
Issue: 4
Pages: 746-746
Date: 1974 RI - Una virgen llama a tu puerta, Ram&#xf3;n J. Sender
Label: 166
Notes: TY - JOUR
URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40128221


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 353
Author: Heath, D; Smith, P; Williams, D; Harris, P; Arias-Stella, J; Krüger, H
Year: 1974
Title: The heart and pulmonary vasculature of the llama (Lama glama)
Journal: Thorax
Volume: 29
Issue: 4
Pages: 463-471
Date: 1974/07/
Abstract: Heath, D., Smith, P., Williams, D., Harris, P., Arias-Stella, J., and Krüger, H. (1974).Thorax, 29, 463-471. The heart and pulmonary vasculature of the llama (Lama glama). A qualitative and quantitative histological study was made of the pulmonary trunk and muscular pulmonary arteries of a male and a pregnant female llama born and living at an altitude of 4,720 m above sea-level in the Peruvian Andes. A similar study was made on the fetal llama. The individual cardiac chambers of the two adults were weighed. Our results show that in the adult llama there is no hypertrophy of the right ventricle or of the media of the pulmonary trunk or small pulmonary arteries. This appears to be of evolutionary significance in respect of survival at high altitude and suggests that the llama does not have a sustained significant pulmonary hypertension. The pulmonary arteries of the fetal llama are thick-walled and we associate this with the physiological pulmonary hypertension of fetal life. IMAGES:
Notes: TY - JOUR DB - PMC
U1 - 4854860[pmid] AN - PMC470181
U1 - 4854860[pmid] J1 - Thorax
URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC470181/


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 354
Author: Grundman, Clare
Year: 1974
Title: Zoo illogical. For solo voice, or voices in unison or octaves, with instrumental ensemble (opitonal piano). 1. The Mongoose. 2. The Anteater. 3. The Llama. 4. The Giraffe. 5. The Hippo. <Full score [and parts for woodwind, brass and percussion instruments].>
City: [New York]
Publisher: Boosey & Hawkes
Accession Number: 290


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 1028
Author: Campos, Julieta CN - 863/.6 18 British Library HMNTS X.709/20225 British Library HMNTS X.908/32323
Year: 1974
Title: Tiene los cabellos rojizos y se llama Sabina
City: Me\0301xico
Publisher: Joaqui\0301n Mortiz
Label: 229
Notes: TY - BOOK AN - r6014419
Julieta Campos. Nueva narrativa hispa\0301nica


Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 1029
Author: Ballesteros Gallardo, A. ngel CN - British Library HMNTS P.903/76.
Year: 1974
Title: No sabe la muerte que se llama