Additions to Hillview Llamas Website, most recent first (For additions to other Hillview Llama sites see various Feeds here).


C. Berardo, R. Holland, A. Schaffer, A. Lopez Caicoya

Perception of optical illusions in ungulates: insights from goats, sheep, guanacos and llamas

Animal Cognition, 2024

Optical illusions have long been used in behavioural studies to investigate the perceptual mechanisms underlying vision in animals. So far, three studies have focused on ungulates, providing evidence that they may be susceptible to some ...

K. Compitus, S. M. Bierbower

Cow cuddling: Cognitive considerations in bovine-assisted therapy

Human-Animal Interactions, 2024

… Organizations that certify therapy animals will sometimes certify several species of animals to work as a therapeutic partner, such as llamas, miniature horses, and rabbits. However, to date there has been little research addressing the therapeutic …

Jesús Quispe, Virgilio Machaca, Edith Alendez, Diana Quispe, Víctor Bustinza, and Roger Machaca

Textile characteristics of the down fibers of ch'aku llamas (Lama glama) from the humid Puna - Kishuara - Andahuaylas - Apurímac.

 IDESIA, Vol. 41: 15-23.

R. E. Marin, F. A. Uzal

Lisosomal storage disease caused by ingestion of Astragalus spp in llamas: an emergent concern

Veterinary Research Communications, 2024

… Two species of Astragalus (ie Astragalus garbancillo and Astragalus punae) have been found to cause neurologic disease in llamas. In addition, A. garbancillo was also associated with malformations in the offspring, and possibly abortions and …

Pauciullo, C. Versace, S. Miretti, I. J. Giambra, G. Gaspa, N. Pauciullo, C. Versace, S. Miretti, I. J. Giambra, G. Gaspa, N. Letaief, and G. Cosenza

Genetic variability among and within domestic Old and New World camels  at the α-lactalbumin gene (LALBA) reveals new alleles and  polymorphisms responsible for differential expression.

Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 107: 1068-1084.

B. Miller

Camelid care essentials: Managing common diseases and disorders

American Association of Bovine Practitioners …, 2024

This presentation aims to highlight crucial aspects of managing common diseases and disorders in camelids, focusing on llamas and alpacas. With their unique physiological traits and health  requirements, camelids present a distinct set of …

J. Xu, T. Zhou, K. McKee, B. Zhang, C. Liu, A. F. Nazzari

Ultrapotent Broadly Neutralizing Human‐llama Bispecific Antibodies against HIV‐1

 Advanced Science

… This study describes the immunization of a llama with the prefusion-stabilized HIV-1 envelope (Env) trimer, BG505 DS-SOSIP, and the … Two of the vaccine-elicited CD4bs-targeting nanobodies, G36 and R27, when engineered into a triple tandem …

Christian Bauer, Jörg Hirzmann, Jana Petzold, Manfred Henrich, Henrik Wagner, Viktor Dyachenko, and Iris Völker

First detection of autochthonous Lamanema chavezi infections in llamas  (Lama glama) in Europe.

Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports, Vol. 47

F. E. Merlo-Maydana, F.  Flores-Lopez, I. Quispe-Turpo


Chilean Journal of …, 2024

… predict BW of llamas under field conditions is scarce. Thus, the objectives of this study are 1) to evaluate the relationships between the llama BW and the biometric information measured at the farm level, and 2) to develop predictive models for BW …

A. Windus, C. Mardones

Festive Arches in the Andean Altiplano. Materialities, Ephemeral Architecture and Ontological Status

Revista Brasileira de História, 2024

… Our first examples are two arches from Rosapata, a settlement of llama farmers that forms a small hamlet (estancia), located northwest from Curahuara, a few kilometers away from the main road. Its chapel is built on a hill, which is considered ..

M. Mullin, J. McClory, W. Haynes, J. Grace, N.  Robertson

Applications and challenges in designing VHH-based bispecific antibodies: leveraging machine learning solutions

mAbs, 2024

… of human and llama antibodies using oval shapes for domains connected together by lines into a Y-shape. One of the llama oval shapes … VHH  antibodies are typically sourced from either alpacas or llamas after immunization with an …

Elisa Castaldo, Francesco Buono, and Vincenzo Veneziano  Summa

The main endoparasites of South American Camelids.

Animali da Reddito, Vol. 18: 3-23.


A. B. Duche-Pérez, L. J. Mamani-Daza

Llamas, Barter and Travel Rituals: An Ethnographic Study on the Esquela Tusuy Dance of the Uchumiri Peasant Community, Condesuyos, Peru

Religions, 2024

… : the initial one is linked to the farewell rituals for the llamas at the beginning of the journey, the second celebrates the return of the llama herders who left for the “barter”, the third consists of the ritual of the return of the llama herders and the offering of …

A. Giri, K. R. Babu, S. Subba, A. Karmakar

Economic Perspectives of Camelids: Harnessing the Potential of Unique Livestock

Llamas serve as pack animals, carrying loads over rugged terrains where mechanized transportation is impractical. Furthermore, … Camel safaris in desert
landscapes, llama treks in the Andes, and vicuña conservation tours contribute to …

Kacper Konieczny and Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól 

A literature review of selected bacterial diseases in alpacas and  llamas - epidemiology, clinical signs and diagnostics.

 Animals, Vol. 14

M. R. Baker, A. J. Niehaus, M. D.  Miesner, J. W. Lozier… -

The main endoparasites of South American Camelids.

Journal of the American …, 2024

Nasolacrimal duct obstruction prevalence is 0.3% among alpacas evaluated with ophthalmic disease at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2000 and 2023

… The remaining 2 animals were llamas. A total of 8,027 alpacas and 1,998 llamas were seen between 2000 and 2022 (80% alpacas and 20% llamas) at 1 teaching institution. The total number of alpacas and llamas was not available for the second … 

S. Neubert, C. Puff, S. Kleinschmidt, P. Kammeyer… -

Pathological findings in South American camelids presented at a farm animal clinic in Northern Germany (2005–2021)

Veterinary Research …, 2024

… To expand the knowledge about common diseases in llamas and alpacas in llama farms conducted in 2020, we found that more than half of those farms had started keeping South American camelids (SACs) in the previous six years, with …

J. G. Matlock, B. Hilton, R. Sheldrake, P. Smart, M. Nahm

After-Death Communications (ADCs) from Non-Human Animals: Parallels with Human ADCs

… chose to leave after his companion llama Grandpa died of old age. Al E. and I were both … I quickly arranged to have two more llamas delivered to keep him company; llamas being … early every morning before dawn to feed the new llamas. I …

Graham R. Duncanson

Farm animal medicine and surgery: for small animal veterinarians:


