Clostridium

Albini, S., I. Brodard, A. Jaussi, N. Wollschlaeger, J. Frey, R. Miserez & C. Abril (2008) Real-time multiplex PCR assays for reliable detection of Clostridium perfringens toxin genes in animal isolates. Veterinary Microbiology, 127, 179-185.

Bentancor, A. B., P. Halperin, M. Flores & F. Iribarren (2009) Antibody response to the epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens following vaccination of Lama glama crias. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 3, 624-627.

Conway, J. O., L. J. Sherwood, M. T. Collazo, J. A. Garza & A. Hayhurst (2010) Llama single domain antibodies specific for the 7 botulinum neurotoxin serotypes as heptaplex immunoreagents. PLoS ONE, e8818.

Ellis, R. P., A. Ramirez, R. J. Todd, L. Phillips, T. McConnell, M. Fowler, R. Walker & E. Hoffman. 1990. An overview of Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxemia in alpacas and llamas. 2-3. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University, College of Veterinary Medicine.

Ellis, R. P., R. J. Todd, L. A. Metelman-Alvis, A. L. Newton, T. J. Thompson, L. W. Johnson & A. Ramirez. 1990. Response of llamas to Clostridium perfringens types C and D vaccines. 4-5. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University, College of Veterinary Medicine.

Garmory, H. S., N. Chanter, N. P. French, D. Bueschel, J. G. Songer & R. W. Titball (2000) Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens β2-toxin amongst animals, determined using genotyping and subtyping PCR assays. Epidemiology and Infection, 124, 61-67.

Hutchison, J., M. Salman, F. Garry, L. Johnson, T. Keefe & R. Ellis (1997) Evaluation of factors affecting the response of llamas to vaccination with Clostridium perfringens C toxoid. Épidémiologie et Santé Animale, 08.06.1-08.06.2.

Kotorri, S., K. Korro, R. Bakiu, P. Muhedini & B. Gora (2016) Enterotoxemia in Albanian zoo-Park llama (Lama glama): Clostridium perfringens-type C was the causative agent. Journal of International Environmental Application & Science, 11, 42-46.

Tyler, J. W., A. Petersen, J. Ginsky, S. Parish, T. Besser, C. Leathers & J. Beyer (1996) Clostridial myonecrosis, hepatitis, and nephritis in a llama with vegetative endocarditis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 10, 94-96.

Last Updated: 12.01.2020

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