Alphabetical Select Subject Index to Llama Resources

A

Abberrant Behaviour Syndrome (See Beserk Llama Syndrome)

Artificial Insemmination

Websites

Advancing Artificial Insemination in Camelids, Particularly Alpacas. http://www.vetelib.com/threads/20751-Advancing-Artificial-Insemination-in-Camelids-Particularly-Alpacas?highlight=camelidsAccess

Improvement of llama (Lama glama) seminal characteristics using collagenase. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201301716481

Llama breeding: Artificial insemination, semen collection, artificial vaginas, electroejaculation. http://www.slate.com/blogs/wild_things/2015/02/27/llama_breeding_artificial_insemination_semen_collection_artificial_vaginas.htmlAccess

Publications

Carretero, M. I., Giuliano, S. M., Casaretto, C. L., Gambarotta, M. C. &  Neild, D. M. (2012) Evaluation of the effect of cooling and of the addition of collagenase on llama sperm DNA using toluidine blue. Andrologia 44, 239-247.

Cruz, R. S., S. M. Giuliano, M. C. Gambarotta, J. M. Morrell, M. C. Abraham, M. H. Miragaya & M. I. Carretero (2016) Comparison of different methods of sperm selection of llama raw semen. Animal Reproduction Science, 173, 8-12.

Director, A., S. Giuliano, V. Trasorras, I. Carretero, M. Pinto & M. Miragaya (2007) Electroejaculation in llama (Lama glama). Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 14, 203-206.

Gauly, M. (1997) Seasonal changes in semen characters and serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol-17β, thyroxine and triiodothyronine in male llamas (Lama glama) in Central Europe. Justus-Liebig-Universität, Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin, Giessen. p 163 pp

Giuliano, S., A. Director, M. Gambarotta, V. Trasorras & M. Miragaya (2008) Collection method, season and individual variation on seminal characteristics in the llama (Lama glama). Animal Reproduction Science, 104, 359-369.

Huanca, W. (2013) The challenges in reproductive management of South American camelids. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal, 21, 233-236.

Lichtenwalner, A. B., Woods, G. L. &  Weber, J. A. (1996) Ejaculatory pattern of llamas during copulation. Theriogenology  46, 285-291

Medina, V. H., E. G. Aisen & N. Bérgamo (2016) Improvement of sperm morphology of Lama glama using filter processing semen. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 36, 22.

Soler, C., M. Sancho, A. García-Molina, J. Núñez, V. H. Parráguez, J. Contell & E. Bustos-Obregón (2014) Llama and alpaca comparative sperm head morphometric analysis. Journal of Camelid Science, 7, 48-58.

Sumar, J. B. (1996) Reproduction in llamas and alpacas. Animal Reproduction Science, 42, 405-415.

B

Bacterial Disease (See Brucellosis, Bovine TB, Clostridial Disease, Coccidiosis, E-Coli Disease, Johne’s Disease, Lysteria, Salmenella)

Barber Pole Worm

Andrea, P. & K. Alfréd (2013) Barber pole's worm in alpacas. Animal Welfare, Ethology and Housing Systems, 9, 305-309.

Edwards, E. E., Garner, B. C., Williamson, L. H., Storey, B. E. &  Sakamoto, K. (2016) Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States a retrospective review. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 28, 105-109.

Marcoppido, G., Venzano, A., Schapirio, J., Funes, D. &  Rossetti, C. (2013) Haemonchus-induced anemia in llamas (Lama glama) from Argentina. International Journal of Veterinary Science 2, 111-114.

Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review.

Williamson, L. H. 2014. Barber pole worms and camelids: when worlds collide. unpaginated. Gainesville: North American Veterinary Community (NAVC).

Behaviour (See Llama Behaviour)

Beserk Llama Syndrome (See Llama Behviour)

Bio Security

Birthing (See Llama Reproductive System)

Blood – (see Llama Heminic System)

Blue Tongue

Websites

http://www.rattlesnakeridgeranch.com/documents/Bluetongue_disease.pdf

https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/15/4/pdfs/08-1514.pdf

Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25680921

Culicoides vector species on three South American camelid farms seropositive for bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Germany 2008/2009.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26489592

Afshar, A., R. A. Heckert, G. C. Dulac, H. C. Trotter & D. J. Myers (1995) Application of competitive ELISA for the Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25680921

Culicoides vector species on three South American camelid farms seropositive for bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Germany 2008/2009.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26489592.

Publications

Afshar, A., R. A. Heckert, G. C. Dulac, H. C. Trotter & D. J. Myers (1995) Application of competitive ELISA for the detection of bluetongue virus antibodies in llamas and wild ruminants. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 31, 327-330.

Allen, A. J., J. B. Stanton, J. F. Evermann, L. M. Fry, M. G. Ackerman & G. M. Barrington (2015) Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States. J Vet Diagn Invest, 27, 226-30.

Bouts, T. & C. Oura. 2009. Developing a vaccination plan and serological responses of BTV-8 vaccinated zoo animals. 3-6. Berlin: Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Eschbaumer, M., C. Schulz, R. Wäckerlin, M. Gauly, M. Beer & B. Hoffmann (2011) Limitations of sandwich ELISAs for bluetongue virus antibody detection. Veterinary Record, 168, 643.

Marcoppido, G., V. Parreño & B. Vilá (2010) Antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) population in the Argentinean Andean Altiplano. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 46, 608-614.

Meyer, G., C. Lacroux, S. Leger, S. Top, K. Goyeau, M. Deplanche & M. Lemaire (2009) Lethal bluetongue virus serotype 1 infection in llamas. Emerging infectious diseases, 15, 608-611.

Navillod, F. V., M. D'Ottavio, L. Domenis, V. Botti, S. Robetto, M. Mancini, W. Mignone, A. Bertolla, M. Ragionieri, G. Savini, R. Orusa & C. Guidetti. 2010. Case of seropositivity. From BTV 8 in a llama bred in Valle d'Aosta. 310-311. Parma: Società Italiana di Diagnostica di Laboratorio Veterinaria (SIDiLV).

Niedbalski, W. (2013) Bluetongue in wildlife. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 69, 407-410.

Risco-Castillo, V., J. C. Wheeler, R. Rosadio, F. J. García-Peña, I. Arnaiz-Seco, D. Hoces, H. Castillo, Á. Veliz & L. M. Ortega-Mora (2014) Health impact evaluation of alternative management systems in vicuña (Vicugna vicugna mensalis) populations in Peru. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 46, 641-646.

Schulz, C., M. Eschbaumer, M. Rudolf, P. König, M. Keller, C. Bauer, M. Gauly, C. G. Grevelding, M. Beer & B. Hoffmann (2012) Experimental infection of South American camelids with bluetongue virus serotype 8. Veterinary Microbiology, 154, 257-265.

Schulz, C., M. Eschbaumer, M. Ziller, R. Wäckerlin, M. Beer, M. Gauly, C. G. Grevelding, B. Hoffmann & C. Bauer (2012) Cross-sectional study of bluetongue virus serotype 8 infection in South American camelids in Germany (2008/2009). Veterinary Microbiology, 160, 35-42.

Schulz, C., M. Ziller, H. Kampen, M. Gauly, M. Beer, C. G. Grevelding, B. Hoffmann, C. Bauer & D. Werner (2015) Culicoides vector species on three South American camelid farms seropositive for bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Germany 2008/2009. Vet Parasitol, 214, 272-81.

Zanolari, P., L. Bruckner, R. Fricker, C. Kaufmann, M. Mudry, C. Griot & M. Meylan (2010) Humoral response to 2 inactivated bluetongue virus serotype-8 vaccines in South American camelids. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 24, 956-959.

Zanolari, P., V. Chaignat, C. Kaufmann, M. Mudry, C. Griot, B. Thuer & M. Meylan (2010) Serological survey of bluetongue virus serotype-8 infection in South American camelids in Switzerland (2007-2008). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 24, 426-430.

Bovine TB

Brucelocis/Bovine TB

http://www.alpacatb.com/DEFRA%20TB%20LEAFLET.pdf

http://www.usaha.org/upload/Committee/InfectiousCattleBison/TB-in-camelids.pdf

http://www.langfordvets.co.uk/sites/default/files/TB%20in%20Camelids_0.pdf

http://www.tbhub.co.uk/non-bovines/camelids/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC387549/

Camelid TB Support & Research Group.

http://www.alpacatb.com/btb%20tests.html

Managing TB in camelids.

http://www.tbhub.co.uk/non-bovines/camelids/

Publications

Alvarez, J., J. Bezos, L. d. Juan, M. Vordermeier, S. Rodriguez, I. G. Fernandez-de-Mera, A. Mateos & L. Domínguez (2012) Diagnosis of tuberculosis in camelids: old problems, current solutions and future challenges. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 59, 1-10.

Barlow, A. M., K. A. Mitchell & K. H. Visram (1999) Bovine tuberculosis in llama (Lama glama) in the UK. Veterinary Record, 145, 639-640.

Belknap, E. B., D. M. Getzy, L. W. Johnson, R. P. Ellis, G. L. Thompson & W. P. Shulaw (1994) Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in two llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 204, 1805-1808.

Bezos, J., C. Casal, J. Álvarez, A. Díez-Guerrier, A. Rodríguez-Bertos, B. Romero, P. Rueda, L. López, L. Domínguez & L. d. Juan (2013) Evaluation of the performance of cellular and serological diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) herd naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 111, 304-313.

Bezos, J., B. Romero, A. Delgado, J. Álvarez, C. Casal, Á. Venteo, I. González, L. Domínguez & L. d. Juan (2014) Evaluation of the specificity of intradermal tuberculin and serological tests for diagnosis of tuberculosis in alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama) herds under field conditions in Peru. Veterinary Record, 174, 532.

Braga L, W. (1993) Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in abscesses of adult alpacas and llamas. Revista de Investigaciones Pecuarias, 6, 128-131.

Braga, W. U. (2007) Protection in alpacas against Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis using different bacterial components. Veterinary Microbiology, 119, 297-303.

Braga, W. U., A. E. Chavera & A. E. González (2006) Clinical, humoral, and pathologic findings in adult alpacas with experimentally induced Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 67, 1570-1574.

Broadbent, B. (2018) Testing for TB in camelids. Veterinary Record, 183, 301.

Broughan, J. M., K. A. Harris, A. Brouwer, S. H. Downs, A. V. Goodchild, P. A. Upton & N. H. Smith (2015) Bovine TB infection status in cattle in Great Britain in 2013. Veterinary Record, 176, 326-330.

Card, C. S. (1992) Report of the Committee on infectious disease of cattle, bison and llama. Proceedings of the United States Animal Health Association 96, 61-70.

Cheney, J. M. & G. T. Allen (1989) Parasitism in llamas. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 5, 217-225.

Dean, G. S., T. R. Crawshaw, R. D. L. Rua-Domenech, L. Farrant, R. Greenwald, R. J. Higgins, K. Lyashchenko, H. M. Vordermeier & D. F. Twomey (2009) Use of serological techniques for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a llama herd. Veterinary Record, 165, 323-324.

Frank, W., E. C. Reisinger, W. Brandt-Hamerla, I. Schwede & W. Handrick (2009) Mycobacterium microti - pulmonary tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 121, 282-286.

Frost, B. 1998. Research update on diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in llamas/alpacas. 726-727. Richmond: United States Animal Health Association.

Gomes, M. J. P. 2010. Paratuberculosis in Brazil: challenges and opportunities. unpaginated. Santiago: World Buiatrics Association.

Hernandez-Llamas, A., F. J. Magallon-Barajas, R. Perez-Enriquez, J. Cabanillas-Ramos, H. M. Esparza-Leal & G. Portillo-Clark (2014) Pond shutdown as a strategy for preventing outbreaks of white spot disease in shrimp farms in Mexico. Reviews in Aquaculture, 6, 67-74, 128.

Horstkotte, M. A., Sobottka, I., Schewe, C. K., Schäfer, P., Laufs, R., Rüsch-Gerdes, S. &  Niemann, S. (2001) Mycobacterium microti llama- type infection presenting as pulmonary tuberculosis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. Journal of clinical microbiology 39, 406-407

Hunter, D. (2010) Brucellosis and Johne's disease in cervids and bovids. Gainesville, The North American Veterinary Conference. pp 309-311

Horstkotte, M. A., I. Sobottka, C. K. Schewe, P. Schäfer, R. Laufs, S. Rüsch-Gerdes & S. Niemann (2001) Mycobacterium microti llama- type infection presenting as pulmonary tuberculosis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39, 406-407.

Infantes-Lorenzo, J. A., C. E. Whitehead, I. Moreno, J. Bezos, A. Roy, L. Domínguez, M. Domínguez & F. J. Salguero (2018) Development and evaluation of a serological assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in alpacas and llamas. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 5, 189.

Kramsky, J. A., D. S. Miller, A. Hope & M. T. Collins (2000) Modification of a bovine ELISA to detect camelid antibodies to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Veterinary Microbiology, 77, 333-337.

Kuntze, A. (1991) Arthritis et periarthritis tuberculosa. Some aspects of diagnosis of tuberculosis in zoo ruminants (Cervidae, llama, goat). (Brief communication). Monatshefte für Veterinärmedizin, 46, 362-365.

