Anesthesia

Abrahamsen, E. J. (2009) Chemical restraint, anesthesia, and analgesia for camelids. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 25, 455-494.

Anderson, D. E. 2012. Anesthesia, analgesia, and chemical restraint in the clinic and on the farm - Part 1: Handling, restraint, and field anesthesia of camelids. unpaginated. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

---. 2013. Injectable anesthesia. 39-42. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Barrington, G. M., T. F. Meyer & S. M. Parish (1993) Standing castration of the llama using butorphanol tartrate and local anesthesia. Equine Practice, 15, 35-39.

Caulkett, N. (2003) Anesthesia of ruminants. Large Animal Veterinary Rounds, 3, 1-6.

Donaldson, L. L., M. Holland & S. A. Koch (1992) Atracurium as an adjunct to halothane-oxygen anesthesia in a llama undergoing intraocular surgery: a case report. Veterinary Surgery, 21, 76-79.

Gavier, D., M. D. Kittleson, M. E. Fowler, L. E. Johnson, G. Hall & D. Nearenburg (1988) Evaluation of a combination of xylazine, ketamine, and halothane for anesthesia in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 49, 2047-2055.

Gavier, M. D. 1987. Evaluation of the combination of xylazine, ketamine and halothane for anesthesia in llamas. Davis, Calif.

Grubb, T. L., T. W. Riebold & M. J. Huber. 1992. Evaluation of lidocaine, xylazine and a combination of lidocaine and xylazine for epidural anesthesia in the llama. 499.

---. 1993. Evaluation of lidocaine, xylazine, and a lidocaine/xylazine combination for epidural anesthesia in the llama. 88.

Johnson, L. W. 2010. Keeping small ruminant field anesthesia simple. 345. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

Miesner, M. D. 2013. Caudal (sacro-coccygeal) epidural anesthesia. 81-82. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

---. 2013. Lumbo-sacral epidural anesthesia. 89-91. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Pereira, F. L. G., S. A. Greene, M. M. McEwen & R. Keegan (2006) Analgesia and anesthesia in camelids. Small Ruminant Research, 61, 227-233.

Prado, T. M., T. J. Doherty, E. B. Boggan, H. M. Airasmaa, T. Martin-Jimenez & B. W. Rohrbach (2008) Effects of acepromazine and butorphanol on tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 69, 182-188.

Seddighi, R., S. B. Elliot, B. K. Whitlock, C. M. Egger & T. J. Doherty (2014) Antinociceptive and selected physiological effects of morphine and xylazine on tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia in llamas. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 41, 365-371.

Snyder, J. & N. Schmidt. 2009. Anesthesia, analgesia, pain management, and humane considerations. 134-137. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

Ven, S., S. Schauvliege, C. Gadeyne, M. Gozalo-Marcilla, S. Segaert & F. Gasthuys (2010) Anesthesia with α2 agonists in the llama: review and research. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 79, 269-274.

Last Updated: 14.01.2020

© Copyright Hill View Llamas, Frodsham