Aba, M. A. 1998. Hormonal interrelationships in reproduction of female llamas and alpacas. Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Adams, G. P. (2007) Theriogenology in llamas and alpacas. Large Animal Veterinary Rounds, 7, 6 pp.

Adams, G. P. & M. H. Ratto (2013) Ovulation-inducing factor in seminal plasma: a review. Animal Reproduction Science, 136, 148-156.

Adams, G. P., M. H. Ratto, M. E. Silva & R. A. Carrasco (2016) Ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) in seminal plasma: a review and update. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 51, 4-17.

Adams, G. P., J. Sumar & O. J. Ginther (1990) Effects of lactational and reproductive status on ovarian follicular waves in llamas (Lama glama). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 90, 535-545.

--- (1991) Hemorrhagic ovarian follicles in llamas. Theriogenology, 35, 557-568.

Alberio, R. H. & J. F. Aller (1996) Control and synchronisation of the follicular cycle mediated by the exogenous influence of progesterone in llamas. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 16, 325-329.

Aller, J. F., M. C. Abalos, F. Acuña & A. K. Cancino (2019) Plasma steroid profiles and ovarian response in llamas treated with eCG for superovulation combined with exogenous progesterone during early luteal phase. Animal Reproduction Science, 208, 106108.

Aller, J. F., J. F. Alberio & G. Rebuffi (1996) The relationship between rectal palpations and ultrasound used for the determination of the term of gestation in llamas. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 16, 331-335.

Aller, J. F. & R. H. Alberio (1996) Follicular dynamics in llamas during the autumn and winter. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 16, 319-323.

Aller, J. F., A. K. Cancino, G. E. Rebuffi & R. H. Alberio (2010) Effect of estradiol benzoate used at the start of a progestagen treatment on superovulatory response and embryo yield in lactating and non-lactating llamas. Animal Reproduction Science, 119, 322-328.

Apichela, S., M. A. Jiménez-Díaz, M. Roldan-Olarte, J. N. Valz-Gianinet & D. C. Miceli (2009) In vivo and in vitro sperm interaction with oviductal epithelial cells of llama. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 44, 943-951.

Apichela, S. A., J. N. Valz-Gianinet, S. Schuster, M. A. Jiménez-Díaz, E. M. Roldán-Olarte & D. C. Miceli (2010) Lectin binding patterns and carbohydrate mediation of sperm binding to llama oviductal cells in vitro. Animal Reproduction Science, 118, 344-353.

Berland, M. A., A. v. Baer, J. Ruiz, V. H. Parraguez, P. Morales, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2011) In vitro fertilization and development of cumulus oocytes complexes collected by ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration in superstimulated llamas. Theriogenology, 75, 1482-1488.

Bianchi, C. P., A. Meikle, M. A. Alvarez, M. A. Benavente, M. V. Cavilla, E. Rodríguez & M. A. Aba (2013) Oestrogen, progesterone and oxytocin receptors and COX-2 expression in endometrial biopsy samples from the induction of ovulation to luteolysis in llamas (Lama glama). Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 48, 681-690.

Bianchi, C. P., A. Meikle, M. A. Benavente, M. A. Álvarez, V. L. Trasorras, M. H. Miragaya, E. Rodríguez & M. A. Aba (2015) Oestrogen and progesterone receptors and COX-2 expression in endometrial biopsy samples during maternal recognition of pregnancy in llamas (Lama glama). Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 50, 980-988.

Bianchi, C. P., L. Sahlin, A. Meikle, B. Masironi, M. V. Cavilla & M. A. Aba (2010) Endometrial population of oestrogen receptors alpha and beta and progesterone receptors A and B during the different phases of the follicular wave of llamas (Lama glama). Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 45, 872-880.

Bourke, D. A., C. L. Adam & C. E. Kyle (1992) Ultrasonography as an aid to controlled breeding in the llama (Lama glama). Veterinary Record, 130, 424-428.

Bravo, P. W. (1994) Reproductive endocrinology of llamas and alpacas. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 265-279.