Lopes, T., A. Silva, R. Thiago, A. Carneiro, F. A. Dorella, F. S. Rocha, A. R. d. Santos, A. R. J. Lima, L. C. Guimarães, E. G. V. Barbosa, D. Ribeiro, K. K. Fiaux, C. A. A. Diniz, V. A. C. d. Abreu, S. S. d. Almeida, S. S. Hassan, A. Ali, S. M. Bakhtiar, F. F. Aburjaile, A. C. Pinto, S. d. C. Soares, U. d. P. Pereira, M. P. C. Schneider, A. Miyoshi, J. Edman & S. Spier (2012) Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain Cp267, isolated from a llama. Journal of Bacteriology, 194, 3567-3568.

Lubelczyk, C., J. P. Mutebi, S. Robinson, S. P. Elias, L. B. Smith, S. A. Juris, K. Foss, A. Lichtenwalner, K. J. Shively, D. E. Hoenig, L. Webber, S. Sears & R. P. Smith, Jr. (2013) An epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis virus, Maine, USA in 2009: outbreak description and entomological studies. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 88, 95-102.

Lyashchenko, K., R. Greenwald, J. Esfandiari, M. Meylan, I. H. Burri & P. Zanolari (2007) Antibody responses in New World camelids with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti. Veterinary microbiology, 125, 265-273.

Meylan, M. (2009) Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti in South American camelids.  Journa of Veterinary Interanl Medicine 23, 1266-1272.

Miller, D. S., M. T. Collins, B. B. Smith, P. R. Anderson, J. Kramsky, G. Wilder & A. Hope (2000) Specificity of four serologic assays for Mycobacterium avium ss paratuberculosis in llamas and alpacas: a single herd study. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 12, 345-353.

Miller, D. S., B. B. Smith, T. Gerros, M. T. Collins, J. Cooley & J. McClure (1999) Paratuberculosis in llamas and alpacas. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 21, S220-S229.

Mongoh, M. N., N. W. Dyer, C. L. Stoltenow & M. L. Khaitsa (2008) Risk factors associated with anthrax outbreak in animals in North Dakota, 2005: a retrospective case-control study. Public Health Reports, 123, 352-359.

Moser, I., K. Ternes, M. Peters, M. Büttner & M. Spanò (2015) Comments on the presence of tuberculosis in animals except bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Germany: findings from 2002-2014. Tierärztliche Umschau, 70, 167-176.

Müller, K. 2015. BtB testing in South American camelids. 45. Loughborough: British Veterinary Zoological Society.

Oevermann, A., G. E. Pfyffer, P. Zanolari, M. Meylan & N. Robert (2004) Generalized tuberculosis in llamas (Lama glama) due to Mycobacterium microti. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42, 1818-1821.

Papastergiu, D., G. Rapuntean, S. Rapuntean & G. Nadas (2009) Consideration regarding Mycobacterium paratuberculosis natural reservoires and their involvement in disease epidemiology. Lucrări Științifice - Medicină Veterinară, Universitatea de Științe Agricole și Medicină Veterinară "Ion Ionescu de la Brad" Iași, 52, 1043-1050.

Rojas, M., A. Manchego, C. B. Rocha, L. A. Fornells, R. C. Silva, G. S. Mendes, H. G. Dias, N. Sandoval, D. Pezo & N. Santos (2016) Outbreak of diarrhea among preweaning alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in the southern Peruvian highland. J Infect Dev Ctries, 10, 269-74.

Salgado, M., I. Sevilla, C. Rios, J. Crossley, C. Tejeda & E. Manning (2016) Presence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in alpacas (lama pacos) inhabiting the chilean altiplano. J Zoo Wildl Med, 47, 12-6.

Sarma, G., S. K. Das & P. K. Dutta (1983) Outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in deer in the Assam state zoo. Veterinary Record, 113, 420-421.

Shinde, S. B., S. D. Hagawane, D. N. Rajguru & G. P. Dhage (2010) Tuberculosis in wild animals. Veterinary Practitioner, 11, 76-79.

Simmons, A. G. (1989) Alternative site for the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test in the llama (Llama [Lama] glama). Veterinary Record 124, 17-18.

Stanitznig, A., J. L. Khol, B. Lambacher, S. Franz, P. Kralik, I. Slana, P. Vasickova & T. Wittek (2017) Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and hepatitis E in New World Camelids in Austria. Veterinary Record, 181, 46.

Starnes, A. (2014) Tests for diagnosis of TB in camelids. Veterinary Record, 175, 23.

Stephen, C., S. Lester, W. Black, M. Fyfe & S. Raverty (2002) Multispecies outbreak of cryptococcosis on Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 43, 792-794.

Stevens, J. B., C. O. Thoen, E. B. Rohonczy, S. Tessaro, H. A. Kelly & J. R. Duncan (1998) The immunological response of llamas (Lama glama) following experimental infection with Mycobacterium bovis. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 62, 102-109.

Tharaldsen, J., B. Djønne, B. Fredriksen, O. Nyberg & Ò. Sigurdardóttir (2003) The national paratuberculosis program in Norway. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 44, 243-246.

Thoen, C. O., R. M. S. Temple & L. W. Johnson (1988) An evaluation of certain diagnostic tests for detecting some immune responses in llamas exposed to Mycobacterium bovis. Proceedings of the United States Animal

Torres, A., E. J. Dubovi, W. C. Rebhun & J. M. King (1985) Isolation of a herpesvirus associated with an outbreak of blindness and encephalitis in a herd of Alpacas and Llamas. Abstracts of Papers presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Disease, 66, 50.

Twomey, D. F., R. Collins, M. P. Cranwell, T. R. Crawshaw, R. J. Higgins, G. S. Dean, H. M. Vordermeier, A. Hollingdale & R. d. l. Rua-Domenech (2012) Controlling tuberculosis in a llama (Lama glama) herd using clinical signs, tuberculin skin testing and serology. Veterinary Journal, 192, 246-248.

Twomey, D. F., T. R. Crawshaw, J. E. Anscombe, J. E. F. Barnett, L. Farrant, L. J. Evans, W. S. McElligott, R. J. Higgins, G. S. Dean, H. M. Vordermeier & R. d. l. Rua-Domenech (2010) Assessment of antemortem tests used in the control of an outbreak of tuberculosis in llamas (Lamaglama). Veterinary Record, 167, 475-480.

Twomey, D. F., T. R. Crawshaw, J. E. Anscombe, L. Farrant, L. J. Evans, W. S. McElligott, R. J. Higgins, G. Dean, M. Vordermeier, K. Jahans & R. d. l. Rua-Domenech (2007) TB in llamas caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Veterinary Record, 160, 170.

Wernery, U., A. Abraham, S. Joseph, R. Thomas, G. Syriac, R. Raghavan & T. Baker (2011) Evaluation of 5 indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies to paratuberculosis in dromedaries. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 18, 47-52.

Zanolari, P., N. Robert, K. Lyashchenko, G. Pfyffer, R. Greenwald, J. Esfandiari & M. Meylan (2009) Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti in South American camelids. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 23, 1266-1272.

Zanolari, P., N. Robert, K. P. Lyashchenko, G. E. Pfyffer, R. Greenwald, J. Esfandiari & M. Meylan (2009) Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti in South American camelids. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 23, 1266-1272.

 

Breeding (See Llama Reprduction)

Brucellosis

C

Castration (See Llama Reproductive System)

Clostridium

Coccidiosis

Butkiewicz, C. D. & L. F. Shubitz (2019) Coccidioidomycosis in alpacas in the southwestern United States. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 66, 807-812.

Coster, M. E., J. A. Ramos-Vara, R. Vemulapalli, J. Stiles & S. G. Krohne (2010) Coccidioides posadasii keratouveitis in a llama (Lama glama). Veterinary Ophthalmology, 13, 53-57.

Dubey, J. P. (2018) Gametogony of Eimeria macusaniensis Guerrero, Hernandez, Bazalar and Alva, 1971 in llama (Lama glama). Parasitology, 145, 1540-1547.

------------(2018) A review of coccidiosis in South American camelids. Parasitology Research, 117, 1999-2013.

Pilco, M. & E. Serrano-Martínez (2018) Neospora caninum in llamas of Huancavelica, Peru. Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), 29, 1449-1455.

Schrey, C. F., T. A. Abbott, V. A. Stewart & W. C. Marquardt (1991) Coccidia of the llama, Lama glama, in Colorado and Wyoming. Veterinary Parasitology, 40, 21-28.

Tilc, K. & Z. Hanuskova (1976) Dynamics of coccidiases and helminthiases in Siberian ibexes and other ruminants in a zoo and the respective control measures. Acta Veterinaria, Brno, 45, 133-140.

Whitehead, C. E. & D. E. Anderson (2006) Neonatal diarrhea in llamas and alpacas. Small Ruminant Research, 61, 207-215.

Colon (See Llama Digestive System)

Cox Pox

Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/17/8/10-1912_article

 

Cardeti, G., A. Brozzi, C. Eleni, N. Polici, G. D'Alterio, F. Carletti, M. T. Scicluna, C. Castilletti, M. R. Capobianchi, A. d. Caro, G. L. Autorino & D. Amaddeo (2011) Cowpox virus in Llama, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17, 1513-1515.

Franke, A., D. Hoffmann, R. G. Ulrich, M. Jenckel, B. Hoffmann & M. Beer. 2015. Cowpox virus: virulence studies in different animal species. 134. Montpellier: Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD).

Giusy Cardeti,Alberto Brozzi, Claudia Eleni, Nicola Polici, Gianlorenzo D’Alterio, Fabrizio Carletti, Maria Teresa Scicluna, Concetta Castilletti, Maria R. Capobianchi, Antonino Di Caro, Gian Luca Autorino, and Demetrio Amaddeo (2011) Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Aug; 17(8): 1513–1515.

Prkno, A., M. Kaiser, D. Goerigk, M. Pfeffer, T. W. Vahlenkamp, D. Hoffmann, M. Beer & A. Starke (2018) Clinical presentation of cowpox virus infection in South American camelids: a review. Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 46, 50-56.

D

Dentition

Dermititis

Dung

E

Ears (see )

E-Coli

Carhuapoma D, V., N. Valencia M, R. Paucar C, P. H. Mayhua M, R. Huamán J & E. Lizana-Hilario (2019) Effect of E. coli and Salmonella spp. on the growth and mortality of baby alpacas (Vicugna pacos). Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), 30, 946-953.

 

Embryo Transfer

Websites

Birth of live llama (Lama glama) derived from embryo transfer storage at 5°C for 24h - Small Ruminant Research. http://www.smallruminantresearch.com/article/S0921-4488(15)30078-X/abstract .

Breakthrough in Freezing of Embryos.

http://taylorllamas.com/AlpacaWorld.html

Embryo Transfer.

 http://www.alpacaresearch.org/resources/dyn/files/319741z6a7d4a77/_fn/embryo-transfer.pdf

Embryo Transfer - A Breeder's Perspective.

http://www.canchones.com.au/downloads/EmbryoTransfer.pdf

Development of a large commercial camel embryo transfer programme. Embryo Transfer in Alpacas

http://www.artminds.com.au/alpacas/embryo-transfer-in-alpacas.html

Development of a large commercial camel embryo transfer programme. http://d1zbsmr931x3w0.cloudfront.net/059f-647913-camel-embryo-transfer-program.pdf?versionId=3bzBOt79YASgWQHGSFKQWZD5MMkkVvWQ

Embryo Transfer

https://veteriankey.com/embryo-transfer-3/

Embryo Transfer in Camelids.

http://spermova.pe/site2/files/Revistas/Rev.%20No.5Vol.2/8Tibary_2015_B-2.pdf

Embryo Transfer in Domestic South American Camelids.

http://d1zbsmr931x3w0.cloudfront.net/3bec-147913-embryo-transfer.pdf?versionId=xunbUoUCaVatkpoaWt.aHj3JoFdaZm3R

Embryo Transfer in Domestic South American Camelids.

http://d1zbsmr931x3w0.cloudfront.net/3bec-147913-embryo-transfer.pdf?versionId=xunbUoUCaVatkpoaWt.aHj3JoFdaZm3R

Embryo transfer technique: Factors affecting the viability of the corpus luteum in llamas. http://www.animalreproductionscience.com/article/S0378-4320(10)00350-7/fulltext

Factors Influencing Embryo Transfer Success in Alpacas.

http://d1zbsmr931x3w0.cloudfront.net/4459-447913-factors-influencing-embryo-transfer.pdf?versionId=MMLyQhuPnAl4.S3mrlNtCrroRfux4aKp

Inter-Camelid embryo transfer.

http://stud.epsilon.slu.se/7975/7/winblad_v_walter_a_150601.pdf

Issues of Embryo Transfer in Alpacas

http://www.artminds.com.au/alpacas/facts-about-et-in-alpacas.html

Non-surgical embryo transfer and live birth in a llama

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16726078

Pregnancy in a llama by embryo transfer

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=CL9300065

Risk of Disease in Embryo transfer.

https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D9277.PDF

Taylor P. The Story of Our Repro Work. (unpublished paper)

http://www.taylorllamas.com/ReproStory.html

Successful pregnancy following non-surgical embryo transfer in llamas.

