Copper

Suspect copper toxicity in an alpaca. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1476646/pdf/canvetj00007-0072.pdf

Carmalt JL, Baptiste KE, Blakley B. Suspect copper toxicity in an alpaca. Can. Vet. J. 42:554-556, 2001.

Clauss, M., C. Lendl, P. Schramel & W. J. Streich (2004) Skin lesions in alpacas and llamas with low zinc and copper status - a preliminary report. Veterinary Journal, 167, 302-305.

Junge, R. E. & L. Thornburg (1989) Copper poisoning in four llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 195, 987-989.

Morgan KL. Ataxia and head tremor in an alpaca (Lama pacos). Vet. Rec 131:216-217, 1992.

Mullaney TP, Slanker MR, Fitzgerald SD, Elliott MW, Braselton WE, Main KE. Copper toxicosis in llamas. In: Proc. Am. Assoc. Vet Lab. Diag. p. 36 (Abstract), 1996.

National Research Council, 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants, Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids. National Academy pp.

Pugh, D.G., 1993. Copper Press, Washington, D.C., 362 pp. Pugh, D.G., 1993. Copper nutrition in llamas. Llamas 7(2):77-79.

Palmer AC, Blakemore WF, O'Sullivan B, Ashton DG, Scott WA. Ataxia and spinal cord degeneration in llama, wildebeeste and camel. Vet. Rec. 107:10-11. 1980.

Rahn-Chique, K., N. Carrion & M. Murillo (2012) Determination of copper, magnesium and zinc in mononuclear leukocytes by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Investigación Clínica, 53, 342-352.

Saun, R. J. v. 2012. Understanding copper nutrition in small ruminants. 155-160. Stillwater: American Association of Bovine Practitioners.

Smith BB, Van Saun RJ, Reed PJ, Craig AM, Youngberg A. Blood mineral and vitamin E concentrations in llamas. Am. J. Vet. Res. 59(8):1063- 1070, 1998.

Smith JA, Noninfectious diseases, metabolic diseases, toxicities, and neoplastic diseases of South American camelids. Vet. Clinics N.A.:Food Anim. Pract. 5(1):101-143, 1989. 

Weaver, D. M., J. W. Tyler, R. S. Marion, S. W. Casteel, C. M. Loiacono & J. R. Turk (1999) Subclinical copper accumulation in llamas. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 40, 422-424.

Van Saun, R.J., 2006. Nutrient requirements of South American camelids: A factorial approach. Small Ruminant Research 61:153-164.

Weaver DM, Tyler JW, Marion RS, Casteel SW, Loiacono CM, Turk JR. Subclinical copper accumulation in llamas. Can. Vet. J. 40:422-424, 1999

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