E. R. Wenger

Investigation of the Oral Microbiome of Llamas: Genomic Sequencing and Identification of an Isolated Microbe


llama because they are often housed and cared for in a very similar manner. The
gut and oral microbiome in most mammals have proven to be similar, especially in
animals that chew cud like llamas … This project will be submitting samples from …

L. E. A.  Eyssen, S. Ramadurai, S. Abdelkarim, I.  Buckle… -

From llama to nanobody: a streamlined workflow for the generation of functionalised VHHs

Bio-Protocol, 2024

… From our work in producing nanobodies to over sixty different proteins, we present a standardised workflow for nanobody discovery from llama immunisation, library building, panning, and small-scale expression for prioritisation of binding …

A. Sparnon, J. Smith, P. Y. Mulon, S. Hecht, D. Anderson… -

Tooth Root Abscess and Mandibular Infections in Old World Camelids: 3 Cases

Case Reports in Veterinary …, 2024

… of similar infections in New World Camelids such as llamas and alpacas. The purpose of this case … Similar to llamas, florfenicol was used for antimicrobial therapy and flunixin meglumine was … and tooth root infections in camels as …

M. Quispe, J. D. Trigo, L. Serrano-Arriezu, J. Huere

Classification of South American Camelid and goat fiber samples based on fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and machine learning

The Journal of The Textile …, 2024

… No significant differences were found (p-value = 0.368) by comparing the number of hits against the total number of alpaca, llama, vicuña, mohair and cashmere fibers using DNN. As per the results, it seems that DNN is more accurate than SVM. In …

C Abad, H Fritz, O Gonzales-Viera -

Fatal septicemia in 2 South American camelids with caudal C3-pyloric-duodenal adenocarcinoma

Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 2024

… We describe here cases of gastroduodenal adenocarcinoma in an adult alpaca (Vicugna
pacos) and a llama (Llama glama); both SACs were anorectic and lethargic before death. At autopsy, a prominent and firm caudal C3-pyloric-duodenal junction with …

D. C. A. Cortes, M. O. Heitrich, M. M. Fernandez, S. Werbajh…

Development of novel mono and bivalent nanobodies against EGFR for targeted cancer therapy

Cancer Research, 2024

… Methods: The Nb library was constructed following llama immunization with cells overexpressing EGFR. After three rounds of panning the phage-display library (both in solid phase and solution), individual clones were screened for EGFR reactivity …

E. G. C. Alave, B. T. Felix

Neutralization of the lethal activity from Bothrops atrox venom by hyperimune llama serum (Lama glama)

The main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the hyperimmune llama serum (Lama glama) as a neutralizer of the lethal activity … In our study, the llama hyperimmune serum presented a neutralizing power of 3.6 mg/mL    

Stefano Pallotti, Matteo Picciolini, Marco Antonini, Carlo Renieri  and Valerio Napolioni

Genome-wide scan for runs of homozygosity in South American Camelids.

BMC Genomics, Vol. 24


E. G. C. Alave, B. T. Felix

Neutralization of the lethal activity from Bothrops atrox venom by hyperimune llama serum (Lama glama)

… The main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the
hyperimmune llama serum (Lama glama) as a neutralizer of the lethal activity … In
our study, the llama hyperimmune serum presented a neutralizing power of 3.6 mg/mL …

U. H. P. Guerra, Y. M. Q. Barriga, N. L. Mamani… -

Comparison of superstimulatory protocols with different doses of eCG on ovarian response and oocyte recovery by follicular aspiration in llamas (Lama glama)

Animal Reproduction, 2024

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three doses of equine
chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for ovarian superstimulation on ovarian response,
follicular development and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) collection in llamas …


 Stefano Pallotti, Matteo Picciolini, Marco Antonini, Carlo Renieri,  and Valerio Napolion

Genome-wide scan for runs of homozygosity in South American Camelids.  

BMC Genomics, Vol. 24. 2024.

  Edgar Quispe Peña, Virgilio Machaca Machaca, Valeriano Paucara Ocsa,  Rufino Paucar-Chanca, Max Escobedo Enriquez, Jorge Luis Huere Peña and Jorge Luis Aliaga Gutiérrez

Evaluation of down and coarse fibres of llamas (Lama glama) k'Ara  raised in high Andean conditions of Peru. 

 Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), Vol. 34, 2024

Verónica Rojo, Fernando R. Momo, Yanina Arzamendia, Jorge L. Baldo, and Bibiana L. Vilá

Sustainability of animal stocks in traditional pastoral systems of the high-altitude Andean Altiplano.

Rangeland Ecology & Management, Vol. 90: 195-207.

Matthias Gerhard Wagener, Teresa Maria Punsmann, Sven Kleinschmidt, Ralf Surholt, Saskia Neubert, Hannah Marahrens, Thekla Großmann, and  Martin Ganter

Severe anaemia secondary to a perforated gastric ulcer in a male alpaca.

 Irish Veterinary Journal, Vol. 76, 2024.

Bona, Eileen

The Three Agendas of Animal-assisted Therapy  Animal-assisted Interventions: Recognizing and Mitigating Potential Welfare Challenges.

in Lori Kogan Ed. Animal-assisted Interventions Recognizing and Mitigating Potential Welfare Challenges

This chapter explores the reality of the impact of the human agenda on the animals involved in animal-assisted therapy (AAT). Therapists have a clinical agenda to reach with their client. Clients have an agenda to interact with the animal in certain ways yet animals are sentient beings with their own feelings, wants, needs, and preferences. Ethical AAT practice considers all three agendas and ensures that the animals in practice are both comfortable and receiving enjoyment in all AAT interactions. The chapter explores this concept through two very different case examples


Alejandra N. C. Castro, Mariano Carrica Illia, Pamela A. Lendez, María  Carrica Illia, Bárbara Zimmermann, Galy J. Mendoza Torres, Marcelo

Histological features of the liver of the llama (Lama glama).

Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), Vol. 34

Carola Melo, M. Walter Bravo, A. Máximo Melo, and C. Celso Zapata

FGF5 gene involvement on fibre length of South American camelids.

Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), Vol. 34. 

María Carmen Sánchez, Ana Herráiz, Sindy Tigre, Arancha  Llama-Palacios, Marta Hernández, María José Ciudad, and Luis Collado

Evidence of the beneficial impact of three probiotic-based food  supplements on the composition and metabolic activity of the  intestinal microbiota in healthy individuals: an ex vivo study.