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=GB9109941

Who's Afraid of ET?: Tierra Prometida Alpaca Ranch.

http://www.alpacausa.com/pages/3191/tierra-prometida-alpaca-ranch-whos-afraid-of-et

 

Images

Publications

The Pacablogger (2009) Alpaca Reproductive Technologies: Embryo Transfer

Adams, C (1988). Llama Breeding - Rowett Research Institute Camelid Chronicle  No. 3

Agüero, A., M. G. Chaves, E. F. Capdevielle, A. F. Russo & M. A. Aba (2001) Superovulation in llamas: comparison of two treatments. InVet - Investigación Veterinaria, 3, 13-18.

Aller, J. F., G. E. Rebuffi, A. K. Cancino & R. H. Alberio (2002) Successful transfer of vitrified llama (Lama glama) embryos. Animal Reproduction Science, 73, 121-127.

Aller, J. F., M. C. Abalos, F. Acuña, R. Virgili, F. Requena & A. K. Cancino (2015) Birth of live llama (Lama glama) derived from embryo transfer storage at 5°C for 24 h. Small Ruminant Research, 132, 99-102.

Aller, J. F., M. C. Abalos, F. A. Acuña, R. Virgili, F. Requena & A. K. Cancino (2015) Embryo yield in llamas synchronized with two different intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices and superovulated with ECG. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 13, e04SC01.

Aller, J. F., A. K. Cancino, G. E. Rebuffi & R. H. Alberio (2010) Effect of estradiol benzoate used at the start of a progestagen treatment on superovulatory response and embryo yield in lactating and non-lactating llamas. Animal Reproduction Science, 119, 322-328.

Anouassi, A. and Tibary, A., Development Of A Large Commercial Camel Embryo Transfer Program: 20 Years Of Scientific Research.

Alpaca Seller Facts About Embryo Transfer In Alpacas

Australian Alpaca Association Embryo Transfer Revolutionising Alpaca Industry (2005)

Australian Alpaca Association  (2015) Advancing Assisted Reproductive Technologies In Camelids (Especially The Alpaca).

Braithwaite, I., (2006), Reflections On Multiple Embryo Transfer Programmes In Alpacas

Bourke, D., C. L. Adam & C. E. Kyle (1990) Successful pregnancy following non-surgical embryo transfer in llamas. Veterinary Record, 127, 580.

Bourke, D. A., C. L. Adam & C. E. Kyle (1991) Successful pregnancy following non-surgical embryo transfer in llamas. Veterinary Record, 128, 68.

Bourke, D. A., C. E. Kyle, T. G. McEvoy, P. Young & C. L. Adam (1995) Superovulatory responses to ECG in llamas (Lama glama). Theriogenology, 44, 255-268.

Carretero, M. I., M. Miragaya, M. G. Chaves, M. Gambarotta & A. Agüero (2010) Embryo production in superstimulated llamas pre-treated to inhibit follicular growth. Small Ruminant Research, 88, 32-37.

Correa, J. E., M. H. Ratto, R. Ladrix & R. Gatica (1992) Pregnancy in a llama following embryo transfer. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, 24, 113-115.

Endicott, S., (2012) Embryo Transfer In Alpacas

Forshey, B. S., (2013) Embryo Production By Superovulation And Dual Siring In Alpacas

Gatica G, R., Ratto F, M., Schüler C, C., Ortíz l, M., Oltra C, J. &  Correas S, J. (1994) Successful pregnancy obtained by embryo transfer to a llama. Agricultura Técnica (Santiago) 54, 68-71

Hearn, F. P. D. (2007) Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Society for Theriogenology, Monterey, California, USA, 7-11 August 2007. Theriogenology, 68, 295-520.

Hicks, J., Embryo Transfer At Coolaroo Alpaca Stud

Huanca, W. (2013) The challenges in reproductive management of South American camelids. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal, 21, 233-236.

Huanca, W., A. Cordero, T. Huanca, O. Cardenas, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2009) Ovarian response and embryo production in llamas treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin alone or with a progestin-releasing vaginal sponge at the time of follicular wave emergence. Theriogenology, 72, 803-808.

Miragaya (2014) First llama (Lama glama) pregnancy obtained after in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture of gametes from live animals. Animal Reproduction Science, 148, 83-89.

Pacheco, J., V. Vélez & D. Pezo (2016) Evaluation of the efficiency of interspecies embryo transfer between alpacas and llamas obtained through single ovulation. Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), 27, 64-69.

Pobel, T., D. Eclache & J. C. Lamer (1993) Improving oestrus synchronization before embryo collection in cattle by using a progesterone intravaginal device (PRID). Recueil de Médecine Vétérinaire, 169, 783-789.

Pikó, E., V. Faigl, M. Kulcsár & P. Nagy (2014) Induced ovulation in Camelids: the role of beta-nerve growth factor. Literature review. Magyar Állatorvosok Lapja, 136, 432-440.

Jackson,Gg., et al et Program: "beauty lies within" a history of embryo transfer at banksia park

Reyna, J., (2006)  Herd Evaluation: Is Your Farm Ready For An Et Program?, The Camelid Quarterly Magazine, Canada. Vol 3, Sep. 47-48 p.

Reyna, J., Basic Concepts About Et In Alpacas (SLIDESHOW)

Reyna, J.,  Facts About Embryo Transfer In Alpacas

Silva, M. E., M. P. Recabarren, S. E. Recabarren, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2012) Ovarian estradiol modulates the stimulatory effect of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) on pituitary LH secretion in llamas. Theriogenology, 77, 1873-1882.

Silva, M., C. Ulloa-Leal, X. P. Valderrama, O. A. Bogle, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2017) Nerve growth factor from seminal plasma origin (spβ-NGF) increases CL vascularization and level of mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes during the early stage of Corpus Luteum development in llamas. Theriogenology, 103, 69-75.

Sumar, J., G. Fredriksson, V. Alarcón, H. Kindahl & L. E. Edqvist (1988) Levels of 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2α, progesterone and oestradiol-17β after induced ovulation in llamas and alpacas. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 29, 339-346.

Sutmoller, P. (1999) Risk of disease transmission by llama embryos. Rev Sci Tech, 18, 719-28.

Sutmoller, P. & P. Taylor. 1998. An assessment of the risk of disease transmission by llama embryos. 251-275. Richmond: United States Animal Health Association.

Taylor, P.,  Camelid Embryo Freezing

Taylor, P., Tn Search of the Perfect Llama – The Argentine Story

Taylor, P., The Repro Story

Taylor, P., Embryo Transfer In The South American Camelids

Taylor , P.,  A Breakthrough In Freezing Camelid Embryos: How This Happened And How It Will Affect You (Alpaca World)

Trasorras, V., Chaves, M. G., Neild, D., Gambarotta, M., Aba, M. &  Agüero, A. (2010) Embryo transfer technique: factors affecting the viability of the corpus luteum in llamas. Animal Reproduction Science 121, 279-285.

Trasorras, V., G. Chaves, M. Miragaya, D. Neild, M. Gambarotta & A. Agüero (2011) Effect of exogenous estradiol on maternal recognition of pregnancy after embryo transfer in llamas. Journal of Camelid Science, 4, 79-82.

Vaughan, J.,   Mating Management And Embryo Transfer In Alpacas

Vaughan, J., Mihm, M., Wittek, T., (2012) Factors Influencing Embryo Transfer Success In Alpacas: A Retrospective Study.

Whitehead, C. e.,  Embryo Transfer

Wiepz, D. W. & R. J. Chapman (1985) Non-surgical embryo transfer and live birth in a llama. Theriogenology, 24, 251-257.

Winblad Von Walter, A.,  (2015) Inter-Species Embryo Transfer In South American Camelids.

Eyes (See

F

Fascioloides magna (see Liver Fluke)

Feed/Feeding (see Llama Nutrition)

Fleas (See )

Flies (See

Foot and Mouth Disease

Foot-and-mouth disease virus in the llama (Lama glama): diagnosis, transmission, and susceptibility. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1965585

Blanco Viera, J., F. Marcovecchio, N. Fondevila, B. Carrillo, A. Schudel, M. David, A. Torres & C. Mebus (1995) Epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in the llama (Lama glama). Veterinaria Argentina, 12, 620-627.

David, M., A. Torres, C. Mebus, B. J. Carrillo, A. Schudel, N. Fondevilla, J. B. Viera & F. E. Marcovecchio (1993) Further studies on foot-and-mouth disease in the llama (Lama glama). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, 97, 280-285.

Fondevila, N. A., F. J. Marcoveccio, J. Bianco Viera, V. K. O'Donnell, B. J. Carillo, A. A. Schudel, M. David, A. Torres & C. A. Mebus (1995) Susceptibility of llamas (Lama glama) to infection with foot-and-mouth-disease virus. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 42, 595-599.

Harmsen, M. M., H. P. D. Fijten, A. Dekker & P. L. Eblé (2008) Passive immunization of pigs with bispecific llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease and porcine immunoglobulin. Veterinary Microbiology, 132, 56-64.

Harmsen, M. M., H. P. D. Fijten, B. Engel, A. Dekker & P. L. Eblé (2009) Passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody fragments reduces foot-and-mouth disease transmission between pigs. Vaccine, 27, 1904-1911.

Harmsen, M. M., C. B. v. Solt, H. P. D. Fijten, L. v. Keulen, R. A. Rosalia, K. Weerdmeester, A. H. M. Cornelissen, M. G. M. d. Bruin, P. L. Eblé & A. Dekker (2007) Passive immunization of guinea pigs with llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease. Veterinary Microbiology, 120, 193-206.

Lubroch, J. & R. J. Yedloutschnig (1987) Foot-and-mouth disease studies in the llama (Lama glama). Proceedings

Thomson, G. R. 1997. The role of carrier animals in the transmission of foot and mouth disease. 67-85 (Fr), 87-103 (En), 105-123 (Es). Paris: Office International des Epizooties.

Wernery, U. & O. R. Kaaden (2004) Foot-and-mouth disease in camelids: a review. Veterinary Journal, 168, 134-142.

Fungal Disease (See Ringworm)

G

 

Genetics (See )

H

Haematology (See Llama H)

Heat Stress

History

Homeopathy

 

Hunting

 

I

Immunology

sen, M. M., C. B. v. Solt, A. M. v. Zijderveld-van Bemmel, T. A. Niewold & F. G. v. Zijderveld (2006) Selection and optimization of proteolytically stable llama single-domain antibody fragments for oral immunotherapy. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 72, 544-551.

Marcoppido, G., Parreno, V. &  Vila, B. (2010) Antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) population in the Argentinean Andean Altiplano. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46, 608-614

Sivasankar, M. (1999), Immunodeficiency syndrome in a 3-year-old llama, Can Vet J, Volume: 40, Issue: 4, Pages: 271-2.

Integumentary (See Llama Integumentary System)

Itch mite

Curtis, C. F., S. J. Chappell & R. Last (2001) Concurrent sarcoptic and chorioptic acariosis in a British llama (Lama glama). Veterinary Record, 149, 208-209.

J

Johne’s Disease

Appleby, E. C. & K. W. Head, D (1954) A case of suspected Johne's disease in a llama (L. glama). J Comp Pathol, 64, 52-3.

Fowler, M. E. (1996) Johne's disease in llamas and alpacas: not a threat to other animals. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association, 100, 276-282.

Hunter, D. 2010. Brucellosis and Johne's disease in cervids and bovids. 309-311. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

Marin, R. E., B. Brihuega & G. Romero (2008) Seroprevalence of infectious diseases in Llamas from Jujuy province, Argentina. Veterinaria Argentina, 25, 281-287.

K

Kidneys (See Llama Uniary System)

L

Liver (See Llama Digestive System)

Liver Fluke (Fascioloides magna)

Websites

Experimental Infection of Liver Flukes (Fascioloides magna) in a Llama (Lama glama). http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095100?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Experimental Infection of Liver Flukes (Fascioloides magna) in a Llama (Lama glama) on JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20095100?Search=yes&resultItemClick=true&searchText=llama&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dllama%26amp%3Bacc%3Doff%26amp%3Bwc%3Don%26amp%3Bfc%3Doff%26amp%3Bgroup%3Dnone&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Publications

Cornick, J. L. (1988) Gastric squamous cell carcinoma and fascioliasis in a llama. Cornell Veterinarian, 78, 235-241.

Conboy, G. A., T. D. O'Brien & D. L. Stevens (1988) A natural infection of Fascioloides magna in a llama (Lama glama). Journal of Parasitology, 74, 345-346.

Dadak, A. M., C. Wieser, A. Joachim & S. Franz (2013) Efficacy and safety of oral praziquantel against Dicrocoelium dendriticum in llamas. Veterinary Parasitology, 197, 122-125.

Duff, J. P., A. J. Maxwell & J. R. Claxton (1999) Chronic and fatal fascioliasis in llamas in the UK. Veterinary Record, 145, 315-316.

Flores C, B., R. Pinedo V, F. Suárez A, R. Angelats M & A. Chávez V (2014) Prevalency of fascioliasis in llamas and alpacas in two rural communities of Jauja, Peru. Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), 25, 284-292.