Campbell, A. J. & A. Tibary (2017) Infertility of female and male camelids. Clinical Theriogenology, 9, 311-319.

Cancino, A. K., J. F. Aller, G. Rebuffi & R. H. Alberio (2011) Control of ovarian follicular dynamics in early postpartum llama (Lama glama). Archivos de Zootecnia, 60, 1009-1020.

Cavilla, M. V., C. P. Bianchi, F. Aguilera, M. Hermida & M. A. Aba (2016) Hormonal changes and follicular activity after treatment with intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices in llamas. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 51, 930-939.

Cavilla, M. V., C. P. Bianchi, C. Maistruarena & M. A. Aba (2013) Ultrasonographic and endocrine characterization of follicular waves in llamas with a special reference to the overlapping phenomenon during successive waves. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 48, 923-930.

Conde, P. A., C. Herrera, V. L. Trasorras, S. M. Giuliano, A. Director, M. H. Miragaya, M. G. Chaves, M. I. Sarchi, D. Stivale, C. Quintans, A. Agüero, B. Rutter & S. Pasqualini (2008) In vitro production of llama (Lama glama) embryos by IVF and ICSI with fresh semen. Animal Reproduction Science, 109, 298-308.

Cotton, T. 2008. Reproductive physiology of camelids, male and female. 285. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

Cruz, A. (2015) Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas. Anim Reprod Sci, 163, 48-55.

Cruz, R. S., S. M. Giuliano, M. C. Gambarotta, J. M. Morrell, M. C. Abraham, M. H. Miragaya & M. I. Carretero (2016) Comparison of differents methods of sperm selection of llama raw semen. Animal Reproduction Science, 173, 8-12.

Delhon, G. A. & I. v. Lawzewitsch (1987) Reproduction in the male llama (Lama glama), a South American camelid. I. Spermatogenesis and organization of the intertubular space of the mature testis. Acta Anatomica, 129, 59-66.

Director, A., S. Giuliano, V. Trasorras, I. Carretero, M. Pinto & M. Miragaya (2007) Electroejaculation in llama (Lama glama). Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 14, 203-206.

Duncanson, G. (2008) Camelid consults - Part Two: Recumbency and reproduction. Veterinary Times, 38, 20.

Egerbacher, M. & H. Schöpper (2016) 31st Conference of the European Association of Veterinary Anatomists, Vienna, Austria, 27-30 July 2016. Anatomia Histologia Embryologia, 45, 1-98.

England, B. G. 1967. Ovulation, corpus luteum function and estrous behavior in the llama.

Fernández, A., C. Ulloa-Leal, M. Silva, C. Norambuena, G. P. Adams, M. Guerra & M. H. Ratto (2014) The effect of repeated administrations of llama ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) during the peri-ovulatory period on corpus luteum development and function in llamas. Animal Reproduction Science, 149, 345-352.

Fowler, M. E. (1994) Health care of the geriatric llama and alpaca. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 391-399.

Gauly, M. (1997) Reproduction in South American camelids. A review. Tierärztliche Praxis, 25, 74-79.

---. 1997. Seasonal changes in semen characters and serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol-17β, thyroxine and triiodothyronine in male llamas (Lama glama) in Central Europe. 163 pp.: Justus-Liebig-Universität, Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin, Giessen.

---. 2002. New World Camelidae. A manual for owners, breeders and veterinarians. Berlin: Parey Buchverlag.

Gauly, M. & D. Bourke (1997) Pregnancy testing in American camelids. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 104, 15-17.

Gauly, M., G. Erhardt & V. Dzapo (1997) Annual changes in serum levels of thyroid hormones in male llamas (Lama glama) and their correlation with reproduction parameters. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 4, 159-163.

Geary, T. W., G. W. Burns, J. G. N. Moraes, J. I. Moss, A. C. Denicol, K. B. Dobbs, M. S. Ortega, P. J. Hansen, M. E. Wehrman, H. Neibergs, E. O'Neil, S. Behura & T. E. Spencer (2016) Identification of beef heifers with superior uterine capacity for pregnancy. Biology of Reproduction, 95, 47.