Nutrients, Vol. 15 2024


S. N. Wieser, S. M. Giuliano, J. R. Ordoñez, X. B. Marcapura… -

Sarcocystis spp. of New and Old World Camelids: Ancient Origin, Present Challenges


… Notably, llamas and alpacas have been introduced to farms in some European
countries, … In the case of SAC, the first description of a macroscopic sarcocyst in a
llama in Australia … aucheniae as the only species forming macroscopic cysts in …


R. A. Carrasco, O. A. Bogle, M. H. Ratto, C. Ulloa-Leal… -

Predictive characteristics of male fertility in alpacas with special reference to seminal NGF

 Theriogenology, 2023

… Consistent with this observation, results of a more recent study showed that
llamas mated with a urethrostomized male failed to ovulate while llamas mated with
an intact male did ovulate [11]. Initially the seminal factor responsible was referred to …

K. Konieczny, M. Pomorska-Mól 

A Literature Review of Selected Bacterial Diseases in Alpacas and Llamas—Epidemiology, Clinical Signs and Diagnostics

Animals, 2023

Simple Summary Over the last decade or more, New World Camelids, particularly
llamas and alpacas have become popular farm animals all over the world. Many
owners consider these animals as pets, resulting in closer contact between them …

M. G. Wagener, M. Ganter, S. Leonhard-Marek  

Body condition scoring in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas (Lama glama)–a scoping review

 Veterinary Research Communications, 2023

… and llamas. It was noticeable that all sources from the USA except one (T5)
included llamas, while all sources from outside the USA described alpacas but
contained llamas … Furthermore, a temporal trend between the relevance of llamas …

S. Jindal, D. V.  Pedersen, N.  Gera, J. Chandler, R. Patel

Characterization of the bispecific VHH antibody gefurulimab (ALXN1720) targeting complement component 5, and designed for low volume subcutaneous …

 Molecular Immunology, 2024

… Briefly, VHH phage libraries were constructed with cDNA from the peripheral
blood mononuclear cells of llamas immunized with either human C5 (hC5) or HSA (Human
C5 CompTech, catalog number [cat #] A120, Lot # 19d, HSA Sigma, cat# A5843-5G).

M. F. Gallelli, E. Zampini, V. Trasorras, M. I. Carretero… 

Haematology and biochemistry in healthy llamas at sea level

Veterinary Research …, 2023.

J. Clinquart, C. Coene, B. Pardon 

Assessment of clinical findings, immaturity, congenital disorders, and disease development in Belgian crias in the first 2 weeks of life

… In the last years, there has been an increasing interest in llamas, not only as part
of a productive system, but mostly as … few llamas and details about their health
status are not available. The present study aims to provide haematological and …

Proceedings of the South American Camelid Congress( 5th Veterinary Congress - llamas and alpacas in Austria & 25th Annual Conference of the British Veterinary Camelid Society). 2003

A. Pauciullo, C. Versace, S. Miretti, I.  J. Giambra, G. Gaspa

Genetic variability among and within domestic Old and New World camels at the α-lactalbumin gene (LALBA) reveals new alleles and polymorphisms responsible for  differential expression

Objective As in other mammals, the neonatal period is accompanied by many
challenges for the newborn cria with a high incidence of illness. Because of this high
occurrence and the increasing popularity of South American camelids in Belgium …

B. R. Lee, Y. Seif, K. Teng, X. Xiao, I. Verma, M. T. Chen… -

Assessment of clinical findings, immaturity, congenital disorders, and disease development in Belgian crias in the first 2 weeks of life.

Journal of Dairy Science, 2023.

… for domestic camelids (dromedary, Bactrian camel, alpaca, and llama). The gene
analysis revealed a conserved structure among the camelids… Bactrian camel, 22
in the alpaca, and 12 in the llama), whereas interspecies comparison showed 86 …

A. I.  Khalafalla, M. Dadar, A. Sazmand 

Ab-DeepGA: A generative modeling framework leveraging deep learning for antibody affinity tuning

New Frontiers of AI for …, 2023

… Starting from a combined phage-yeast display experiment against a target antigen,
we sorted and sequenced antigen-specific, llama-derived heavy-chain only
antibodies ($V_{HH}$) with a wide range of binding affinities. This data was used to …

Frontiers in Veterinary Science 

Current Knowledge on Camelids Infectious and Parasitic Diseases

We invited camelid scientists across the globe to submit their research on camelid
diseases to highlight the importance of diseases of camelids, including Old World
camels (OWC; onehumped dromedary and two-humped Bactrian camels) and New …

V. M.  Minatel, C. R.  Prudencio, B.  Barraviera, R. S. Ferreira Jr 

Nanobodies: A Promising Approach to Treatment of Viral Diseases

Frontiers in Immunology

Since their discovery in the 1990s, heavy chain antibodies have garnered significant
interest in the scientific community. These antibodies, found in camelids such as
llamas and alpacas, exhibit distinct characteristics from conventional antibodies due …

M. Kwasnik, J. Rola, W. Rozek -

Influenza D in Domestic and Wild Animals

Viruses, 2023

… Among wild and captive animals, IDV infections have been confirmed in feral pigs,
wild boars, deer, hedgehogs, giraffes, wildebeests, kangaroos, wallabies, and llamas.
The transmission potential and host range of IDV may contribute to future viral …


M. G. Zaki, T. A. Baraka, M. A. Elkhiat, M. R. Younis… -

Determination of hematobiochemical and fore stomach fluid constituents of llama (Lama glama) living in Egypt

Tropical Animal Health and …, 2023

… of llama and determine the influence of sex and season on these parameters
under Egyptian conditions. The study was performed on (n = 38; 22 female, 16 male;
1–7 years) apparently healthy llamas … the hematobiochemical and fore stomach …


E. M. Struijf

Nanobodies targeting complement: Detecting and blocking complement activation


… We aimed to develop llama-derived nanobodies directed towards different complement  components. In this thesis, we focused on central complement component C5 and activation products C3b and C5b6. To obtain complement …

L. A. Gomez-Puerta, J. Olazabal, S. Paredes, J. Lopez

Molecular survey of hemoplasmas in asymptomatic vicunas (Vicugna vicugna) from the Pampa Galeras Bárbara D'Achille National Reserve in Peru

Acta Tropica, 2023

… haemolamae has been reported in alpacas and llamas from Peru, Chile, the United States, Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom. However, studies on hemotropic mycoplasmas in wild South American camelids are limited. For this …


J. W.  Eerkens, K. J.  Vaughn, M. Linares-Grados…

Long-Term Camelid Husbandry and Agricultural Intensification in the Southern Nasca Region, Peru: Insight from Faunal Isotopes

Latin American Antiquity, 2023

We examined stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S) of camelid, cavid, and cervid
remains from Upanca, an archaeological site located in the Southern Nasca Region
on the south coast of Peru. Occupation at the site began in the Middle Archaic (around …

A.  Romero, G.  Gutiérrez, D.  Oré 

Genetic diversity in leucine-rich repeats (LRR) of Toll-like receptor-2 and-4 genes in three species of South American camelids

