Minerals and Trace Elements

Which One, Loose or Block Salt Feeding?

Espinoza, J. E., L. R. McDowell, J. Rodriguez, J. K. Loosli, J. H. Conrad & F. G. Martin (1982) Mineral status of llamas and sheep in the Bolivian Altiplano. Journal of Nutrition, 112, 2286-2292.

Falcón Florido, J. T., M. C. Fernández, J. M. Galán González, A. Hardisson de la Torre & L. M. Wildpret Dixkes (1984) Metallic ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc) in wines from Tenerife estimated by flame photometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Anales de Bromatología, 35, 31-40.

Long, P. (1999) A practitioner approach to llama and alpaca nutrition. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 6, 275-277.

Morin, D. E., L. L. Rowan, W. L. Hurley & W. E. Braselton (1995) Composition of milk from llamas in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science, 78, 1713-1720.

Navarre, C. B. 2003. Simplified nutrition of camelids. 287-289. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

Park, Y. W. & G. F. W. Haenlein. 2013. Other minor species milk (reindeer, caribou, musk ox, llama, alpaca, moose, elk, and others). 644-658. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Pugh, D. G., B. Waldridge & J. G. W. Wenzel (1999) Trace mineral nutrition in llamas. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 6, 209-216.

---. 2004. Trace mineral nutrition in llamas. 728-737. Bikaner: The Camelid Publishers.

Semevolos, S. A. & S. K. Reed (2011) Molecular, histologic, and trace mineral characterization of metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joint hyperextension in juvenile llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 72, 550-555.

Semevolos, S. A., S. K. Reed & L. G. Schultz (2013) Evaluation of serum trace mineral, vitamin D, and sex steroid hormone concentration, and survey data in llamas and alpacas with metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal hyperextension. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 74, 48-52.

Stanitznig, A., B. Lambacher, P. Nuyken, L. Kiefer, S. Franz & T. Wittek (2018) New World camelids in Austria: a compilation of haematological and clinical-chemical parameters as well as serum concentrations of minerals and trace elements. Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift, 105, 3-12.

Wladridge, B. M. & D. G. Pugh (1997) Managing trace mineral deficiencies in South American camelids. Veterinary Medicine, 92, 744-750.

Last updated: 13.01.2020

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