Foreyt, W. J. &  Parish, S. (1990) Experimental Infection of Liver Flukes (Fascioloides magna) in a Llama (Lama glama). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 21, 468-470

Foreyt, W. J., Rickard, L. G., Dowling, S., Parish, S. &  Pipas, M. (1991) Experimental infections of two llamas with the meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 22, 339-344

Gevrey, J. (1989) Llamas and sheep : cross infection studies. Bulletin de la Société Française de Parasitologie 7, 245-249.

Foreyt, W. J. & S. Parish (1990) Experimental Infection of Liver Flukes (Fascioloides magna) in a Llama (Lama glama). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 21, 468-470.

Gunsser, I., T. Hänichen & J. Maierl (1999) Liver fluke infection in South American camelids: parasitology, pathology, clinical aspects and therapy. Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 27, 187-192.

Harwood, D., J. Nuttall & C. Bidewell (2008) Fasciolosis in camelids. Veterinary Record, 162, 424.

Hertzberg, H. & L. Kohler (2006) Prevalence and significance of gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa in South American Camelids in Switzerland. Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 119, 291-294.

Hilbe, M., N. Robert, A. Pospischil & C. Gerspach (2015) Pulmonary arterial lesions in New World camelids in association with Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica infection. Veterinary Pathology, 52, 1202-1209.

Klein, D., H. Prosl, D. Thaller & M. Floeck (2012) Diagnosis of a Dicrocoelium dendriticum infection in New World Camelids: a case report. Veterinární Medicína, 57, 154-162.

Panuska, C., L. G. Rickard & D. D. Rudolph (2006) Isotype-specific serum IgG responses of llamas (Lama glama) to experimental liver fluke infection. Small Ruminant Research, 61, 195-199.

Rickard, L. G. & W. J. Foreyt (1992) Experimental fascioliasis in llamas. Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 59, 140-144.

Wenker, C., J. M. Hatt, H. Hertzberg, P. Ossent, T. Hänichen, A. Brack & E. Isenbügel (1998) Dicrocoeliosis in South American camelids. Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 26, 355-361.

Llama B

Llama Behaviour

Web Pages

"Grazing Behaviour and Dry Matter Intake of Llamas (Lama Glama) and German Black- Head Mutton Sheep (Ovis Orientalis Forma Aries) under Central Euro... ." 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26591388.

"Suckling Behaviour of Llama (Lama Glama Glama) and Chapman's Zebra (Equus Burchelli Antiquorum) in Captivity".  (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0304376281900869).

"Feeding Behaviour of Camelids".  (http://elib.tiho-hannover.de/dissertations/stoelzla_ws15.pdf).

Taylor-Browne, J. What is Cameliddynamics?

 http://www.carthveanalpacas.com/articles.html

Taylor-Browne, J  Transporting alpacas

http://www.carthveanalpacas.com/Loading.pdf

Taylor-Browne, J. To Geld or not to Geld...that is the question.

http://www.carthveanalpacas.com/articles.html#geld

Taylor-Browne, J. A Tale of Two Handlers – A case study in Containment not Restraint!

 http://www.carthveanalpacas.com/articles.html#geld

Taylor-Browne, J.My top training tips for 2015

http://www.carthveanalpacas.com/top-training-tips.pdf

Taylor-Browne, J. Using Alpacas as Therapy animals http://www.carthveanalpacas.com/Using-Alpacas-as-Therapy-Animals.pdf

Taylor-Browne, J. Do they spit?

http://www.carthveanalpacas.com/Do%20they%20spit.pdf

Taylor-Browne, J. What to do with Berserk Males (and females)

http://www.carthveanalpacas.com/berserk-males.pdf

Taylor-Browne, J. Haltering Alpacas for the First Time – seven easy steps

http://www.carthveanalpacas.com/articles.html#haltering

You Tube Videos

Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms.          http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1pnvs1

Llama Herding and Settlement in Prehispanic Northern Chile: Application of an Analysis for Determining Domestication on JSTOR.

http://www.jstor.org/stable/279691

  1. Maturrano, D. Hoces, Y. Hu, J. C. Wheeler, M. W. Bruford, Comparing genetic diversity and demographic history in codistributed wild South American camelids Heredity

    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41437-018-0120-z

Genetic Analysis Reveals the Wild Ancestors of the Llama and the Alpaca.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3067673

Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842726

The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27048619

Molecular Characterization of the Llamas (Lama glama) Casein Cluster Genes Transcripts (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3) and Regulatory Regions.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25923814.

Molecular Evolution of the Family Camelidae: A Mitochondrial DNA Study
http://www.jstor.org/stable/49586.

Sexual

Taylor-Browne, J. To Geld or not to Geld...that is the question.

http://www.carthveanalpacas.com/articles.html#geld

Mating llama's - YouTube.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLJNeHPp9OU

 

(1988) Bad tempered Males: Camelid Chronicle March 1988

Gerken, M., F. Scherpner, M. Gauly, D. Jaenecke & V. Dzapo (1998) Social behaviour and social distance in female llamas. KTBL-Schrift, 173-181.

Lichtenwalner, A. B., G. L. Woods & J. A. Weber (1996) Ejaculatory pattern of llamas during copulation. Theriogenology, 46, 285-291.

--------- (1996) Seminal collection, seminal characteristics and pattern of ejaculation in llamas. Theriogenology, 46, 293-305.

--------- (1998) Male llama choice between receptive and nonreceptive females. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 59, 349-356.

McElderry-Maxwell, J. (2019) Why male and female alpacas must be kept separately (http://www.bagendsuris.com/?page_id=1230&fbclid=IwAR04q_7qBa2gJ708hROoEEpmTKn5_7IXiXwEinn2oc5TG4CgRS6VQifMBvk)

Segretain, V., P. Lapeyronie, G. Molenat & P. Bosc. 1989. Behaviour of llamas, alone or associated with ewes, on irrigated pastures or on rough grazings in Crau. 1275-1276. Versailles: Association Française pour la Production Fourragère.

Llama Birthing

Websites

Llama Birth.

http://www.xanadufarms.com/Stories/llama_birth.htm.

The Llama Birthing Page". 

http://brianp.mountlehmanllamas.ca/birthing-two.html.

Llma Blood (see Llama Hematic System)

Llama C

Llama Caddying

Websites

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QolbPX794A4

Images

Llama Cardio-Vascular System (Also see Llama Hemenic System, Llama Rsiratory System)

Websites

Cardiac-gated computed tomography angiography in three alpacas with complex congenital heart disease. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26803197

Images

Publications

General

Heart

Alstine, W. G.  & I. Mitsui (2010) Sudden death associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an alpaca (Llama pacos). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 22, 448-450.

Boon, J. A., A. P. Knight & D. H. Moore (1994) Llama cardiology. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 353-370.

Corapi, W. V., K. B. Eden, J. F. Edwards & K. F. Snowden (2015) Heterobilharzia americana infection and congestive heart failure in a llama (Lama glama). Veterinary Pathology, 52, 562-565.

Cueva, S. & H. Sillau (1972) [Relative weights of the right ventricle of the heart in alpacas and llamas at high altitude and at sea level]. Revista de Investigacioes Pecuarias, Peru, 1, 145-149.

Lucas, J. R., M. Barrios-Arpi, J. Rodríguez, S. Balcázar-Nakamatsu, J. Zarria, G. Namiyama, N. Taniwaki & O. Gonzales-Viera (2019) Ultrastructural description of Sarcocystis sp. in cardiac muscle of naturally infected alpacas (Vicugna pacos). Iranian Journal of Parasitology, 14, 174-179.

Margiocco, M. L., B. A. Scansen & J. D. Bonagura (2009) Camelid cardiology. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 25, 423-454.

Middleton, J. R., M. Chigerwe, D. M. Fine, J. R. Turk & J. C. Lattimer (2006) Pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure in an adult llama with hepatic disease. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 228, 756-759.

------------(2006) Pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure in an adult llama with hepatic disease

10.2460/javma.228.5.756. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 228, 756-9.

Miller, P. D., A. F. Alexander, J. L. Lebel & N. Banchero (1972) Iatrogenic myocardial infarction and mitral valve insufficiency in a llama (Lama glama). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 33, 639-647.

Stieger-Vanegas, S. M., K. F. Scollan, L. Meadows, D. Sisson & J. Schlipf (2016) Cardiac-gated computed tomography angiography in three alpacas with complex congenital heart disease. J Vet Cardiol, 18, 88-98.

Will, J. A. & G. E. Bisgard (1972) Cardiac catheterization of unanesthetized large domestic animals. Journal of Applied Physiology, 33, 400-401.

 

Llama Carting (see Llama Driving)

Llama Castration

Castration

Baird, A. N., D. G. Pugh, J. G. W. Wenzel & H. C. Lin (1996) Comparison of two techniques for castration of llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 208, 261-262.

Barrington, G. M., T. F. Meyer & S. M. Parish (1993) Standing castration of the llama using butorphanol tartrate and local anesthesia. Equine Practice, 15, 35-39.

Bravo, P. W. & J. Sumar (1991) Evaluation of intra-abdominal vasectomy in llamas and alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 199, 1164-1169.

Brown, C. J. (1994) Castration of llamas. Veterinary Record, 134, 659-660.

Dargatz, D. A. & L. W. Johnson (1987) Castrating the llama: a step-by-step guide. Veterinary Medicine, 82, 625-627.

Harreveld, P. D. , S. M. Angelos, D. P. Gnad & D. C.  Metre (2000) Llama castration. Compendium on Continuing

Jones, M. L. 2013. Castration. 293-297. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Nickolmann, S., S. Hoy & M. Gauly. 2001. Effects of castration on the behaviour, and testosterone and serum thyroid hormone levels of male llamas (Lama glama). 75-78. Wageningen: Wageningen Pers.

---------- (2008) Effects of castration on the behaviour of male llamas (Lama glama). Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 36, 319-323.

Pugh, D. & M. Gauly (1995) Castration technique for llamas. Praktische Tierarzt, 76, 461-463.

Pugh, D. G., A. N. Baird, D. F. Wolfe, J. G. W. Wenzel & H. C. Lin (1994) A prescrotal castration technique for llamas. Equine Practice, 16, 26-28.

Rodgerson, D. H., Baird, A. N., Lin, H. C. &  Pugh, D. G. (1998) Ventral abdominal approach for laparoscopic ovariectomy in llamas. Veterinary Surgery 27, 331-336.

Roth, C. &  Ganter, M. (2007) Urolithiasis in a gelded llama. Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere 35, 446-452.

Rousseau, M., D. E. Anderson, A. J. Niehaus, M. D. Miesner & S. Nichols (2013) Osseous sequestration in alpacas and llamas: 36 cases (1999-2010). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 243, 430-436.

Llama Classification

Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms.          http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1pnvs1

Genetic Analysis Reveals the Wild Ancestors of the Llama and the Alpaca.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3067673

Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842726

Molecular Characterization of the Llamas (Lama glama) Casein Cluster Genes Transcripts (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3) and Regulatory Regions.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25923814.

Molecular Evolution of the Family Camelidae: A Mitochondrial DNA Study
http://www.jstor.org/stable/49586.

 (1991) Camelid Evolution & History. Camelid Chronicle   No. 13

Aguirre, I. M., R. Fuentes & M. O. Celedón (2014) Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates. Veterinary Microbiology, 168, 312-317.

Anello, M., M. S. Daverio, S. R. Romero, F. Rigalt, M. B. Silbestro, L. Vidal-Rioja & F. Di Rocco (2016) Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina. Genetica, 144, 85-97.

Anon. (1990) Fifth Llama Species? Camelid Chronicle No. 11 (September), p. 3

Barreta, J. 2012. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in Bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the South American camelids. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Bonavia, D. (2009) The South American Camelids Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA.

Capriles J M and Tripcevich N (eds.) (2016) The Archaeology of Andean Pastoralism University of New Mexico Press, United States.

Bonnier and Kaplan (1988) ??????????

Burger, P. A. (2016) The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics. Trop Anim Health Prod 48, 905-913.

Bustamante, A. V., A. Zambelli, D. A. , Lamo, J. v. Thungen & L. Vidal-Rioja (2002) Genetic variability of guanaco and llama populations in Argentina. Small Ruminant Research, 44, 97-101.

Guillermo, LuisMengoni Goñalons, Camelids in ancient Andean societies: A review of the zooarchaeological evidence, Quaternary International, Volume 185, Issue 1 (July 2008), Pages 59-68.

Gutierrez, Maria Cecilalia A. (2007) Taphonomy and Zooarchaeology in Argentina (British Archaeological Reports International Series, 1601) British Archaeological Reports

Jin, L., C. K. Cebra, R. J. Baker, D. E. Mattson, S. A. Cohen, D. E. Alvarado & G. F. Rohrmann (2007) Analysis of the genome sequence of an alpaca coronavirus. Virology, 365, 198-203.

Kessler, M. 1997. Studies on the geneology of New-World camelids (llama, alpaca and guanaco) by means of mitochondrial DNA. Structure and composition of the New-World camelid population of Germany. 176 pp.: Fachbereich Veterinärmedizin, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Giessen.

Marín, J. C., B. Zapata, B. A. González, C. Bonacic, J. C. Wheeler, C. Casey, M. W. Bruford, R. E. Palma, E. Poulin, M. A. Alliende & Á. E. Spotorno (2007) Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 80, 121-140.