Small Ruminant Research, 2023

… -rich repeats (LRR) of TLR2 and TLR4 in three species of camelids from the new
world. The genetic diversity was evaluated in the LRR of … These results suggest
that years of interference in the natural development of South American camelids …


C. A. T. Barreda 

Mikhuspa Ukyaspa Ima Tinkuyku: Food and Drinks as Mediators of Encounters in Andean Festivals

Latin American Research Review, 2023

Mikhuspa ukyaspa ima tinkuyku is Quechua for “eating and drinking, we encounter
one another.” Food and drinks have historically been important mediators in the
development and renewal of relationships of reciprocity in the Andean region. This …


Y. Lu, S. Li, W. Wu

Llama-Derived Single-Chain Antibody for Targeting CD20 in B-Cell Lymphoma

Ann Clin Case Rep. 2023; 8

… to obtain a single-domain anti-CD20 antibody from an immune Llama phage
display library. … The Llama serum was used as a control prior to immunization, and
the Llama was … collected from the Llama jugular vein, and the anti-CD20 antibody …


J. F. Aller, M. C. Abalos, F. A. Acuña, R. Virgili, F. Requena…

Short communication Embryo yield in llamas synchronized with two different intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices and superovulated with eCG

… profile in llamas (Lama glama) treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)
for ovarian superstimulation. Female llamas were randomly assigned (n = 10 llamas
per group… On Day 3 llamas were intramuscularly treated with 1000 IU of eCG. The ..

S. Sun, Y. Zhang, J. Yan, Y. Gao, D. Ong, B. Chen, J. Su - ar

Battle of the Large Language Models: Dolly vs LLaMA vs Vicuna vs Guanaco vs Bard vs ChatGPT--A Text-to-SQL Parsing Comparison

Xiv preprint arXiv:2310.10190, 2023

… , we observe some performance improvements on LLaMA and GPT-3.5 with 1SL
and 5SL. For example, the performance of GPT-3.5 on the GeoQuery dataset
improves from 15.4% to 42.3% with 1SL, while the performance of LLama on the... 

P. W. B. Matheus 

Sperm Physiology of South American Camelids


The sperm physiology of South American camelids from samples collected by
vaginal aspiration of the ejaculate reveals that it is perfectly sound for semen
analysis. There are no significant differences between llama and alpaca semen 

A single nanobody neutralizes multiple epochally evolving human noroviruses by modulating capsid plasticity

W. Salmen, L. Hu, M. Bok, N. Chaimongkol, K. Ettayebi… 

… Here, we show that a llama-derived nanobody M4 neutralizes multiple GII.4
variants with high potency in human intestinal enteroids. The crystal structure of M4
complexed with the protruding domain of the GII.4 capsid protein VP1 revealed a ..

Nature Communications, 2023

A. J. Hamilton -

Unseeing Art History: Inca Material Culture

 The Routledge Companion to Decolonizing Art History

… For example, Incas carved small stones into alpacas and llamas with rotund,
legless bodies, which they called conopas. More important … with offerings of llama
fat. These actions would appease the conopas, which Incas believed were ...


Multiple lung nodules in a llama (Lama glama)

C. M. Powers, L. Novotny

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2023

Figure 1—Photographs obtained during postmortem examination of a 1.5-year-old
female intact llama with a clinical history of anorexia and inability to stand up. A—Arising
from the middle of the left lung lobe is an 8 X 6 X 6-cm, yellow, focal, firm mass (black ...


M. Le Neün, E. Dufour, N. Goepfert, J. C. Wheeler… 

Documenting past South American camelid diversity at Telarmachay (Puna of Junín, Peru) using first phalanges morphometrics

Revista de Arqueologia, 2023

… A potential domestication of the guanaco based on the occurrence of larger size
fetal/neonatal individuals and leading to the appearance of llamas in layer IV around
5000 BP is also mentioned. However, this assumption, based on the occurrence of …

A. Zimmer, T. Beach, S. Riva Regalado, J. Salcedo Aliaga… 

Llamas (Llama glama) enhance proglacial ecosystem development in Cordillera Blanca, Peru

 Scientific Reports, 2023

… Then, to infer the effect of the llamas on soil development (ie, Hypothesis 1) in
May 2019 (before introducing the llamas) and June 2022 (three years after initiation),
we collected three soil samples distributed in the upper, middle, and lower slopes of …

E. Apaza Zuñiga 

Influence of the inbreeding coefficient on birth weight and weaning weight in llamas (Lama glama)

Revista de Investigación e Innovación Agropecuaria y …, 2023

… Por esta razón, considerando la gran importancia de lograr mayor productividad
sostenible en la crianza de llamas, se planteó el presente trabajo de investigación
que estuvo dirigido a evaluar la magnitud de la consanguinidad individual del hato 


E. Apaza Zuñiga

Influence of the inbreeding coefficient on birth weight and weaning weight in llamas (Lama glama)

Revista de Investigación e Innovación Agropecuaria y …, 2023

… Por esta razón, considerando la gran importancia de lograr mayor productividad
sostenible en la crianza de llamas, se planteó el presente trabajo de investigación
que estuvo dirigido a evaluar la magnitud de la consanguinidad individual del hato …


A. Hund, T. Wittek, U. Selan, A. Käsbohrer, C.L. Firth -

Most common diagnoses and antibiotics used in South American Camelid patients at a university clinic in Austria

 Frontiers in Veterinary Science

Knowledge of common diseases and their treatment in minor species, such as
llamas and alpacas, is growing, but frequently drugs are not licensed in these
species. Our aim was to evaluate frequent diagnoses and commonly applied 


S. A. Hollingsworth, C. L. Noland, K. Vroom, A. Saha… -

Discovery and multimerization of cross-reactive single-domain antibodies against SARS-like viruses to enhance potency and address emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants

 Scientific Reports, 2023

… Through llama immunization campaigns, we have identified single domain
antibodies (VHHs) that are cross-reactive against multiple emergent coronaviruses (SARS-CoV,
SARS-CoV-2, and MERS). Importantly, a number of these antibodies show sub-nanomolar …


S. K. Ringer, R. Bettschart-Wolfensberger-  

Morbidity and mortality associated with general anaesthesia in domestic ruminants and camelids

Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2023

… For this purpose, a large multicentre study is planned to investigate factors
associated with anaesthetic morbidity and mortality in domestic ruminants and
camelids ie, cattle, sheep, goats, alpacas and llamas. The next steps will be to bring …

Severe anaemia secondary to a perforated gastric ulcer in a male alpaca

MG Wagener, TM Punsmann, S Kleinschmidt… - Irish Veterinary Journal, 2023

… However, in alpacas and llamas, gastric ulcers usually do not lead to anaemia
due to blood loss according to the current literature. There … Another pathogen
associated with anaemia in alpacas and llamas is Candidatus Mycoplasma …


