Diseases in LLamas

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Altmann, D. 1975. The principal diseases of old-world and new-world Camelidae. 53-60. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Anderson, D. E. (1999) Liver disease, metabolism and digestion in llamas and alpacas. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 6, 163-169.

APPLEBY, E. C. & K. W. HEAD (1954) A case of suspected Johne's disease in a llama (L. glama). J Comp Pathol, 64, 52-3.

Arthur, D. G. (1991) Diseases of llamas and alpacas. Surveillance (Wellington), 18, 21-23.

--- (1997) Diseases of lamoids in New Zealand. Surveillance (Wellington), 24, 29-30.

Barbieri, E. S., D. V. Rodríguez, R. E. Marin, W. Setti, S. Romero, M. Barrandeguy & V. Parreño (2014) Serological survey of antibodies against viral diseases of public health interest in llamas (Lama glama) from Jujuy province, Argentina. Revista Argentina de Microbiología, 46, 53-57.

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Bedenice, D. & C. E. Whitehead (2016) Documented neurological diseases in camelids. Livestock, 21, 376-382.

Blanco Viera, J., F. Marcovecchio, N. Fondevila, B. Carrillo, A. Schudel, M. David, A. Torres & C. Mebus (1995) Epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in the llama (Lama glama). Veterinaria Argentina, 12, 620-627.

Card, C. S. (1992) Report of the Committee on infectious disease of cattle, bison and llama. Proceedings of the United States Animal Health Association, 96, 61-70.

--- (1993) Report of the committee on infectious disease of cattle, bison and llama. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, 97, 171-185.

Cebra, C. K., M. L. Cebra, F. B. Garry, R. S. Larsen & G. M. Baxter (1998) Acute gastrointestinal disease in 27 New World camelids: clinical and surgical findings. Veterinary Surgery, 27, 112-121.

Czerwinski, S. L. (2019) Ocular surface disease in new world camelids. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, 22, 69-79.

David, M., A. Torres, C. Mebus, B. J. Carrillo, A. Schudel, N. Fondevilla, J. B. Viera & F. E. Marcovecchio (1993) Further studies on foot-and-mouth disease in the llama (Lama glama). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, 97, 280-285.

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Esteban, L. R. & J. R. Thompson (1988) The digestive system of new world camelids - common digestive diseases of llamas. Veterinary Student (Iowa State University Veterinarian), 50, 117-121.

Fondevila, N. A., F. J. Marcoveccio, J. Bianco Viera, V. K. O'Donnell, B. J. Carillo, A. A. Schudel, M. David, A. Torres & C. A. Mebus (1995) Susceptibility of llamas (Lama glama) to infection with foot-and-mouth-disease virus. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 42, 595-599.

Fowler, M. E. (1984) Congenital and hereditary diseases of llamas. Verhandlungsbericht des Internationalen Symposiums über die Erkrankungen der Zootiere, 26, 153-158.

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Fowler, M. E. & B. Frost. 1999. Prevalence of selected diseases of llamas and alpacas. 268-276. Richmond: United States Animal Health Association.

Gauly, M., J. Vaughan & C. Cebra. 2018. South American camelids. Attitude, breeding, diseases. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag KG.

Gibney, K. B., S. Robinson, J. P. Mutebi, D. E. Hoenig, B. J. Bernier, L. Webber, C. Lubelczyk, R. J. Nett & M. Fischer (2011) Eastern equine encephalitis: an emerging arboviral disease threat, Maine, 2009. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 11, 637-639.

Gionfriddo, J. R., J. P. Gionfriddo & S. G. Krohne (1997) Ocular diseases of llamas: 194 cases (1980-1993). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 210, 1784-1787.

González Arribas, J. L., Y. Moral Llamas, S. Domínguez Hermosa & L. Agredano Marcos (2014) Therapeutic approach to autoimmune skin disease in the dog and cat. Argos - Informativo Veterinario, 44, 46.

Güttler, E. 1986. Investigations on the management, breeding, physiology and pathology of reproduction and diseases in llamas in the Argentinian Andes. 169pp.: Justus-Liebig-Universität, Giessen.

Häfliger-Speiser, S. (2018) Skin diseases in New World camelids. Forum Kleinwiederkäuer/Petits Ruminants, 6-10.