Pachaly, J. R. (2001) Zoology of the South American camelids. Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR, 4, 81-83.

Payne, K., (2017) What exactly is a ccara llama? Llama Link 46 (Autumn) 22-23.

Petrigh, R. S., M. M. Cafrune & M. H. Fugassa (2019) First mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences of Lamanema chavezi (Nematoda: Molineidae): novel findings to improve its identification in feces from South American camelids. Parasitology International, 68, 60-62.

Quispe, E. C. (2017) Determination of best sampling site for Chaku llamas (Lama glama) for six technological traits. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 37, 50.

Saber, .A. S. M. (2012)  The camel journey from North America to Africa and Australia : History of the dromedary from the Eocene till today LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.

Sumar, J. (1993) Do different llama breeds exist? Revista de Investigaciones Pecuarias 6, 87-93.

Westbury, M., S. Prost, A. Seelenfreund, J. M. Ramírez, E. A. Matisoo-Smith & M. Knapp (2016) First complete mitochondrial genome data from ancient South American camelids - the mystery of the chilihueques from Isla Mocha (Chile). Scientific Reports, 6, 38708.

Wheeler, Jane C., Lounès Chikhi, and Michael W. Bruford, 2006, Genetic Analysis of the Origins of Domestic South American Camelids, Chapter 23 in New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by Melinda A Zeder, et al., published by the University of California Press.

 

Llama Communications

Franklin, W. L. (1988) Lama Language Modes of Communication in the South American Camelids Camelids Chronicle No 2, 4-8.

Stress

Arias, N. & B. Velapatiño (2015) Cortisol as a reliable indicator of stress in alpacas and llamas. Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), 26, 1-8.

 

Llama Conformation

Websites

In Search of the Perfect Llama. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=xdoOAQAAMAAJ

(1989) Llama medicine. 1 edn. p 236 pp.

Publications:

Fowler, M. E. (1990) Form, Function, Conformation & Soundness Camelid Chronicle   No. 10

Krieger, R. and M. Krieger, In Search of the Ideal Llama: Assessing Conformational Traits in Llamas : the Field Guide. 1994: Saltspring Island Llamas and Alpacas.

Walters, A. L., Semevolos, S. A. &  Baker, R. E. (2016) Goniometrie evaluation of standing extension and maximum flexion joint angles of llamas and alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research 77, 1000-1004.

Llama D

Llama Digestion

Websites

Detection of fiber-digesting bacteria in the forestomach contents of llamas (Lama glama) by PCR. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0325754113700154

Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25921796

Llamas and Alpacas in Europe: Endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25933827

Voluntary intake and digestion of ryegrass straw by llama × guanaco crossbreds and sheep | The Journal of Agricultural Science | Cambridge Core. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-agricultural-science/article/div-classtitlevoluntary-intake-and-digestion-of-ryegrass-straw-by-llama-guanaco-crossbreds-and-sheepdiv/B4BE0FFC7988ED6E6E302AF9601139A9

What is your diagnosis? Abdominal fluid from an adult alpaca. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25899216

 

Images

Publications:

General

Barreto R, R., A. Sato S, M. D. Ghezzi, F. Santos R, A. Chávez R & M. Navarrete Z (2019) Anatomical and histological study of the arteries that irrigate the pancreas and small intestine of the alpaca (Vicugna pacos). Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), 30, 14-25.

Dulphy, J. P., C. Dardillat, M. Jailler & J. P. Jouany (1994) Comparison of the intake and digestibility of different diets in llamas and sheep: a preliminary study. Annales de Zootechnie, 43, 379-387.

----------(1998) Intake and digestibility of different forages in llamas compared to sheep. Annales de Zootechnie, 47, 75-81.

Esteban, L. R. & J. R. Thompson (1988) The digestive system of new world camelids - common digestive diseases of llamas. Veterinary Student (Iowa State University Veterinarian), 50, 117-121.

Franz, S., T. Wittek, A. Joachim, B. Hinney & A. M. Dadak (2015) Llamas and alpacas in Europe: endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control. Veterinary Journal, 204, 255-262.

Jalali, A. R., M. R. Weisbjerg, E. Nadeau, Ǻ. T. Randby, B. O. Rustas, M. Eknæs & P. Nørgaard (2015) Effects of forage type, animal characteristics and feed intake on faecal particle size in goat, sheep, llama and cattle. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 208, 53-65.

Lemosquet, S., C. Dardillat, M. Jailler & J. P. Dulphy (1996) Voluntary intake and gastric digestion of two hays by llamas and sheep: influence of concentrate supplementation. Journal of Agricultural Science, 127, 539-548.

Linden, D. R., D. E. Anderson, J. Lakritz, D. M. Rings, P. M. Ramsey & N. Evans (2007) Apparent digestibility of organic zinc forms in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos). Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 14, 181-185.

Lopez, A., M. S. Morales, C. R. Cabrera & C. X. Urra (2000) Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama). I. Alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) and wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) at different proportions. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, 32, 201-208.

López V, A., M. S. Morales S, R. Cabrera C & M. Arias (2001) Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama). II. Clover hay (Trifolium pratense), riegrass hay (Lolium multiflorum), beans straw (Phaseolus vulgaris) and oat straw (Avena sativa). Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, 33, 145-153.

Nielsen, M. O., E. Tejada, A. Chwalibog, A. H. Tauson & L. Nielsen. 2010. Digestive efficiency, metabolism of nitrogen and methane emission in sheep, goats and llamas fed grass based diets differing in protein content. 497-498. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Nielsen, M. O., A. Kiani, E. Tejada, A. Chwalibog & L. Alstrup (2014) Energy metabolism and methane production in llamas, sheep and goats fed high- and low-quality grass-based diets. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 68, 171-185.

Nilsen, B., N. P. Johnston, N. Stevens & T. F. Robinson (2015) Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), 99, 873-9.

Robinson, T. F., M. Sponheimer, B. L. Roeder, B. Passey, T. E. Cerling, M. D. Dearing & J. R. Ehleringer (2006) Digestibility and nitrogen retention in llamas and goats fed alfalfa, C3 grass, and C4 grass hays. Small Ruminant Research, 64, 162-168.

Sponheimer, M., T. Robinson, B. Roeder, J. Hammer, L. Ayliffe, B. Passey, T. Cerling, D. Dearing & J. Ehleringer (2003) Digestion and passage rates of grass hays by llamas, alpacas, goats, rabbits, and horses. Small Ruminant Research, 48, 149-154.

Vernet, J., M. Vermorel & J. P. Jouany (1997) Digestibility and energy utilisation of three diets by llamas and sheep. Annales de Zootechnie, 46, 127-137.

Warmington, B., G. Wilson & T. Barry (1989) Voluntary intake and digestion of ryegrass straw by llama× guanaco crossbreds and sheep. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 113, 87-91.

Warmington, B. G., G. F. Wilson & T. N. Barry (1989) Voluntary intake and digestion of ryegrass straw by llama × guanaco crossbreds and sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science, 113, 87-91.

Wauters, J. J. M., N. Duchi, P. Guevara, W. Onate, P. Castillo, J. Lopez & R. d. Wilde. 2004. Comparison of the digestibility of paja de paramo and barley straw between sheep (Ovis aries), llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama paco). 766-769. Bikaner: The Camelid Publishers.

Zavaleta De Lucio, E. 1969. An investigation of the digestive enzymes of the llama (Lama glama). Ithaca, N.Y

 

Mouth and Easophagus

Dental anatomy of Llamas.

http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/llamapage.html

The physiology and anatomy of the esophagus of normal llamas and llamas with megaesophagus (Computer file, 2002)

Comparative study of forestomach digestion in llamas and sheep.

 

(1989) Dental Diseases & Dentistry. Camelid Chronicle   No. 8.

(1990) Developmental Dental Diseases Camelid Chronicle   No. 9

Anderson, D. E. 2004. Common surgical procedures in camelids. 118-125. Stillwater: American Association of Bovine Practitioners.

------------(2006) Periapical tooth root infections in llamas and alpacas. Small Ruminant Research, 61, 235-240.

-------------(2012). Periapical tooth root infections in llamas and alpacas. unpaginated. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

------------(2013) Tooth extraction - lateral approach to premolars and molars. 111-115. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

--------- 2013. Tooth extraction - oral approach. 105-109. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Cebra, M. L., C. K. Cebra & F. B. Garry (1996) Tooth rot abscesses in New World camelids: 23 cases (1972-1994). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 209, 819-822.

Duncanson, G. R. 2012. Medicine and surgery of the gastroenteric system. 80-111.

-----------------------2012. Veterinary equipment. 44-47.

Jones, M. L. 2013. Dental examination and trimming. 99-103. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Llamas Moya, S., L. A. Boyle, P. B. Lynch & S. Arkins (2006) Influence of teeth resection on the skin temperature and acute phase response in newborn piglets. Animal Welfare, 15, 291-297.

Niehaus, A. (2009) Dental disease in llamas and alpacas. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 25, 281-293.

Niehaus, A. J. & D. E. Anderson (2007) Tooth root abscesses in llamas and alpacas: 123 cases (1994-2005). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 231, 284-289.

O'Brien, R. T. (1996) Intraoral dental radiography: experimental study and clinical use in two horses and a llama. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 37, 412-416.

Ortiz, C., J. Cavero, H. Sillau & S. Cueva (1974) The parotid saliva of the alpaca (Lama pacos). Research in Veterinary Science, 16, 54-56.

Popowics, T. E. & S. W. Herring. 2006. Teeth, jaws and muscles in mammalian mastication. 61-83.

Rostami, A., U. Geissbühler, F. Schellenberger & P. Zanolari (2014) Computed tomographic and radiographic examination of dental structures in South American camelid specimen of different ages. BMC Veterinary Research, 10, (6 January 2014).

Step, D. L., J. W. Ritchey, W. T. Drost & R. J. Bahr (2003) Ameloblastic odontoma in the mandible of a llama. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 44, 824-827.

Williamson, L. H. 2014. Ten reasons to be called to a camelid farm and what you need to know before you get there. unpaginated. Gainesville: North American Veterinary Community (NAVC).

Wolff, P. L. 2007. The geriatric small ruminant - dental care, body condition scoring, and nutrition. 290-292. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

--------- 2009. Geriatric small ruminants - how to keep them healthy and happy. 364-365. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

Zanolari, P. (2007) Teeth problems in New World Camelidae. Forum Kleinwiederkäuer/Petits Ruminants, 13-20.

Stomach and small intenstine

Comparative study of forestomach digestion in llamas and sheep.

https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00900063/documentAccess,

 

Anderson, D. E. 2013. Intubation of the first forestomach compartment ("C1" or "Rumen"). 179-182. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Cebra, C. K. & M. L. Cebra (1999) Gastrointestinal causes of colic in new world camelids. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 6, 171-176.

Cebra, C. K., M. L. Cebra, F. B. Garry, R. S. Larsen & G. M. Baxter (1998) Acute gastrointestinal disease in 27 New World camelids: clinical and surgical findings. Veterinary Surgery, 27, 112-121.

Cebra, C. K. & B. V. Stang (2008) Comparison of methods to detect gastrointestinal parasites in llamas and alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 232, 733-741.

Cebra, C. K., S. J. Tornquist, R. J. Bildfell & J. R. Heidel (2003) Bile acids in gastric fluids from llamas and alpacas with and without ulcers. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 17, 567-570.

Cebra, C. K., B. J. Watrous & M. L. Cebra (2002) Transabdominal ultrasonographic appearance of the gastrointestinal viscera of healthy llamas and alpacas. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 43, 359-366.

Christensen, J. M., T. Limsakun, B. B. Smith, N. Hollingshead & M. Huber (2001) Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antiulcer agents in llama. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 24, 23-33.

Correa, L., B. Zapata & M. Soto-Gamboa (2012) Gastrointestinal and blood parasite determination in the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) under semi-captivity conditions. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44, 11-15.

Cummings, J. F., J. F. Munnell & A. Vallenas (1971) The mucigenous gastric glands in the llama (Lama peruana) and guanaco (Lama guanacoe). Proceedings 19th World Veterinary Congress, Mexico City, 2, 554.

-----------(1972) The mucigenous glandular mucosa in the complex stomach of two new-world Camelids, the llama and guanaco. Journal of Morphology, 137, 71-110.

Davies, H. L., T. F. Robinson, B. L. Roeder, M. E. Sharp, N. P. Johnston, A. C. Christensen & G. B. Schaalje (2007) Digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (lama pacos) fed barley or barley alfalfa diets. Small Ruminant Research, 73, 1-7.

Dittmann, M. T., U. Runge, S. Ortmann, R. A. Lang, D. Moser, C. Galeffi, A. Schwarm, M. Kreuzer & M. D.-J. D.-s.-.-.-x. Clauss (2015) Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters. J Comp Physiol B, 185, 559-73 ST  - Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

Drew, M. L., E. Ramsay, M. E. Fowler & P. H. Kass (1992) Effect of flunixin meglumine and cimetidine hydrochloride on the pH in the third compartment of the stomach of llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 201, 1559-1563.