[HTML] Predicting the virulence of future emerging zoonotic viruses

S Alizon - PLoS biology, 2023

Would you rather kiss a platypus, a hedgehog, or a llama? According to a new study
in this issue of PLOS Biology, the virulence of a zoonotic virus in humans depends on
its reservoir host. Could physiology be the key to anticipating viral threats lethality? …


Llama Meat: Why Llama Meat is a Nutritious and Sustainable Protein Option - AZ Animals

AZ Animals

Have you ever wanted to try llama meat? Take a look a these facts to learn about this unique but surprisingly nutritious

Llamas solve problems faster after watching people do it | New Scientist

E. G. Zampini, M. F. Veiga, C. C. Arraztoa, M. F. Gallelli..

Llamas are able to learn from other llamas and even more effectively from humans, possibly because thousands of years of domestication gave them

Enzo German Zampini, María Fernanda Veiga, Claudia Cecilia Arraztoa, María Florencia Gallelli, Evangelina Moncalvo, Mariana Carla Gambarotta, Deborah Margarita Neild, Marcelo Horacio Miragaya, Virginia Luz Trasorras

Transfer of cooled llama embryos obtained from synchronized females

Emerging Animal Species, 2023

… based on GnRH and PGF 2α on embryo donor llamas for fixed timed mating and
assessed the viability … Llamas were divided into four follicular wave groups: growth,
dominance, static and … llama pregnancy after transfer of embryos stored in Botu-BOX® 


N. Bells, D. Richterin

Turner and McIlwraith's Techniques in Large Animal Surgery E-Book

… A chapter on llama tooth removal was added … in llamas. We have corrected
angular limb deformities, repaired fractures, and performed gastrointestinal surgery,
among other procedures, but tooth removal is the most common. Descriptions of …

J. Fürstenau, M. T. Richter, N. A. Erickson, R. Große…

Borna disease virus 1 infection in alpacas: Comparison of pathological lesions and viral distribution to other dead-end hosts

Veterinary Pathology, 2023

Borna disease is a progressive meningoencephalitis caused by spillover of the
Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1) to horses and sheep and has gained attention due
to its zoonotic potential. New World camelids are also highly susceptible to the …

 M. Mondini 

An integral approach to the study of bromalites. Late Quaternary and neo-taphonomic case studies from arid South America

Quaternary Science Advances, 2023

… This supports the hypothesis that this parasite entered the region along with
Eurasian livestock, which is important to understanding the origins of a disease that
has contributed to the displacement of traditional camelid pastoralism to higher …


M. Stephenson

Hybridity and the Domestication of Wildness: Creating the Paco-vicuña in Early Nineteenth-Century Peru

Hispanic American Historical Review

… Among these, the vicuna became an unexpectedly powerful icon, superseding
the llama due to associations that the latter had as a beast … Because llamas and
alpacas were raised almost exclusively by Indigenous pastoral communities, the 

P. Wolff

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Llamas and alpacas have a different glucose utilization and regulation physiology
than cattle. … Mild to moderate superior brachygnathism is not uncommon in llamas
and alpacas and the … Weights are ideal however body condition scores have been …

Cesarean section in camelids: indications, technique, survival, and postoperative fertility

M. S. Waqas, A. Campbell, E. Arroyo, I. Bott, A. Anouassi

… Although twinning is rare in camelids,2 2 cases of twins resulting in a cesarean section were observed each in an alpaca and llama in this study. These findings are consistent with other retrospective study in SACs;14 however, in that study a higher …

Clinical Theriogenology, 2023

Laparoscopic-assisted cryptorchidectomy in South American camelids and Nigerian dwarf goats

D. Schwartz, M. S. Waqas, E. Arroyo, A. Ruiz, A. Tibary - 

Cryptorchidism is a common sexual development disorder in males with a potential
hereditary origin in goats and camelids. Cryptorchid animals should be removed
from breeding and castrated to eliminate male behavior. The objective of this paper …

Clinical Theriogenology, 2023


M. I. Mustafa, A. Mohammed -

Revolutionizing Antiviral Therapy with Nanobodies: Generation and Prospects

Biotechnology Reports, 2023

… These tiny proteins, which are derived from the immune systems of camelids such
as llamas and camels, are much smaller than … In camels and llamas, for example,
the genes encoding the heavy chain of their antibodies undergo a unique process …

D. Ehrenstein -

Grazing Model Gets an Update

Physics, 2023

… That model accounted for effects such as the competition for water among plants,
the natural deaths of plants, and the eating of plants by an animal called a vicuña,
which is a relative of the llama. The model indicated that the formation of the rotating …

M. D. Ercoli, A. Álvarez, S. R. Moyano -

Masticatory myology of the llama (Lama glama, Camelidae) and comparisons with other camelids and euungulates.

Journal of Anatomy, 2023

Camelids are the only living representatives of the Suborder Tylopoda, and present
a unique set of osteo-myological masticatory features, differing from all other extant
euungulates. They combine selenodont dentition and rumination with a fused …

M. D. Ercoli, A. Álvarez, S. R. Moyano -

Masticatory myology of the llama (Lama glama, Camelidae) and comparisons with other camelids and euungulates.

Journal of Anatomy, 2023

Camelids are the only living representatives of the Suborder Tylopoda, and present
a unique … functional morphology of Lama glama and other camelids in a
comparative framework. Both … The myology of llamas confirms that camelids …

L. A. Bocancia-Mateescu, D. Stan, A. C. Mirica, M. G. Ghita… -

Nanobodies as Diagnostic and Therapeutic Tools for Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs)

Pharmaceuticals, 2023

… Nanobodies or single-domain antibody fragments are found in sharks and
camelids [11]. Despite their low molecular weight—they are … They were first
discovered in camelids in 1993 by Hamers-Casterman and his collaborators, which …

L. W. Mamani-Linares, F. Cayo-Rojas -

Effect of concentrate supplementation on the grazing and social behaviour of young llamas (Lama glama) in the Bolivian Altiplano

Journal of the Selva Andina Animal Science, 2023

… de pastoreo y social de llamas jóvenes enteros criados sobre pasturas nativas.
Los tratamientos fueron: GR: llama en pastos nativos, GR+… concentrate
supplementation on the grazing and social behavior of young intact llamas reared 

A. D. Somerville -

Human-Animal Interactions in the Pre-colonial Americas: Insights from Stable Carbon Isotope Analysis

Exploring Human Behavior Through Isotope Analysis …, 2023

… The authors suggest that this pattern represents differences between puna-pastured
alpacas (low δ 13 C) and maize-foddered llamas (high δ 13 C). They argue that the
Wari llamas were kept locally in corrals and provisioned with maize stalks, leading to …