Harmsen, M. M., H. P. D. Fijten, A. Dekker & P. L. Eblé (2008) Passive immunization of pigs with bispecific llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease and porcine immunoglobulin. Veterinary Microbiology, 132, 56-64.

Harmsen, M. M., H. P. D. Fijten, B. Engel, A. Dekker & P. L. Eblé (2009) Passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody fragments reduces foot-and-mouth disease transmission between pigs. Vaccine, 27, 1904-1911.

Harmsen, M. M., C. B. v. Solt, H. P. D. Fijten, L. v. Keulen, R. A. Rosalia, K. Weerdmeester, A. H. M. Cornelissen, M. G. M. d. Bruin, P. L. Eblé & A. Dekker (2007) Passive immunization of guinea pigs with llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease. Veterinary Microbiology, 120, 193-206.

Hernandez-Llamas, A., J. Cabanillas-Ramos & F. J. Magallon-Barajas (2016) Estimating impact of white spot disease on economic risk in semi-intensive shrimp farms in Mexico: the case of the State of Sinaloa. Reviews in Aquaculture, 8, 111-120, 220.

Hernandez-Llamas, A., F. J. Magallon-Barajas, R. Perez-Enriquez, J. Cabanillas-Ramos, H. M. Esparza-Leal & G. Portillo-Clark (2014) Pond shutdown as a strategy for preventing outbreaks of white spot disease in shrimp farms in Mexico. Reviews in Aquaculture, 6, 67-74, 128.

Hernández-Llamas, A., J. M. J. Ruiz-Velazco & V. M. Gomez-Muñoz (2011) A stochastic approach for analysis of the influence of white spot disease, zootechnical parameters, water quality, and management factors on the variability of production of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultivated under intensive commercial conditions. Aquacultural Engineering, 45, 66-73.

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Hunter, D. 2010. Brucellosis and Johne's disease in cervids and bovids. 309-311. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

Johnson, L. W. (1989) Eperythrozoonosis (EPE) in llamas: a new disease? Proceedings - Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, 93, 240.

Kapil, S., T. Yeary & J. F. Evermann (2009) Viral diseases of new world camelids. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 25, 323-337.

Lubroch, J. & R. J. Yedloutschnig (1987) Foot-and-mouth disease studies in the llama (Lama glama). Proceedings of the United States Animal Health Association, 91, 313-316.

Lubroth, J., R. J. Yedloutschnig, V. K. Culhane & P. E. Mikiciuk (1990) Foot-and-mouth disease virus in the llama (Lama glama): diagnosis, transmission, and susceptibility. J Vet Diagn Invest, 2, 197-203.

Marin, R. E., B. Brihuega & G. Romero (2008) Seroprevalence of infectious diseases in Llamas from Jujuy province, Argentina. Veterinaria Argentina, 25, 281-287.

Mattson, D. E. (1994) Viral diseases [llama]. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 345-351.

Middleton, J. R., M. Chigerwe, D. M. Fine, J. R. Turk & J. C. Lattimer (2006) Pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure in an adult llama with hepatic disease. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 228, 756-759.

--- (2006) Pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure in an adult llama with hepatic disease

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Nettles, V. F. (1994) Report of the committee on wildlife diseases. Proceedings of the United States Animal Health Association, 98, 561-571.

Niedbalska, J. 2010. Severe hepatic necrosis and thromboembolic disease in a llama.

Niehaus, A. (2009) Dental disease in llamas and alpacas. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 25, 281-293.

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Ogden, N. H., Z. Woldehiwet & C. A. Hart (1998) Granulocytic ehrlichiosis: an emerging or rediscovered tick-borne disease? Journal of Medical Microbiology, 47, 475-482.

Papastergiu, D., G. Rapuntean, S. Rapuntean & G. Nadas (2009) Consideration regarding Mycobacterium paratuberculosis natural reservoires and their involvement in disease epidemiology. Lucrări Științifice - Medicină Veterinară, Universitatea de Științe Agricole și Medicină Veterinară "Ion Ionescu de la Brad" Iași, 52, 1043-1050.

