Respiration

Banchero, N. & R. F. Grover (1972) Effect of different levels of simulated altitude on O2 transport in llama and sheep. American Journal of Physiology, 222, 1239-1245.

Banchero, N., R. F. Grover & J. A. Will (1971) Oxygen transport in the llama (Lama glama). Respiration Physiology, 13, 102-115.

Braunitzer, G., B. Schrank & A. Stangl (1977) Sequence of alpha chains of the haemoglobins of swine and llama. (Aspects of respiration at high altitude.). Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie, 358, 409-412.

Braunitzer, G., B. Schrank, A. Stangl & C. Bauer (1977) Regulation of respiration at high altitude and its molecular interpretation: sequence of beta chains of haemoglobins of swine and llama. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie, 358, 921-925.

-------------(1978) Haemoglobins. XXII. Phosphate-protein interaction and respiration in llama, human fetus, and horse. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie, 359, 547-558.

Cepeda, C. P., C. Navarro & M. O. Celedón (2011) A serological survey of parainfluenza-3 virus in South American camelids from Chile. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, 43, 177-179.

Chang, C. D., T. R. Boosinger, P. M. Dowling, E. E. McRae, J. W. Tyler & D. G. Pugh (1993) Nocardiosis in a llama. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 5, 631-634.

Chiodi, H. (1971) Comparative study of the blood gas transport in high altitude and sea level Camelidae and goats. Respiration Physiology, 11, 84-93.

Duke, T., C. M. Egger, J. G. Ferguson & M. M. Frketic (1997) Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol infusion in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 58, 153-156.

Duncanson, G. 2013. South American camelid (SAC) medicine. 143-165.  Medicine and surgery of the respiratory and circulatory systems. 112-120.

Fenwick, B. W., M. Fowler, M. Kock & L. Matern (1982) Complete choanal atresia in a llama. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 181, 1409-1410.

Fitzgerald, S. D. & D. D. Harrington (1991) Pulmonary nocardiosis in a young llama. Equine Practice, 13, 26-29.

Frank, W., E. C. Reisinger, W. Brandt-Hamerla, I. Schwede & W. Handrick (2009) Mycobacterium microti - pulmonary tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 121, 282-286.

Galbreath, E. J., R. E. Holland, A. L. Trapp, E. Baker-Belknap, R. K. Maes, B. Yamini, F. A. Kennedy, A. K. Gilardy & D. Taylor (1994) Adenovirus-associated pneumonia and hepatitis in four llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 204, 424-426.

Gentz, E. J., E. G. Pearson, E. D. Lassen, S. P. Snyder & E. Sharpnack (1994) Polycythemia in a llama. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 204, 1490-1492.

Gerros, T. C. & W. C. Stone (1994) What is your diagnosis? [Complete bilateral choanal atresia in a llama]. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 205, 179-180.

Grubb, T. L., J. W. Schlipf, T. W. Riebold, C. K. Cebra, L. Poland, X. Zawadzkas & N. Mailhot (2003) Minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in spontaneously breathing llamas and alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 223, 1167-1169.

Hammer, S., M. Gauly & K. H. Bonath. 2001. Medetomidine/ketamine-anaesthesia of llama (Lama glama) under field conditions and its influence on haemodynamics, respiration and metabolism. 267-268. Wageningen: Wageningen Pers.

Herceg, M., I. Huber & V. Gomercic. 1976. Hyaline membranes in the lungs of a newborn llama (Lama glama). 123-125. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

------------(1978) Haemoglobins. XXII. Phosphate-protein interaction and respiration in llama, human fetus, and horse. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie, 359, 547-558.

Kiorpes, A. L., W. A. Lindsay & W. M. Adams (1986) Repair of complete choanal atresia in a llama. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 189, 1169-1171.

Lascola, K. M., A. M. Hoffman, M. R. Mazan & D. Bedenice (2007) Respiratory mechanics in sedated and nonsedated adult llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 68, 676-684.

Ledesma, M. M., A. M. Díaz, C. Barberis, C. Vay, M. A. Manghi, J. Leoni, M. S. Castro & A. Ferrari (2017) Identification of Lama glama as reservoirs for Acinetobacter lwoffii. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, 278.

Levine, S. A., W. A. Lindsay & K. A. Beck (1987) The use of a silicone T-tube to treat tracheal stenosis in a llama. Veterinary Surgery, 16, 241-244.

Mama, K. R., A. E. Wagner, D. A. Parker, P. W. Hellyer & J. S. Gaynor (1999) Determination of the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in llamas. Veterinary Surgery, 28, 121-125.

Mama, K. R., A. E. Wagner & E. P. Steffey (2001) Circulatory, respiratory and behavioral responses in isoflurane anesthetized llamas. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 28, 12-17.

Mattoon, J. S., T. C. Gerros, J. E. Parker, C. A. Carter & R. M. LaMarche (1997) Upper airway obstruction in a llama caused by aberrant nasopharyngeal bots (Cephenemyia sp.). Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 38, 384-386.

Mattoon, J. S., T. C. Gerros & M. Brimacombe (2001) Thoracic radiographic appearance in the normal llama. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 42, 28-37.

Miesner, M. D. 2013. Tracheotomy/tracheostomy. 143-146. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

--------------------2013. Transtracheal wash. 151-154. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Moser, L., K. Kegler, C. Precht & P. Zanolari (2019) Bronchioalveolar carcinoma in an adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos). BMC Veterinary Research, 15, (9 May 2019).

Prado, T. M., T. J. Doherty, E. B. Boggan, H. M. Airasmaa, T. Martin-Jimenez & B. W. Rohrbach (2008) Effects of acepromazine and butorphanol on tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 69, 182-188.

Rhodes, S., T. Crawshaw, R. d. l. Rua-Domenech, S. Bradford, K. P. Lyashchenko, G. Mamo, D. Summers, U. Wernery & P. Zanolari. 2015. Mycobacterial infections in camelids. 216-234.

Robinson, R. M. (1982) Coccidioidomycotic pneumonia in a llama. Southwestern Veterinarian, 34, 176.

Schmidt, N. 2010. What small animal technicians and assistants need to know about small ruminants. 142-145. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

Schwalm, A., G. Erhardt, M. Gerken, E. Moors & M. Gauly (2008) Influence of heat stress on thermoregulation and fertility in shorn and unshorn male llamas (Lama glama). Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 36, 324-328.

Šehić, M. 2004. Disorders of abdominal and thoracic organs in domestic animals. Roentgenology, ultrasonography and computed tomography. A review. Zagreb: Veterinarski Fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb).

Seddighi, R., S. B. Elliot, B. K. Whitlock, C. M. Egger & T. J. Doherty (2014) Antinociceptive and selected physiological effects of morphine and xylazine on tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia in llamas. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 41, 365-371.

Timm, K. I., B. B. Smith, B. J. Watrous, J. R. Heidel, A. N. Mann & M. J. Huber (1997) Choanal atresia in llamas - a model for human beings? Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, 36, 49.

Tinkler, S. H., L. A. Mathews, A. M. Firshman & J. E. Quandt (2015) The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia. Can Vet J, 56, 370-4.

Wilken, L. & A. McPherson (2018) Application of camelid heavy-chain variable domains (VHHs) in prevention and treatment of bacterial and viral infections. Int Rev Immunol, 37, 69-76.

Williams, J. R., J. F. Evermann, R. F. Beede, E. S. Scott, P. M. Dilbeck, C. A. Whetstone & D. M. Stone (1991) Association of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in a llama with bronchopneumonia. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 3, 258-260.

Last Updated: 13.01.2020

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