Dulphy, J. P., C. Dardillat, M. Jailler & J. M. Ballet (1997) Comparative study of forestomach digestion in llamas and sheep. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development, 37, 709-725.

Duncanson, G. R. 2012. Medicine and surgery of the gastroenteric system. 80-111.

-------------2012. Sample taking and simple diagnostic tests. 32-43.

Eckerlin, R. H. & C. E. Stevens (1973) Bicarbonate secretion by the glandular saccules of the llama stomach. Cornell Veterinarian, 63, 436-445.

Ehrlein, H. J. & W. V. Englehardt (1971) [Studies on the gastric motility of the llama.]. Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin, 181-191.

Engelhardt, W. V., K. E. Ali & E. Wipper (1979) Absorption and secretion in the tubiform forestomach (compartment 3) of the llama. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 132, 337-341.

Engelhardt, W. v. (1998) Forestomach motility in llamas and camels. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 105, 472-474.

Galotta, D. R. & J. M. Galotta (1987) Arteriovenous system of the lama stomach. Revista de Ciéncias Agrárias, 8, 27-33.

Geurden, T. & K. v. Hemelrijk (2005) Ivermectin treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes in New World camelids in Belgium. Small Ruminant Research, 58, 71-73.

Löhr, C. V., T. W. O'Neill, D. N. Daw, M. O. Pitel & J. W. Schlipf (2019) Pyogranulomatous enteritis and mesenteric lymphadenitis in an adult llama caused by Rhodococcus equi carrying virulence-associated protein A gene. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 31, 747-751.

Loupal, G. (1982) Gastric phytobezoariasis in a llama. Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift, 95, 14-16.

Luciano, L., G. Voss-Wermbter, M. Behnke, W. v. Engelhardt & E. Reale (1979) Structure of the gastric mucosa in llama (Lama guanacoe and Lama lamae). I. Forestomachs. Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch, 125, 519-549.

Navarre, C. B., D. G. Pugh, A. M. Heath & S. A. Simpkins (1999) Analysis of first gastric compartment fluid collected via percutaneous paracentesis from healthy llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 214, 812-815.

Newman, K. D. & D. E. Anderson (2009) Gastrointestinal surgery in alpacas and llamas. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 25, 495-506.

Quist, C. F., D. M. Dutton, D. A. Schneider & A. K. Prestwood (1998) Gastrointestinal ulceration and pulmonary aspergillosis in a llama treated for parelaphostrongylosis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 212, 1438-1441.

Rubsamen, K (1978) Bicarbonate secretion and solute absorption in forestomach of the llama. American Journal of Physiology, 235, E1-E6.

Smith, B. B., E. G. Pearson & K. I. Timm (1994) Third compartment ulcers in the llama. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 319-330.

Stieger-Vanegas, S. M. & C. K. Cebra (2013) Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the gastrointestinal tract in clinically normal alpacas and llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 242, 254-260.

Timm, K. I., B. J. Watrous & B. B. Smith (1999) Radiographic contrast gastrointestinal study of the neonatal llama. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 40, 596-604.

Vallenas, A. 1970. Structural and functional studies of the llama and guanaco stomach. Ithaca, N.Y.

Vallenas, A., J. F. Cummings & J. F. Muunell (1971) A gross study of the compartmentalized stomach of two new-world Camelids, the llama and guanaco. Journal of Morphology, 134, 399-424.

Vallenas, P. & C. Stevens (1971) Volatile fatty acid concentrations and pH of llama and quanaco forestomach digesta. Cornell Veterinarian, 61, 239-252.

Wallace, L. L. M., D. A. Wilson, R. Halenda, J. R. Turk & L. M. Ross (1992) Gastric perforation and peritonitis resulting from gastrolithiasis in a llama. Veterinary Medicine, 87, 14...19.

Whitehead, C. E. and D. E. Anderson (2006). "Neonatal diarrhea in llamas and alpacas." Small Ruminant Research 61(2/3): 207-215.

 

 

Digestive Organs and Enzymes

Liver [Also see Liver Fluke]

Anderson, D. E. (1999) Liver disease, metabolism and digestion in llamas and alpacas. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 6, 163-169.

----------(2004) Comparison of trace mineral concentration in the various lobes of the liver of alpacas and llamas. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 3, 162-164.

---------(2004). Liver disease, metabolism and digestion in llamas and alpacas. 545-554. Bikaner: The Camelid Publishers.

Anderson, D. E., R. Leveille, P. Scrivani & C. Brömel (1998) Performing percutaneous liver biopsy in alpacas and llamas. Veterinary Medicine, 93, 190-195.

Anderson, D. E. & F. Silveira (1999) Effects of percutaneous liver biopsy in alpacas and llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 60, 1423-1425.

Castro, A. N. C., M. D. Ghezzi, M. T. Domínguez, M. C. Lupidio, S. A. Gómez & R. H. Alzola (2009) Conformation and anatomical relations of the liver of llama (Lama glama). Anatomia Histologia Embryologia, 38, 108-111.

Foreyt, W. J. & S. Parish (1990) Experimental Infection of Liver Flukes (Fascioloides magna) in a Llama (Lama glama). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 21, 468-470.

Gunsser, I., T. Hänichen & J. Maierl (1999) Liver fluke infection in South American camelids: parasitology, pathology, clinical aspects and therapy. Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 27, 187-192.

Jones, M. L. 2013. Liver biopsy. 171-174. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Panuska, C., L. G. Rickard & D. D. Rudolph (2006) Isotype-specific serum IgG responses of llamas (Lama glama) to experimental liver fluke infection. Small Ruminant Research, 61, 195-199.

Ray, A. C., M. J. Murphy, M. D. DuVall & J. C. Reagor (1989) Determination of brodifacoum and bromadiolone residues in rodent and canine liver. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 50, 546-550.

Schaefer, D. L., R. J. Bildfell, P. Long & C. V. Löhr (2012) Characterization of the microanatomy and histopathology of placentas from aborted, stillborn, and normally delivered alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas (Lama glama). Veterinary Pathology, 49, 313-321.

Watanabe, T. T. N., F. R. C. Chaigneau, J. M. Adaska, B. Doncel-Díaz & F. A. Uzal (2019) Polycystic liver in two adult llamas. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 31, 280-283.

Welles, E. G., D. G. Pugh, J. G. W. Wenzel, B. Waldridge & R. Hanson (1997) Liver biopsy in llamas. Equine Practice, 19, 24-28.

Colon

Fowler, M. E. (1987) Ulceration and obstruction of the spiral colon in the llama. Verhandlungsbericht des Internationalen Symposiums über die Erkrankungen der Zootiere, 29, 201-208.

Stone, W. C., W. A. Lindsay, G. P. Adams, E. J. Galbreath & D. E. Bjorling (1993) Rectal and colonic injury in the llama. Anatomic considerations and surgical management in four llamas. Veterinary Surgery, 22, 62-66.

Metabolism General ???

Engelhardt, W. & W. v. Engelhardt. 1976. Diminished renal urea excretion in the llama at reduced food intake. 61-62. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.

Engelhardt, W. v., G. Becker, W. Engelhardt, R. Hauffe, S. Hinderer, K. Rubsamen & W. Schneider. 1975. Energy, water and urea metabolism in the llama. 111-122. Vienna: IAEA.

Hinderer, S. & W. v. Engelhardt (1975) Urea metabolism in the llama. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A, 52, 619-622.

Rubsamen, K. & W. v. Engelhardt (1975) Water metabolism in the llama. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A, 52, 595-598.

Chalkley, M. D., M. Kiupel & A. C. E. Draper (2014) Pituitary null cell Adenoma in a domestic llama (Lama glama). Journal of Comparative Pathology, 151, 51-56.

 

Llama Driving

Websites

Driving llamas in harness

http://lostcreekllamas.com/driving.htm

Central Oregon Llama Association:Driving

http://www.centraloregonllamas.org/driving.html

Carting-British Llama Society

http://britishllamasociety.org/Activities/Carting/Llama%20Carting.html

Llama Driving Book Complete

https://llamaproducts.com/llama-driving-book-complete.html

Llama Driving or Llama Carting Information

http://www.jnkllamas.com/llama-driving-or-llama-carting-information.html

Llama driving

http://www.dawntoduskllamas.com/drivingclinic.html

Training Llamas to Drive to Cart DVD

http://www.llamas-information.com/llama-driving/training-llamas-to-drive-to-cart/

Llama Driving Videos

http://www.jnkllamas.com/llama-driving-videos.html

Llama Cart Training - YouTube

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FiY1KeoMY3o&index=43&list=PLluOUd9y_S1-UbCCW4XH8_pQHb9JQ739m

Team Jorjio

http://www.teamjorjio.com/

Llama Hardware

http://www.llamahardware.com/

Welcome to Dawn to Dusk Llamas

http://www.dawntoduskllamas.com/

 

Images

Publications

Driving Camelids Chronicle No. 1 p3 and No. 2, 1988, p7.

Godwin, C.  (1993) Carting and Llamas Camelids Chronicle No 24, p. 15.

Pryce, M. (1999), Henry’s Driving Lesson Camelids Chronicle No. 45, p. 9.

Shinnick, R. (1997) Llama Driving: Choosing a Llama Camelids Chronicle 38 pp. 11-12.

Shinnick, R. (200?) Llama Driving: A Basic Guide to Training and Driving Your Llama 64pp.

 

Llama Domestication

Alejandro Camino, D. C. &  Julio Sumar, K. (2000) Importance of alpacas and llamas in the changing context of development research. Kathmandu, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development. pp 285-296

Al-Ani, F. K. 2004. Domestication, distribution and population. Baghdad: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University.

Bolton, M. (2007) Counting llamas and accounting for people: livestock, land and citizens in southern Bolivia. Sociological Review 55, 5-21.

Bruford, M. W. (2005). Molecular approaches to understanding animal domestication: what have we learned so far? , No.10. Beekbergen: World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA).

Mengoni Goñalons, Guillermo and Hugo Yacobaccio, 2006, The Domestication of South American Camelids A View from the South-Central Andes, Chapter 16 in Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by Melinda A. Zeder, et al., published by the University of California Press.

Novoa,  C. , and   Wheeler ,  J.C. (1984). Llama and alpaca. In Mason, I.L. , ed. Evolution of Domestic Animals. London: Longman,116 28.

Pollard, G. C. & I. M. Drew (1975) Llama Herding and Settlement in Prehispanic Northern Chile: Application of an Analysis for Determining Domestication. American Antiquity, 40, 296-305.

Poulin, M. A. Alliende & Á. E. Spotorno (2007) Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 80, 121-140.

Llama E

Llama Ears

Concha-Albornoz, I. (2010) Anatomy of the osseous external acoustic meatus, middle ear and surrounding soft tissue in llamas (Lama glama). Oregon, Oregon State University  https://www.worldcat.org/title/anatomy-of-the-osseous-external-acoustic-meatus-middle-ear-and-surrounding-soft-tissue-in-llamas-lama-glama/oclc/935796839?referer=list_viewAccess

Fowler , M.E., and Gillespie , D. (1985) . Middle and inner ear infections in llamas . J. Zoo Anim. Med. 16 : 9–15.

Gauly, M., J. Vaughan, S. K. Hogreve & G. Erhardt (2005) Brainstem auditory-evoked potential assessment of auditory function and congenital deafness in llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (L. pacos). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 19, 756-760.

 

Llama Endocrine System

Websites

Publications

Aba, M. A., M. Forsberg, H. Kindahl, J. Sumar & L. E. Edqvist (1995) Endocrine changes after mating in pregnant and non-pregnant llamas and alpacas. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 36, 489-498.

Bianchi, C. P., A. Meikle, I. Sartore, F. González & M. A. Aba (2007) Uterine estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor during the follicular and luteal phase in llamas. Animal Reproduction Science, 99, 117-126.

Bravo, P. W. (1994) Reproductive endocrinology of llamas and alpacas. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 265-279.

Bravo, P. W., M. E. Fowler, G. H. Stabenfeldt & B. Lasley (1990) Endocrine responses in the llama to copulation. Theriogenology, 33, 891-899.

Bravo, P. W., G. H. Stabenfeldt, M. E. Fowler & B. L. Lasley (1993) Ovarian and endocrine patterns associated with reproductive abnormalities in llamas and alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 202, 268-272.

Cancino, A. K., J. F. Aller, G. Rebuffi & R. H. Alberio (2011) Control of ovarian follicular dynamics in early postpartum llama (Lama glama). Archivos de Zootecnia, 60, 1009-1020.

Carrasco, R. A., J. Verhoef, C. E. P. Leonardi, E. E. Lanigan & G. P. Adams (2019) Bilateral thyroid follicular compact-cellular carcinoma in a llama. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 31, 913-916.

Cavilla, M. V., C. P. Bianchi, C. Maistruarena & M. A. Aba (2013) Ultrasonographic and endocrine characterization of follicular waves in llamas with a special reference to the overlapping phenomenon during successive waves. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 48, 923-930.

Chalkley, M. D., M. Kiupel & A. C. E. Draper (2014) Pituitary null cell Adenoma in a domestic llama (Lama glama). Journal of Comparative Pathology, 151, 51-56.