M. D. Quispe Bonilla, C. Quispe Bonilla… -

Development and validation of a smart system for medullation and diameter assessment of alpaca, llama and mohair fibres

Animal 17, 5 (2023) 100800, 2023

Medullated fibres, due to their higher resistance to bending and pressure, constitute
a problem for the textile industry. Thus, having practical instruments to identify them
is essential. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop and validate a novel 

J. A. R. Cantal, J. M. G. Anguita, A. D. Huertas, L. A. Sánchez… 

Camelids in the south of the Iberian Peninsula in Roman and medieval times. Osteological evidence from the city of Cordoba (Spain)

Journal of Archaeological …, 2023

This paper presents the results obtained concerning the possible presence of
camelids in the city of Cordoba (Spain) in Roman and medieval times, after the
review of all the faunal assemblages corresponding to these historical periods …

L Guthrie

The Sling: A Brief History and Experimental Recreation

… Llama wool was what was commonly used by South American tribes and
civilizations for sling construction, but llama wool was expensive and less accessible
to me. I also saw wool recommended in more modern sources on yarn spinning as a ...

M. G. Pérez-Durand, A. Massa-Guzmán

Age-Related Differences in Testosterone Concentration and Its Relation to Testicular Biometrics, Hemodynamics, and Fertility in Alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

Veterinary Sciences, 2023

… Other factors associated with infertility in alpacas and llamas are related to the
presence of persistent hymen [56]; however, in the present study there was no
incidence of this factor. On the other hand, old (>15 years) and low-body-condition-score …


M. D. Ercoli, A. Álvarez, S. R. Moyano 

Masticatory myology of the llama (Lama glama, Camelidae) and comparisons with other camelids and euungulates.

Journal of Anatomy, 2023

Camelids are the only living representatives of the Suborder Tylopoda, and present
a unique set of osteo-myological masticatory features, differing from all other extant
euungulates. They combine selenodont dentition and rumination with a fused …


W Poma Calle

High Andean camelid herders: an approach from territorial development

Temas Sociales, 2023

… La crianza de llamas y alpacas tiene una significativa presencia en la comunidad
originaria de Chacaltaya (Bolivia), que tiene una tradición … Según las pastoras, la
llama es la que más beneficios da, porque la carne es demandada y una llama bien...

J Nesbitt, SL Weber, E Washburn, BI Asencios… -

Diet During the Late Initial Period (1100–800 BC) in the Chavín Heartland: New Data from Canchas Uckro (North-Central Peru)

 Journal of Ethnobiology, 2023

… Extant faunal remains suggest deer comprised an important component of the diet,
while camelids constitute a minor proportion of the … on subsistence practices in the
north-central and northern highlands of Peru prior to the widespread adoption of …

M Smith-Blackmore

Animal Abuse Involving Large Animals

Investigating Animal Abuse Crime Scenes

Generally speaking, “large animals” include cattle, horses, donkeys and other equids,
pigs, sheep, goats and other small ruminants, llamas, alpacas and other camelids.
Under the law, however, the definition of agricultural animals varies, as do their legal ..

AM Shen, OM Malekshah, N Pogrebnyak, T Minko 

Plant-derived single domain COVID-19 antibodies.

 Journal of Controlled Release …, 2023

… We selected a single N-terminal domain functional camelid-derived heavy (H)-chain
antibody fragments (VHH, AKA nanobodies) targeted to receptor binding domain of
SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and developed methods of their rapid production using …

 B Leonard, V Danna, L Gorham, M Davison, W Chrisler

Shaping Nanobodies and Intrabodies against Proteoforms

Analytical Chemistry, 2023

… We employed a synthetic camelid nanobody library expressed in yeast to identify
nanobody binders of different SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD)
proteoforms. Importantly, employment of the positive and negative selection …

CA Smith, GJ Sonneson, RJ Hoey, JM Hinerman… - 

Molecular recognition requires dimerization of a VHH antibody

 mAbs, 2023

… As the anti-caffeine VHH antibody was first generated through inoculation of a
llama, Citation18 the homodimer-based hapten recognition by a camelid antibody
opens the possibility that such dimer-based target recognition may occur in vivo …

 AD Tung

 Increasing the breadth and potency of a neutralising single domain antibody against the influenza haemagglutinin stem

Yep - 2023

… R1a-B6 is one such broadly neutralising anti-influenza antibody derived from a
camelid (specifically an alpaca). Camelid derived antibodies … The wide range of
influenza viruses neutralised potently by WC21 and the flexible formatting of camelid …


P. A. Burger, E. Ciani, C. Pastrana, H. Alhaddad, J.M. Astruc

The sheep, goats and camelids working group at icar (international committee of animal recording) and its opportunities for advanced performance recording

Society of Camelid …, 2023

AIM: The aim of this presentation is to introduce the work and activities of the Sheep,
Goats and Camelids Working Group (SGC-WG) of ICAR to the larger camel research
community. The need for advanced phenotype recording techniques has been …

M. B. Navarrete Zamora, T. S. Silva, M. D. Silva 

Term Alpaca Placenta Glycosylation Profile and its Correlation with 1 Pregnancy Maintenance and Fetal Survival

Frontiers in Cell and …

… Alpaca is a South American camelid, mainly located in Peruvian highlands,
where oxygen concentration and atmosphere pressure are … For this propose, 12
term alpaca placentas were collected, material obtained at the time of birth of …

C I. Pastrana, F. J. N. González, T. K. S. Osman, E. Ciani… - …  

Optimization and validation of a linear appraisal scoring system for physical fitness-linked zoometric traits in dromedary camels

Society of Camelid …, 2023

AIM: The present study is intended to optimize a protocol implemented for the linear
appraisal of dromedary camels (n= 130) that are reared in single-sex herds for
different functional purposes (milk production and leisure riding). Further, the …

C.  L. Jacobson, B. E. Clarke, S. Hancock, A. N. Thompson  

Reproductive performance for maiden and multiparous ewes on Australian farms: Opportunities for veterinary practitioners to provide on-farm investigations and …

Camelid and Goat Veterinarians …

Suboptimal reproductive performance of maiden ewes impacts sheep enterprise
productivity, but the extent and causes of the poorer reproductive performance of
maiden ewes on Australian sheep farms are not well understood. Here we show the …

M. N. Sgobba, C. I. Pastrana, N. Schlosserova 

Dromedary urine impacts on human tumour and non-tumour renal cell lines viability in serum-reduced media

Society of Camelid …, 2023

The 6th Conference of the International Society of Camelid Research and
Development (ISOCARD)-2023

E. M. Webb, A. Compton, P. Rai, C. Chuong, S. L. Paulson 

Expression of anti-chikungunya single-domain antibodies in transgenic Aedes aegypti reduces vector competence for chikungunya virus and Mayaro virus