Gerken, M. & C. Renieri. 2006. South American camelids research, Volume 1. Proceedings of the 4th European symposium on South American camelids and DECAMA European seminar. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Giudicelli, E. (2017) Lamas. Bulletin des G.T.V., 53-64.

Giuliano, S., M. Carretero, M. Gambarotta, D. Neild, V. Trasorras, M. Pinto & M. Miragaya (2010) Improvement of llama (Lama glama) seminal characteristics using collagenase. Animal Reproduction Science, 118, 98-102.

Güttler, E. 1986. Investigations on the management, breeding, physiology and pathology of reproduction and diseases in llamas in the Argentinian Andes. 169pp.: Justus-Liebig-Universität, Giessen.

Hearn, F. P. D. (2007) Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Society for Theriogenology, Monterey, California, USA, 7-11 August 2007. Theriogenology, 68, 295-520.

Heath, A. M., D. G. Pugh, E. A. Sartin, B. Navarre & R. C. Purohit (2002) Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of testicular biopsies in llamas. Theriogenology, 58, 1125-1130.

Herdt, T. H. (1995) Blood serum concentrations of selenium in female llamas (Lama glama) in relationship to feeding practices, region of United States, reproductive stage, and health of offspring. Journal of Animal Science, 73, 337-344.

Hernández-Caravaca, I., P. J. Llamas-López, M. J. Izquierdo-Rico, C. Soriano-Úbeda, C. Matás, J. C. Gardón & F. A. García-Vázquez (2017) Optimization of post-cervical artificial insemination in gilts: effect of cervical relaxation procedures and catheter type. Theriogenology, 90, 147-152.

Herrera, E. A., R. A. Riquelme, E. M. Sanhueza, L. A. Raggi & A. J. Llanos (2002) Use of fetal biometry to determine fetal age in late pregnancy in llamas. Animal Reproduction Science, 74, 101-109.

Herrid, M., M. Billah & J. A. Skidmore (2017) Successful pregnancies from vitrified embryos in the dromedary camel: avoidance of a possible toxic effect of sucrose on embryos. Animal Reproduction Science, 187, 116-123.

Hinojosa, R. A., A. Yzarra, J. A. Ruiz & M. Castrejón (2019) Structural characterization of the production system of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Huancavelica, Peru. Archivos de Zootecnia, 68, 100-108.

Huanca, W. (2013) The challenges in reproductive management of South American camelids. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal, 21, 233-236.

--- (2015) Reproductive biotechnologies in domestic South American camelids as alternatives for genetic improvement. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal, 23, 1-4.

Huanca, W., A. Cordero, T. Huanca, O. Cardenas, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2009) Ovarian response and embryo production in llamas treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin alone or with a progestin-releasing vaginal sponge at the time of follicular wave emergence. Theriogenology, 72, 803-808.

Husáková, T., K. Hauptmanová & L. Pavlata (2013) Alpaca and llama - premature birth of youngs and care for them. Veterinářství, 63, 625-630.

Johnson, L. R. W. (1994) Llama herd health. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 248-258.

Johnson, L. W. (1989) Llama reproduction. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 5, 159-182.

Kempf, I., D. Patureau & A. M. Pourcher (2017) Antibiotics, resistant bacteria and resistance genes in farm effluents and what becomes of them. Bulletin des G.T.V., 33-39.

Knauf, S., A. Schwalm & A. Wehrend (2008) Physiology of reproduction in domesticated South American camelids. Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 36, 313-318.

Leroy, J. L., T. Flahou, K. Moerloose & A. d. Kruif (2004) The reproduction in llama and alpaca mares. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 73, 310-316.

Meza, A., C. Caldeira, A. Valverde, C. Ordóñez, E. Ampuero, H. Cucho & C. Soler (2018) Sperm kinematic characterization of alpaca (Vicugna pacos L.) during the reproductive season. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 53, 1415-1423.

Moré, G., L. Pardini, W. Basso, R. Marín, D. Bacigalupe, G. Auad, L. Venturini & M. C. Venturini (2008) Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis sp. in llamas (Lama glama) from Jujuy, Argentina. Veterinary Parasitology, 155, 158-160.