Cotton, T. 2008. Reproductive hormones in camelids. 290. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

El-Nouty, F. D., M. K. Yousef, A. B. Magdub & H. D. Johnson (1976) Thyroid secretion hormones in Camelidae and Equidae. Federation Proceedings, 35, 216.

Gauly, M., G. Erhardt & V. Dzapo. 2004. Annual changes in serum levels of thyroid hormones in male llamas (Lama glama) and their correlation with reproduction parameters. 186-194. Bikaner: The Camelid Publishers.

Kiani, A., L. Alstrup & M. O. Nielsen (2015) Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 53, 9-16.

Kiani, A., L. Alstrup & M. O. D.-O. D.-j. d. Nielsen (2015) Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets. Domest Anim Endocrinol, 53, 9-16.

Leon, J. B., B. B. Smith, K. I. Timm & G. LeCren (1990) Endocrine changes during pregnancy, parturition and the early post-partum period in the llama (Lama glama). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 88, 503-511.

Norambuena, M. C., M. Silva, F. Urra, C. Ulloa-Leal, A. Fernández, G. P. Adams, W. Huanca & M. H. Ratto (2013) Effects of nutritional restriction on metabolic, endocrine, and ovarian function in llamas (Lama glama). Animal Reproduction Science, 138, 252-260.

Perkins, N. R., G. S. Frazer & B. L. Hull (1996) Endocrine diagnosis of cryptorchidism in a llama. Australian Veterinary Journal, 74, 275-277.

Powell, S. A., B. B. Smith, K. I. Timm & A. R. Menino, Jr. (2007) Estradiol production by preimplantation blastocysts and increased serum progesterone following estradiol treatment in llamas. Animal Reproduction Science, 102, 66-75.

Riquelme, R. A., G. Sánchez, L. Liberona, E. M. Sanhueza, D. A. Giussani, C. E. Blanco, M. A. Hanson & A. J. Llanos (2002) Nitric oxide plays a role in the regulation of adrenal blood flow and adrenocorticomedullary functions in the llama fetus. Journal of Physiology, 544, 267-276.

Silva, M., F. Urra & M. Ratto (2017) Estradiol but not progesterone plasma concentration correlates with uterine vascularization during the reproductive cycle in llamas. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 37, 58.

Smith, B. B., P. J. Reed, E. G. Pearson, P. Long, E. D. Lassen, B. J. Watrous, S. Lovelady, D. E. Sims & S. P. Snyder (1991) Erythrocyte dyscrasia, anemia, and hypothyroidism in chronically underweight llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 198, 81-88.

Williamson, L. H. 2014. Camelid scientific investigations (CSI): what's new from the research front that you can use in your practice. unpaginated. Gainesville: North American Veterinary Community (NAVC).

Llama Eyes

Anderson, D. E. 2013. Conjunctivorhinostomy for alleviation of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. 317-318. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

-------------2013. Ocular extirpation. 319-321. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Andrew, S. E., A. M. Willis & D. E. Anderson (2002) Density of corneal endothelial cells, corneal thickness, and corneal diameters in normal eyes of llamas and alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 63, 326-329.

Aubin, M. L., J. R. Gionfriddo, K. R. Mama & C. C. Powell (2001) Analysis of aqueous humor obtained from normal eyes of llamas and alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 62, 1060-1062.

Brightman, A. H., S. A. McLaughlin & V. Brumley (1981) Keratoconjunctivitis in a llama. Veterinary Medicine & Small Animal Clinician, 76, 1776-1777.

Czerwinski, S. L. (2019) Ocular surface disease in new world camelids. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, 22, 69-79.

Fischer, K. & D. Hendrix (2012) Conjunctivitis and ulcerative keratitis secondary to conjunctival plant foreign bodies in a herd of alpacas (Lama Pacos). Veterinary Ophthalmology, 15, 110-114.

Fugaro, M. N., M. Kiupel, F. Montiani-Ferreira, J. F. Hawkins & E. B. Janovitz (2005) Retinoblastoma in the eye of a llama (Llama glama). Veterinary Ophthalmology, 8, 287-290.

Gionfriddo, J. R. (1994) Ophthalmology [llama]. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 371-382.

---------- (2010) Ophthalmology of South American camelids. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 26, 531-555.

--------- 2012. Ophthalmology of new world camelids. 1675-1691. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Gionfriddo, J. R., J. P. Gionfriddo & S. G. Krohne (1997) Ocular diseases of llamas: 194 cases (1980-1993). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 210, 1784-1787.

Gionfriddo, J. R., R. Rosenbusch, J. M. Kinyon, D. M. Betts & T. M. Smith (1991) Bacterial and mycoplasmal flora of the healthy camelid conjunctival sac. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 52, 1061-1064.

Ingram, K. A. & R. L. Sigler. 1983. Cataract removal in a young llama. 95-97.

Jacklin, F. C., Johnson, W. E.,  Appleton, B. R., (2014) The Genetic Inheritance of the Blue-eyed White Phenotype in Alpacas Journal of Heredity, Volume 105, Issue 6, November-December 2014, Pages 941–951

Jones, M. L., M. A. Gilmour & R. N. Streeter (2007) Use of grid keratotomy for the treatment of indolent corneal ulcer in a llama. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 48, 416-419.

Knickelbein, K. E., D. J. Maggs, C. M. Reilly, K. L. Good & J. R. Gionfriddo (2018) Multiple ocular developmental defects in fo ur closely related alpacas. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 21, 544-551.

Miesner, T. 2013. Eye exam. 311-313. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Miesner, T. 2013. Conjunctival pedicle graft. 327-329. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

---------------2013. Subpalpebral lavage system. 323-326. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Oplinger, H. 1996. Kinesthesia : University of Pennsylvania graduate school of veterinary studies and large animal research : in conjunction with Berry Acres Llamas. Roger Williams University.

Pirie, C. G., S. Pizzirani & N. M. Parry (2008) Corneal epithelial inclusion cyst in a Llama. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 11, 111-113.

Nuhsbaum, M. T., J. R. Gionfriddo, C. C. Powell & M. L. Aubin (2000) Intraocular pressure in normal llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos). Veterinary Ophthalmology, 3, 31-34.

Paulsen, M. E., S. Young, J. A. Smith & G. A. Severin (1989) Bilateral chorioretinitis, centropetal optic neuritis, and encephalitis in a llama. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 194, 1305-1308.

Pirie, C. G., S. Pizzirani & N. M. Parry (2008) Corneal epithelial inclusion cyst in a Llama. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 11, 111-113.

Powell, C. C., T. M. Nuhsbaum & J. R. Gionfriddo (2002) Aqueous misdirection and ciliary block (malignant) glaucoma after cataract removal in a llama. Veterinary Ophthalmology, 5, 99-101.

Rebhun, W. C., D. H. Jenkins, R. C. Riis, S. G. Dill, E. J. Dubovi & A. Torres (1988) An epizootic of blindness and encephalitis associated with a herpesvirus indistinguishable from equine herpesvirus 1 in a herd of alpacas and llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 192, 953-956.

Sweeney, R. W.P. L. Habecker & A. M. Komaromy (2011) Intraocular nematodiasis in a llama (Lama glama). Canadian Veterinary Journal, 52, 181-183.

Torres, A., E. J. Dubovi, W. C. Rebhun & J. M. King (1985) Isolation of a herpesvirus associated with an outbreak of blindness and encephalitis in a herd of Alpacas and Llamas. Abstracts of Papers presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference of Research Workers in Animal Disease, 66, 50.

Trbolova, A., J. R. Gionfriddo & M. S. Ghaffari (2012) Results of schirmer tear test in clinically normal llamas (Lama glama). Veterinary Ophthalmology, 15, 383-385.

Webb, A. A., C. L. Cullen & L. A. Lamont (2006) Brainstem auditory evoked responses and ophthalmic findings in llamas and alpacas in eastern Canada. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 47, 74-77.

Williams, D. L., S. MacGregor & A. W. Sainsbury (2000) Evaluation of bacteria isolated from infected eyes of captive, non-domestic animals. Veterinary Record, 146, 515-518.

Willis, A. M., D. E. Anderson, A. J. Gemensky, D. A. Wilkie & F. Silveira (2000) Evaluation of intraocular pressure in eyes of clinically normal llamas and alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 61, 1542-1544.

Llama F

Llama Feet

Websites

https://www.jnkllamas.com/llama-conformation.html

Buckhorn Llama company website,

http://llama-llama.com/text/physical.html

Publications

Fowler , M.E.  (1998) Hoof, claw and nail problems in nondomestic animals . J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 177: 885–93 .

Kofler, J., B. Martinek & W. Hochsteiner (2002) Footpad abscessation caused by a metallic foreign body penetration in the sole cushion of a llama. Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift, 89, 131-135.

 

Llama H

Llama Hematic System

Publications

Biochemical components in the secretion of bulbourethral glands for three ages of llamas (llama glama) (Book, 2002)

Aida, Y., K. Okada, R. Kageyama & H. Amanuma (1992) Cross-reactivity between a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a tumor-associated antigen on bovine lymphosarcoma cells and blood lymphocytes from various mammalian species. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 53, 1988-1991.

Cebra, C. K., F. B. Garry, B. E. Powers & L. W. Johnson (1995) Lymphosarcoma in 10 New World Camelids. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 9, 381-385.

Davoudi, S. M., M. Eshagian & M. EdalatiNasab (2013) Overview of hepatic disease in large animals. Advances in Bio Research, 4, 12-20.

Delgado Callisaya, P. . 2002. Biochemical components of llama seminal plasma at three ages.

Fowler, M. E., D. Gillespie & J. Harkema (1985) Lymphosarcoma in a llama. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 187, 1245-1246.

Gauna Añasco, L., G. Oliva, O. Affricano, A. Montesano & G. Graziotti (2005) Morphology of the superficial cervical lymph center of the llama (Lama glama). InVet - Investigación Veterinaria, 7, 25-30.

Hong, C. B. & J. M. Donahue (1995) Rhodococcus equi-associated necrotizing lymphadenitis in a llama. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 113, 85-88.

Lassen, E. D., E. G. Pearson, P. Long, W. B. Schmotzer, A. J. Kaneps & T. W. Riebold (1986) Clinical biochemical values of llamas: reference values. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 47, 2278-2280.

Nie, Y., S. Li, J. Zhu, R. Hu, M. Liu, T. He & Y. Yang (2018) Chemical shift assignments of a camelid nanobody against aflatoxin B. Biomol NMR Assign.

Ramos G, M., J. Descailleaux L, M. Velásquez R, W. Huanca L, L. Iannuzzi & A. Perucatti (2014) Adaptation of the lymphocyte culture technique of alpacas and lamas for the analysis of sister chromatid exchange (SCE). Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), 25, 461-467.

Sheedy, C., K. Y. F. Yau, T. Hirama, C. R. MacKenzie & J. C. Hall (2006) Selection, characterization, and CDR shuffling of naive llama single-domain antibodies selected against auxin and their cross-reactivity with auxinic herbicides from four chemical families. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 3668-3678.

Stanitznig, A., B. Lambacher, P. Nuyken, L. Kiefer, S. Franz & T. Wittek (2018) New World camelids in Austria: a compilation of haematological and clinical-chemical parameters as well as serum concentrations of minerals and trace elements. Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift, 105, 3-12.

Twomey, D. F., A. M. Barlow & S. Hemsley (2008) Immunophenotyping of lymphosarcoma in South American camelids on six British premises. Veterinary Journal, 175, 133-135.

Uhde, A. K., A. Lehmbecker, W. Baumgärtner & I. Spitzbarth (2017) Evaluation of a panel of antibodies for the immunohistochemical identification of immune cells in paraffin-embedded lymphoid tissues of new- and old-world camelids. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 184, 42-53.

Underwood, W. J. & T. G. Bell (1993) Multicentric lymphosarcoma in a llama. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 5, 117-121.

Werney, U., Wernery, R and Murray E. F. (1999) Color Atlas of Camelid Hematology.Blackwell wissenschaft.

 

Blood

Characterization of erythrocytic indices and serum iron values in healthy llamas.

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US9316493

 

Adrenergic and vasopressinergic contributions to the cardiovascular response to acute hypoxaemia in the llama fetus - Giussani - 1999 - The Journal of Physiology - Wiley Online Library. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7793.1999.233ad.x/full

Aba, M. A., J. Sumar, H. Kindahl, M. Forsberg & L. E. Edqvist (1998) Plasma concentrations of 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α, progesterone, oestrone sulphate, oestradiol-17β and cortisol during late gestation, parturition and the early postpartum period in llamas and alpacas. Animal Reproduction Science, 50, 111-121.

Abal, M. A., M. Ghezzi, M. Quiroga, H. Solana & N. Auza (1996) Concentrations of progesterone during storage of whole blood from llama (Lama glama): effects of anticoagulants, storage time and temperature. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 37, 123-125.

Abdouslam, O. E., S. A. Al-Izzi, L. S. Al-Bassam & S. M. Azwai (2003) Effect of anthelmintic treatment on haematological and coagulation parameters in llamas (Lama glama) infected with gastrointestinal parasites. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 10, 149-152.

Adam, C. L., C. E. Moir & P. Shiach (1989) Plasma progesterone concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant llamas (Lama glama). Veterinary Record, 125, 618-620.