Frontiers in Microbiology

… Given the close antigenic relationship between MAYV and CHIKV, we formulated
a single defense strategy to combat both emerging arboviruses: we generated
transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that express two camelid-derived anti-CHIKV …

 F. Si, F. Widén, S Dong, Z. Li

Hepatitis E as a Zoonosis

Hepatitis E Virus, 2023

… , camelid HEV was firstly isolated from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius
or one-humped camels) in Dubai [53] and then, in 2016, more strains of camelid
In 2015, a patient who had received liver transplantation was found to be infected by …


L van Schie, W Van Breedam, C Roels, B Schepens… - mAbs,

GlycoVHH: optimal sites for introducing N-glycans on the camelid VHH antibody scaffold and use for macrophage delivery


As small and stable high-affinity antigen binders, VHHs boast attractive
characteristics both for therapeutic use in various disease indications, and as
versatile reagents in research and diagnostics. To further increase the versatility of …

 N Mansour, F Lamghari, F Alhefeiti, R Al-Khateeb… -

Success of embryo transfer of hybrid embryos in Old World camelids: A first study

 Reproduction in domestic animals 

This is the first study to test the embryo transfer (ET) of hybrid embryos in Old World
camelids and produces a live calf from a dromedary recipient. Hybrid embryos were
collected from 7 dromedary and 10 Bactrian donors, with or without ovarian super-stimulation …

 CI Pastrana, FJN González, TKS Osman, E Ciani… 

Curve estimation regression analysis to identify the model that best fits camel biomechanics applications for selective breeding

- … Society of Camelid …, 2023

AIM: The present research is aimed at the identification of the curve, or mathematical
function, that has the best fit to a series of data points obtained from the analysis of
different gaits (walk, pace and galloping) in dromedary camels (n= 190). Such curve …

 LI Danner, S Herzog, C Lendl, T Wittek

 Seroprevalence of Borna disease virus antibodies in alpacas and llamas in Austria

… We aimed to include approximately 10 % of the New World camelids. The
selection of the herds and animals and sample preparation was … As far as we are
aware, these issues are also unknown in New World camelids. About 30 % of the …

 AK Alaica, V Bélisle - 

Bone and antler artifact use in the 1st millennium CE of Cusco, Peru: Insights on textile production and food processing from the site of Ak'awillay

Quaternary International, 2023

There is a long history in the use of osseous materials from some of the earliest
contexts of the Andes, yet most technology studies have focused on durable
materials of ceramic, metal, and stone. In this paper, we present evidence for the 


W. L. Franklin

Observational vs. GPS Data: The Case of Spatial and Social Ecology of the Andean Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)


Background The wild Vicuña is one of six members of Camelid family. It is a medium-sized
(38-45kg), high altitude (3200-4800m) ungulate, endemic to South America with two
subspecies: Northern Vicuña (Vv mensalis) and Southern Vicuña (Vv vicugna); the …

I. Udroiu  

Phylogeny and evolution of erythrocytes in mammals

Journal of Experimental Biology, 2023

camelids RBCs, because of the decrease in the surface area to volume ratio,
without increasing the RBC volume (MCV). Indeed, among the species studied,
camelids … Nonetheless, in camelids mutations happened that allowed some …

Y. Kong, F. Xie, Z. Zhang, S. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Di, Z. Zhou 

Evaluation of novel anti-CEACAM6 antibody-based conjugates for radioimmunotheranostics of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

European Radiology, 2023

… We used the structure of heavy-chain-only camelid antibodies as a basic sketch
to ensure low molecular weight and low non-target binding. NY004 contains CH2
and CH3 domains derived from human IgG1, and VHH, a variable region of the …


Current and emerging pharmacological treatments for respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants

JA Soto, RA Loaiza, S Echeverría, R Ramírez… - Expert Opinion on …, 2023

… Studies comparing the IgV gene repertoires of camelid germ lines and their
human counterparts have revealed a 95% sequence identity between the framework
region (FR) of human Ig [139] and the camelid IGHV family III, which suggests …

K Manoutcharian, G Gevorkian 

Shark VNAR phage display libraries: An alternative source for therapeutic and diagnostic recombinant antibody fragments

Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 2023

… chain in camelids and sharks enabled researchers to generate the smallest
recombinant antibody fragments, VHHs (about 15 kDa) and VNARs (about 12 kDa),
respectively, also called nanobodies [1,2]. Since then, many groups have …

Y Jiang, Y Lin, S Krishnaswamy, R Pan, Q Wu…  

Single-domain antibody–based noninvasive in vivo imaging of α-synuclein or tau pathology

Science Advances, 2023

… In contrast to the β sheet dyes, single-domain antibodies, found in camelids and a
few other species, are highly specific, and their small size allows better brain entry
and distribution than whole antibodies. Here, we have developed such imaging …

JN Hambly, CE Ruby, DV Mourich, S Bracha, BP Dolan  

 Potential Promises and Perils of Human Biological Treatments for Immunotherapy in Veterinary Oncology

Veterinary Sciences, 2023

… In keeping with a One Health framework, we also discuss the potential use of
single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) derived from camelid species (also known as
Nanobodies™) for therapies targeting multiple veterinary animal patients without the …


JL Lim, R Augustinus, JJ Plomp, K Roya-Kouchaki… Development and characterization of agonistic antibodies targeting the Ig-like 1 domain of MuSK

 - Scientific Reports, 2023

… The second set of antibodies resulted from libraries generated from two llamas
that were immunized … The variable domains of both types of antibodies (patient
and llama-derived) were … The llama-derived antibodies were further selected for …


E Wakild

What's a guanaco? tracing the llama diaspora through and beyond South America

… llamas have had agency is less pertinent here than the ways llamas have and
have not quite acclimatized to new habitats. They remain associated with their
homeland; they remain exotic rather than quotidian. If the llamas … the South …


Neosporosis in Argentina: Past, present and future perspectives

LM Campero, W Basso, G Moré, F Fiorani, YP Hecker… - … : Regional Studies and …, 2023

… However, in the few serological studies performed in llamas from Argentina only a
low level of seropositivity was detected and no … Evaluation of Neospora caninum
and Toxoplasma gondii infections in alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama) …


K Uzawa, M Takigami, Y Seki

Pacopampa and Kuntur Wasi: Regional Variations in the Process of Llama (Lama glama) Introduction

Senri Ethnological Studies, 2023

… reasonable to consider the factors that prevented the use of llamas at this
ceremonial center, given the widespread use of llamas throughout Central Andes
during this period. We propose that the supply of llamas was limited at Kuntur Wasi …