Picton, R. A. 1993. Serologic survey of llamas in Oregon for antibodies to viral diseases of livestock.

Ranganathan, S., M. Thangam & S. A. M. Balajee (1996) Role of animals in the spread of human ringworm disease in Madras. Current Science, 71, 666.

Rooney, A. L., G. Limon, H. Vides, A. Cortez & J. Guitian. 2013. A cross-sectional study of Sarcocystis spp. in llamas (Lama glama) in Southern Bolivia including an economic costing of loss in income caused by the disease. 175-183. Roslin: Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine.

Ruiz-Velazco, J. M. J., A. Hernández-Llamas & V. M. Gomez-Muñoz (2015) A continuous diphasic model for prediction of survival of cultivated populations when affected by disease: the case of shrimp and white spot disease. Aquaculture Research, 46, 3020-3027.

Ruiz-Velazco, J. M. J., A. Hernández-Llamas, V. M. Gomez-Muñoz & F. J. Magallon (2010) Dynamics of intensive production of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei affected by white spot disease. Aquaculture, 300, 113-119.

Sarma, G., S. K. Das & P. K. Dutta (1983) Outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in deer in the Assam state zoo. Veterinary Record, 113, 420-421.

Saun, R. J. v. (2006) Nutritional diseases of South American camelids. Small Ruminant Research, 61, 153-164.

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Schmitz, J. A. 1996. Report of the committee on infectious diseases of cattle, bison and llamas. 295-301. Richmond: United States Animal Health Association.

Smith, B. B. (1993) Major infectious and non-infectious diseases of the llama amd alpaca. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 35, 33-39.

Stieger-Vanegas, S. M., K. F. Scollan, L. Meadows, D. Sisson & J. Schlipf (2016) Cardiac-gated computed tomography angiography in three alpacas with complex congenital heart disease. J Vet Cardiol, 18, 88-98.

Stieger-Vanegas, S. M., K. F. Scollan, L. Meadows, D. Sisson, J. Schlipf, T. Riebold & C. V. Löhr (2016) Cardiac-gated computed tomography angiography in three alpacas with complex congenital heart disease. Journal of Veterinary Cardiology, 18, 88-98.

Sutmoller, P. (1999) Risk of disease transmission by llama embryos. Rev Sci Tech, 18, 719-28.

Sutmoller, P. & P. Taylor. 1998. An assessment of the risk of disease transmission by llama embryos. 251-275. Richmond: United States Animal Health Association.

Thedford, T. R. & L. W. Johnson (1989) Infectious diseases of New-World camelids (NWC). Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 5, 145-157.

Thomson, G. R. 1997. The role of carrier animals in the transmission of foot and mouth disease. 67-85 (Fr), 87-103 (En), 105-123 (Es). Paris: Office International des Epizooties.

Thorne, T. (1993) Report of the committee on wildlife diseases. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, 97, 48-60.

Videla, R. 2016. Neurologic disease in camelids. 327-329. Gainesville: North American Veterinary Community (NAVC).

Wernery, U. & O.-R. Kaaden (2004) Foot-and-mouth disease in camelids: a review. The Veterinary Journal, 168, 134-142.

Wernery, U. & O. R. Kaaden (2004) Foot-and-mouth disease in camelids: a review. Veterinary Journal, 168, 134-142.

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Whitehead, C. E. (2009) Neonatal diseases in llamas and alpacas. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 25, 367-384.

Whitehead, C. E. & D. Bedenice (2009) Neurologic diseases in llamas and alpacas. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 25, 385-405.

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Zacari, M. Á. & L. F. Pacheco (2005) Depredation versus disease problems as causes of mortality in camelid livestock in the Sajama national park. Ecología en Bolivia, 40, 58-61.

Zanolari, P., M. Meylan, H. Sager, M. Herrli-Gygi, S. Rüfenacht & P. Roosje (2008) Dermatology in South American camelids. Part 2: review of the most relevant skin diseases. Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 36, 421-427.

Zinsstag, J., M. F. Abakar, M. Ibrahim, R. Tschopp, L. Crump, B. Bonfoh & E. Schelling (2016) Cost-effective control strategies for animal and zoonotic diseases in pastoralist populations. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 35, 673-681.

Last Updated: 13.01.2020

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