Moseley, G. (1995) Commercial management of small Camelidae in northern Europe. Veterinary Annual, 35, 320-330.

Müller, K. 2015. Reproduction in South American camelids - an overview. 34. Loughborough: British Veterinary Zoological Society.

Nes, E. v. & M. C. Pieterse (2007) Reproduction in the llama and alpaca. Veehouder en Dierenarts, 21, 20-22.

Noakes, D. E., T. J. Parkinson & G. C. W. England. 2019. Veterinary reproduction and obstetrics. London: Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier Limited.

Norambuena, M. C., Y. Gómez, C. Ulloa-Leal, A. Fernández, A. v. Baer & M. Ratto (2013) Relationship between systemic leptin concentration and reproductive state in llamas (Lama glama) from southern Chile. Small Ruminant Research, 113, 402-404.

Norambuena, M. C., M. Silva, F. Urra, C. Ulloa-Leal, A. Fernández, G. P. Adams, W. Huanca & M. H. Ratto (2013) Effects of nutritional restriction on metabolic, endocrine, and ovarian function in llamas (Lama glama). Animal Reproduction Science, 138, 252-260.

Oatley, M. J., A. V. Kaucher, Q. Yang, M. S. Waqas & J. M. Oatley (2016) Conditions for long-term culture of cattle undifferentiated spermatogonia. Biology of Reproduction, 95, Article 14.

Porter, V., L. Alderson, S. J. G. Hall & D. P. Sponenberg. 2016. Mason's world encyclopedia of livestock breeds and breeding. Volume 1 and Volume 2. Wallingford: .

Raggi, S. L. A. (2000) Advances in research and management of llamas (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) in Chile. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria, 27, 27-37.

Ratto, M. H., M. E. Silva, W. Huanca, T. Huanca & G. P. Adams (2013) Induction of superovulation in South American camelids. Animal Reproduction Science, 136, 164-169.

Riveros, J. L., G. Schuler, C. Bonacic, B. Hoffmann, M. G. Chaves & B. Urquieta (2010) Ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal secretory profiles in guanacos (Lama guanicoe). Animal Reproduction Science, 119, 63-67.

Roberts, V. & F. Scott-Park. 2008. BSAVA manual of farm pets. Quedgeley: British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

Saun, R. J. v. (2008) Effect of nutrition on reproduction in llamas and alpacas. Theriogenology, 70, 508-514.

Šehić, M. 2004. Disorders of abdominal and thoracic organs in domestic animals. Roentgenology, ultrasonography and computed tomography. A review. Zagreb: Veterinarski Fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb).

Silva, M., A. Fernández, C. Ulloa-Leal, G. P. Adams, M. A. Berland & M. H. Ratto (2015) LH release and ovulatory response after intramuscular, intravenous, and intrauterine administration of β-nerve growth factor of seminal plasma origin in female llamas. Theriogenology, 84, 1096-1102.

Silva, M., C. Ulloa-Leal, C. Norambuena, A. Fernández, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2014) Ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) from seminal plasma origin enhances Corpus Luteum function in llamas regardless the preovulatory follicle diameter. Animal Reproduction Science, 148, 221-227.

Silva, M., C. Ulloa-Leal, X. P. Valderrama, O. A. Bogle, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2017) Nerve growth factor from seminal plasma origin (spβ-NGF) increases CL vascularization and level of mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes during the early stage of Corpus Luteum development in llamas. Theriogenology, 103, 69-75.

Silva, M., F. Urra & M. Ratto (2017) Estradiol but not progesterone plasma concentration correlates with uterine vascularization during the reproductive cycle in llamas. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 37, 58.

--- (2018) Uterine endometrial vascularization during ovarian follicular growth in llamas: the effect of estradiol plasma concentration. Theriogenology, 106, 164-169.

Silva, M., F. Urra, C. Ulloa-Leal & M. H. Ratto (2017) A comparative study of the effects of intramuscular administration of gonadorelin, mating and intrauterine infusion of either raw seminal plasma or seminal plasma purified β-NGF on luteal development in llamas. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 52, 625-631.