L Rossetto, MF Gallelli, GF Franco, MA Aba… 

Effect of early administration of progesterone on the function of the corpus luteum of llamas

Animal Reproduction, 2023

… of progesterone immediately after ovulation affects corpus luteum lifespan in
llamas. Female llamas (n=16) were induced to ovulate by … the premature
activation of the luteolytic process affecting corpus luteum function in llamas as it …

P Gradl  

Metal Additive Manufacturing for Rocket Engines: Successes and Failures

Additive Manufacturing Users Group, 2023

… • The L-PBF GRCop-42 chambers built under LLAMA had higher porosity (1-2%)
that congregated more at witness lines causing lack of fusion. • Granular surfaces,
unmelted particles, and irregular pores were observed in microtensile specimens (sectioned) …

M Takigami, K Uzawa  

A Comparative Study of Camelid Diets between Sites during the Formative Period in the Northern Highlands, Peru

Senri Ethnological Studies, 2023

… The general perspective is that the domestication of the alpacas and the llamas
occurred independently. The first camelid domestication, … The llama domestication
began later because the guanaco is larger and more difficult to control than the …


S Rosenfeld 

Of Guinea Pigs and Mines: Changing Access to Animal Consumption at Chavín de Huántar (Peru)

The Latin Americanist, 2023

… had found many llama bones at the local archaeological site and Diana was
surprised that people in the past had eaten llama meat. She … Some of the
questions I asked included: "How long have you lived in Chavín de Huántar?, Did ...


M Jahanbanifard, E Price, BA González, LA Raggi…

A novel method to analyse DART TOFMS spectra based on Convolutional Neural Networks: A case study on methanol extracts of wool fibres from endangered …

 International Journal of Mass Spectometry…, 2023

 M Cocchi, G Foiani, E Melchiotti, F Feliziani, G De Zan 

Multicentric malignant round cell tumour in a cria: Clinical presentation, pathologic findings and differential diagnoses

… The farmer also owned two llamas and introduced this cria, together with two
other adult female alpacas, 1 month prior to presentation. These … Both the alpacas
and llamas were fed hay and had free access to pasture. The cria was also provided …

Veterinary Record Case Reports

G S Duke, WH Isbell

Ancient Households on the North Coast of Peru: 4

… The presence of coca and chili peppers—two plants known for both their ritual
significance and importance in daily activities (Cutright 2011, 87; Gumerman 2002)—as
well as maize and llama, is consistent with a pattern that makes sense for temporary …

M. P. Weihmüller 

… In contexts where osteometry was unable to clarify questions pertaining to
domestication and where the line between guanaco and llama was blurred,
paleopathological analysis has been used as a complementary approach. These 

A look into the wild. Pathological analysis of a modern collection of guanacos from the Dry Chaco and its implications for South American camelid paleopathological …

International Journal of Paleopathology, 2023

MD Quispe, CC Quispe, L Serrano-Arriezu, JD Trigo… 

Development and validation of a smart system for medullation and diameter assessment of alpaca, llama and mohair fibers

Animal, 2023

Medullated fibers, due to their higher resistance to bending and pressure, constitute
a problem for the textile industry. Thus, having practical instruments to identify them
is essential. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop and validate a novel …


C Eibl, S Franz

The Clinical Importance Of Ultrasonography For Examining Healthy Condition Of Kidney And Spleen

… llamas, such that the llama kidney is larger than that of the alpaca. The main
reason could be the difference in body sizes between the species, as llamas …
animals investigated was also responsible for the lack of statistical significance 


Y Gong, Y He - Cell membrane anchoring strategies for HIV gene therapy Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 2023

Moreover, this group worked on two heavy chain-only llama antibodies, JM2 and
JM4. GPI-VHH JM4-modified cells, but not JM2-modified cells, effectively neutralized
cell-free and cell-associated HIV infections, revealing that epitope specificity largely …

ANC Castro, MC Illia, PA Lendez, MPC Illia…Hepatic hematopoiesis in the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), a species with development in hypoxic environmentsTissue and Cell, 2023

Hematopoiesis occurs in different anatomical niches throughout the life of the
individual. The first hematopoietic extra-embryonic stage is replaced by a intra-embryonic
stage that occurs in a region that is adjacent to the dorsal aorta. Then, the prenatal …


S Nakamura, T Adachi, M Ogawa  Japanese Contributions to the Studies of Mesoamerican Civilizations - 2023

La participación de arqueólogos japoneses en la arqueología del continente
americano se comenzó a partir del año 1958 cuando el equipo de la Universidad de
Tokyo inició un proyecto en la región de los Andes 


Fifty Years of Research on Camelids and the Contribution of Genetics and Genomics: A Scientometrics Evaluation

M Rokouei, E Vaziri, M Feizabadi, H Faraji-Arough… - Agriculturae Conspectus …, 2023

… Considering the co-occurrence of keywords, “alpaca” and “llama” appeared 40
times together during the last 50 years, followed by “camel” with “PCR”, “camel” with “Trypanosoma
evansi” (each 19 times), and “nanobody” with “phage display” (16 times). For the …


Drinking behaviour of llamas (Lama glama) and horses (Equus caballus) in response to saline drinking water

N Enke - 2023

… , such as llamas and alpacas, or hindgut fermenters, such as horses or rabbits.
For the experiments of this study, llamas were chosen as … Against this background,
the aim of the thesis was to evaluate the responses of llamas and horses towards …


Phenological study of cultivated pastures in Moyocancha used for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) feeding

O Daniela, V Maritza, M Marcelo, A Manuel - Journal of Survey in Fisheries Sciences, 2023

… levels with an average production of 13.25 tn/ha, it is recommended to use this
forage species to feed South American camelids. … South American camelids are
species of great importance in the inter-Andean region because they allow the …

15.3. 2023

Camelids on the Coast? Investigating Trade and Early Camelid Herding Through Stable Isotope Analysis of Formative to Late Intermediate Period Textiles from the …


Cryopreservation modifies the distribution of the prostate-derived lectin SL15 on the llama (Lama glama) sperm


Dental Disease of Camelids


Seminal plasma nerve growth factor signaling on the reproductive physiology of female llamas


Selective Modulation of Activated Protein C Activities by a Non-Active Site Targeting Nanobody Library


vioural biology of South American domestic camelids: An overview from a welfare perspective

The Wild Side: Hunting Guanacos in Patagonia

Tissue distribution of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in wild animals with a focus on artiodactyls, mustelids and phocids

Measurement properties of pain scoring instruments in farm animals: A systematic review using the COSMIN checklist

Cultures in Mountain Areas/Culture in aree di montagna/Kulturen in Gebirgsregionen: Comparative Perspectives/Prospettive comparative/Vergleichende Perspektiven

27.1 AALSA Showring Magazine 

17.1 In Memorium