Silva, M. E., M. G. Colazo & M. H. Ratto (2012) GnRH dose reduction decreases pituitary LH release and ovulatory response but does not affect corpus luteum (CL) development and function in llamas. Theriogenology, 77, 1802-1810.

Silva, M. E., M. P. Recabarren, S. E. Recabarren, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2012) Ovarian estradiol modulates the stimulatory effect of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) on pituitary LH secretion in llamas. Theriogenology, 77, 1873-1882.

Smith, C. L., A. T. Peter & D. G. Pugh (1994) Reproduction in llamas and alpacas: a review. Theriogenology, 41, 573-92.

Soler, C., M. Sancho, A. García, M. C. Fuentes, J. Núñez & H. Cucho (2014) Ejaculate fractioning effect on llama sperm head morphometry as assessed by the ISAS® CASA system. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 49, 71-78.

Sumar, J. 1991. Contribution of the radioimmunoassay technique to knowledge of the reproductive physiology of South American camelids. 353-370. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.

Sumar, J. & W. Bravo (1991) In situ observation of the ovaries of llamas and alpacas by use of a laparoscopic technique. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 199, 1159-1163.

Sumar, J. B. (1996) Reproduction in llamas and alpacas. Animal Reproduction Science, 42, 405-415.

Trasorras, V., C. Baca Castex, A. Alonso, S. Giuliano, R. Santa Cruz, C. Arraztoa, G. Chaves, D. Rodríguez, D. Neild & M. Miragaya (2014) First llama (Lama glama) pregnancy obtained after in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture of gametes from live animals. Animal Reproduction Science, 148, 83-89.

Trasorras, V., M. G. Chaves, D. Neild, M. Gambarotta, M. Aba & A. Agüero (2010) Embryo transfer technique: factors affecting the viability of the corpus luteum in llamas. Animal Reproduction Science, 121, 279-285.

Trasorras, V., S. Giuliano, G. Chaves, D. Neild, A. Agüero, M. Carretero, M. Pinto, C. B. Castex, A. Alonso, D. Rodríguez, J. M. Morrell & M. Miragaya (2012) In vitro embryo production in Llamas (Lama glama) from in vivo matured oocytes with raw semen processed with Androcoll-E using defined embryo culture media. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 47, 562-567.

Trasorras, V. L., M. G. Chaves, M. H. Miragaya, M. Pinto, B. Rutter, M. Flores & A. Agüero (2009) Effect of eCG superstimulation and buserelin on cumulus-oocyte complexes recovery and maturation in llamas (Lama glama). Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 44, 359-364.

Ulloa-Leal, C., O. A. Bogle, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2014) Luteotrophic effect of ovulation-inducing factor/nerve growth factor present in the seminal plasma of llamas. Theriogenology, 81, 1101-1107.

Van Saun, R. (2008) Effect of nutrition on reproduction in llamas and alpacas. Theriogenology, 70, 508-514.

Vaughan, J. (2011) Ovarian function in South American camelids (alpacas, llamas, vicunas, guanacos). Animal Reproduction Science, 124, 237-243.

Vaughan, J. L. & A. Tibary (2006) Reproduction in female South American camelids: a review and clinical observations. Small Ruminant Research, 61, 259-281.

Vorano, A. E. & J. A. Bertoni (1984) Biological and production traits of llamas (Lama glama, Cuvier) on natural pasture with supplementation at different stocking rates. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 4, 325-341.

Zampini, R., M. E. Argañaraz, D. C. Miceli & S. A. Apichela (2014) Detection of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in llama (Lama glama) oviduct. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 49, 492-498.

Zanolari, P. (2011) Veterinary herd management and consulting for New World camelids. Forum Kleinwiederkäuer/Petits Ruminants, 6-13.

Zielińska, P. & P. Jurka (2007) Characteristics of llamas and alpacas reproduction. Życie Weterynaryjne, 82, 202-207.

Last Updated: 14.01.2020

© Copyright Hill View Llamas, Frodsham