Adams, G. P. & M. H. Ratto (2013) Ovulation-inducing factor in seminal plasma: a review. Animal Reproduction Science, 136, 148-156.

Adams, G. P., M. H. Ratto, W. Huanca & S. Jaswant (2005) Ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. Biology of Reproduction, 73, 452-457.

Adams, G. P., M. H. Ratto, M. E. Silva & R. A. Carrasco (2016) Ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) in seminal plasma: a review and update. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 51, 4-17.

Al-Ani, F. K., W. A. R. A. Al-Azzawi, M. S. Jermukly & K. K. Razzaq (1992) Studies on some haematological parameters of camel and llama in Iraq. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 40, 103-106.

Al-Bassam, L. S., S. M. Azwai, O. E. Abdouslam, S. A. Al-lzzi & A. M. Al-Dawek (2007) Effect of season on haematological parameters in clinically normal llamas (Lama glama) raised in Libya. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 14, 187-190.

Alejandro Himelfarb, M., A. Matias Lorenzutti, N. Javier Litterio, M. d. Pilar Zarazaga, M. S. Aguilar-Sola, J. J. d. Lucas, M. Ignacio San Andrés & S. Rubio-Langre (2017) Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis by Monte Carlo simulation of cefquinome in llamas, following intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in serum and tissue cage fluid. Small Ruminant Research, 149, 134-140.

Al-Izzi, S. A., O. E. Abdouslam, L. S. Al-Bassam & S. M. Azwai (2004) Haematological parameters in clinically normal llamas (Lama glama). Praxis Veterinaria (Zagreb), 52, 225-232.

Anderson, D. E., T. Grubb & F. Silveira (1999) The effect of short duration transportation on serum cortisol response in alpacas (Llama pacos). Veterinary Journal, 157, 189-191.

Anderson, D. E., F. Silveira & T. Grubb (1999) Effects of venipuncture and correlation of plasma, serum and saliva cortisol concentration with transportation stress in camelids. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 6, 249-254.

------------2004. Effects of venipuncture and correlation of plasma, serum and saliva cortisol concentration with transportation stress in camelids. 160-168. Bikaner: The Camelid Publishers.

Andreasen, C. B., E. G. Pearson, B. B. Smith, T. C. Gerros & E. D. Lassen (1998) Normal reference intervals and the effects of time and feeding on serum bile acid concentrations in llamas. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 10, 174-178.

Araya, A. V., I. Atwater, M. A. Navia & S. Jeffs (2000) Evaluation of insulin resistance in two kinds of South American camelids: llamas and alpacas. Comparative Medicine, 50, 490-494.

Azwai, S. M., O. E. Abdouslam, L. S. Al-Bassam, A. M. Al-Dawek & S. A. L. Al-Izzi (2007) Morphological characteristics of blood cells in clinically normal adult llamas (Lama glama). Veterinarski Arhiv, 77, 69-79.

Circulation

Bastres, M. C., N. Sakabe, J. Yasuda & K. Too (1989) Electrocardiogram studies in llamas. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, 37, 85-95.

Bechert, U. S. & B. B. Smith (1996) Serum macro and micro element concentrations in the llama. Veterinary Clinical Nutrition, 3, 119-127.

Bravo, P. W., J. Garnica & M. E. Fowler (1997) Immunoglobulin G concentrations in periparturient llamas, alpacas and their crias. Small Ruminant Research, 26, 145-149.

Burri, I. H., P. Tschudi, J. Martig, A. Liesegang & M. Meylan (2005) South American camelids in Switzerland. II. Reference values for blood parameters. SAT, Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 147, 335-343.

Butt, T. D., D. G. MacDonald & W. H. Crawford (2001) Persistent right aortic arch in a mature Ilama. Veterinary Record, 148, 118-119.

Campo, M. R. D., C. H.Dd. Campo & O. J. Ginther (1996) Vascular provisions for a local utero-ovarian cross-over pathway in New World camelids. Theriogenology, 46, 983-991.

Candia A, M., M. E. Rodriguez R & E. Orellana G (1986) Haematological study on llamas in the I region of Chile. IDESIA, 10, 35-37.

Carney, K. R., E. C. McKenzie, C. A. Mosley & M. E. Payton (2011) Evaluation of the effect of hetastarch and lactated Ringer's solution on plasma colloid osmotic pressure in healthy llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 238, 768-772.

Cavilla, M. V., C. P. Bianchi & M. A. Aba (2010) Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama). Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 52, (11 February 2010).

Cebra, C. K. (2000) Hyperglycemia, hypernatremia, and hyperosmolarity in 6 neonatal llamas and alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 217, 1701-1704.

--------- (2009) Disorders of carbohydrate or lipid metabolism in camelids. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 25, 339-352.

Cebra, C. K. & S. J. Tornquist (2004) Assessment of the effects of epinephrine and insulin on plasma and serum biochemical variables in llamas and alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 65, 1692-1696.

--------- (2005) Evaluation of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in llama crias. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 66, 1013-1017.

Cebra, C. K., S. J. Tornquist, R. M. Jester & C. Stelletta (2004) Assessment of the effects of feed restriction and amino acid supplementation on glucose tolerance in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 65, 996-1001.

--------- (2004) Assessment of the metabolic effects of hydrocortisone on llamas before and after feed restriction. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 65, 1002-1005.

Cebra, C. K., S. J. Tornquist, R. J. v. Saun & B. B. Smith (2001) Glucose tolerance testing in llamas and alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 62, 682-686.

Chiodi, H. (1971) Comparative study of the blood gas transport in high altitude and sea level Camelidae and goats. Respiration Physiology, 11, 84-93.

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Calderon, D., G. Gutierrez, E. Quispe & C. Silva (2019) Comparison of the precision and accuracy of four equipment to determine the average fibre diameter and standard deviation of alpaca fibre. Revista Acadêmica: Ciência Animal, 17, 294-297.

Cecchi, R., G. L. D'Alterio, G. R. Pearson & A. P. Foster (2003) Retrospective histopathological study of some skin disorders of alpacas (Lama pacos). Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 41. Internationalen Symposiums über die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere, Rome, Italy, 28 May - 1 June, 2003, 179-183.

Chandramohan, B., C. Renieri, V. La Manna & A. La Terza (2015) The alpaca melanocortin 1 receptor: gene mutations, transcripts, and relative levels of expression in ventral skin biopsies. ScientificWorldJournal, 2015, 265751 ST  - The alpaca melanocortin 1 receptor: gene mutations, transcripts, and relative levels of expression in ventral skin biopsies.

Clauss, M., C. Lendl, P. Schramel & W. J. Streich (2004) Skin lesions in alpacas and llamas with low zinc and copper status - a preliminary report. Veterinary Journal, 167, 302-305.

Eo, K., D. Kwak, T. Shin, Y. Yeo, K. Jung, S. Kwon, S. Kim & O. Kwon (2010) Skin lesions associated with Demodex sp. in a llama (Lama peruana). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 41, 178-180.

Fleis, R. I. & D. W. Scott (2010) The microanatomy of healthy skin from alpacas (Vicugna pacos). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 22, 716-719.

Foster, A. 2008. Skin diseases of South American camelids. 30-32. Romford: British Veterinary Zoological Society.

Frank, E. N., M. H. V. Hick & M. Pesarini. 2001. SUPREME-project: a new approach for histological description of skin follicular complex in Argentine llamas. 243-250. Wageningen: Wageningen Pers.

French, R. A. & C. D. Ashworth (1994) Zygomycosis caused by Conidiobolus coronatus in a llama (Lama glama). Veterinary Pathology, 31, 120-122.

Häfliger-Speiser, S. (2018) Skin diseases in New World camelids. Forum Kleinwiederkäuer/Petits Ruminants, 6-10.

Hick, M. H. V., M. F. Castillo & E. N. Frank (2018) Primariness in fiber production lama flocks from northern Jujuy Province, Argentina. Actas Iberoamericanas de Conservación Animal, 12, 108-117.

Jones, M. L. & P. Payne. 2013. Skin scraping. 127-129. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Li, Y., J. Yang, Z. Chen, G. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Li, J. Liu, Z. Liu, G. Guan, H. Yin, J. Luo & L. Zhang (2015) Anaplasma infection of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) and ticks in Xinjiang, China. Parasites and Vectors, 8, (10 June 2015).

Luppi, M. M., M. C. C. Malta, N. M. Ocarino, S. A. França & R. Serakides (2010) Cutaneous angiomatosis in a llama (Lama glama). Journal of Comparative Pathology, 142, 223-227.

Maangeles Perez-cabal et.al  (2011) Fibre Production in South American Camelids and Other Fibre Animals Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Mannerová, S., R. Pantůček, J. Doškař, P. Švec, C. Snauwaert, M. Vancanneyt, J. Swings & I. Sedláček (2003) Macrococcus brunensis sp. nov., Macrococcus hajekii sp. nov. and Macrococcus lamae sp. nov., from the skin of llamas. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 53, 1647-1654.

Mattson, D. E. (1994) Viral diseases [llama]. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 345-351.

Miesner, M. D. 2013. Anatomical comments on the skin. 123-126. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Miller, W. H., A. D. Weldon, J. R. Wellington & C. A. Smith (1991) Pemphigus vulgaris in a llama. Veterinary Dermatology, 2, 97-101.

Perez-Cabal, A. and Gutierrez, J. P. et al. (2011) Fibre Production in South American Camelids and Other Fibre Animals  Wageningen Academic Publishers

Petsalaki, E., A. O. Helbig, A. Gopal, A. Pasculescu, F. P. Roth & T. Pawson (2015) SELPHI: correlation-based identification of kinase-associated networks from global phospho-proteomics data sets. Nucleic Acids Res, 43, W276-82.

Rossanigo, C. R., J. Giulietti & R. L. Sager (1995) Post shearing necrotic dermatitis of llamas of San Luis province, Argentina. Veterinaria Argentina, 12, 392-394.

Rossotti, M. A., K. A. Henry, H. van Faassen, J. Tanha, D. Callaghan, G. Hussack, M. Arbabi-Ghahroudi & C. R. MacKenzie (2018) Camelid single-domain antibodies raised by DNA immunization are potent inhibitors of EGFR signaling. Biochem J.

Rosychuk, R. A. W. (1989) Llama dermatology. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 5, 203-215.

----------(1994) Llama dermatology. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 228-239.

Yan, S., Z. Yu, L. Ning, W. Hai-Dong, X. Jian-Shan, G. Shu-Yuan, C. Jia-Qi, Y. Xiu-Ju, W. Ting, D. Chang-Sheng & H. D.-F. D.-j. g. Xiao-Yan (2016) Let-7b promotes alpaca hair growth via transcriptional repression of TGFβR I. Gene, 577, 32-6.

Yang, S., R. Fan, Z. Shi, K. Ji, J. Zhang, H. Wang, M. Herrid, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, G. W. Smith & C. Dong (2015) Identification of a novel microRNA important for melanogenesis in alpaca (Vicugna pacos). J Anim Sci, 93, 1622-31.

Yu, X., X. He, J. Jiang, J. He, R. Fan, H. Wang, J. Geng & C. Dong (2015) Expression and tissue distribution of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (c-Met) in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) skins associated with white and brown coat colors. Acta Histochem, 117, 624-8.

Zanolari, P., M. Meylan & P. Roosje (2008) Dermatology in New World Camelids. Part 1: Propaedeutic and dermatological diagnostics. Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 36, 304-308.

Zanolari, P., M. Meylan, H. Sager, M. Herrli-Gygi, S. Rüfenacht & P. Roosje (2008) Dermatology in South American camelids. Part 2: review of the most relevant skin diseases. Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 36, 421-427.

Llama Fertilizer

Websites

Low temperature anaerobic digestion of mixtures of llama, cow and sheep manure for improved methane production

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201301683268

Llama Manure Fertilizer for Sale

http://www.bluerockstation.com/old/llama_poo.html

Low temperature anaerobic digestion of mixtures of llama, cow and sheep manure for improved methane production

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09619534

http://homeguides.sfgate.com/use-llama-manure-42486.html

https://paradisefoundfiber.com/resources/the-wonders-of-llama-poop/

https://permies.com/t/22596/Llama-Manure-garden

http://www.bluerockstation.com/old/llama_poo.html

http://www.growfruitandveg.co.uk/grapevine/digging-around/llama-manure_68041.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L2ZRtRevMpo

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-secret-to-machu-picchus-success-llama-poop-178734335/

http://localbanquet.com/stories/issues/2008/summer-2008-issue-5/item/llama-beans-for-your-beds

https://modernfarmer.com/2015/05/get-a-load-of-our-manure-guide/

http://www.shagbarkridge.com/info/manure.html

http://www.gardenupgreen.com/2015/05/llama-fertilizer-benefits-garden.html.

 

Images

 

Publications

Alvarez, R. &  Liden, G. (2009) Low temperature anaerobic digestion of mixtures of llama, cow and sheep manure for improved methane production. Biomass and Bioenergy 33, 527-533.

Anon.  (1991) An Introduction to the siting of llama loos Camelid Chronicle No. 16 (Winter) p.9.

----------(2012) Llama Maure Benefits Llama Link no. 24 (Spring), p.3.
Discussion on manure marketing appears in Llama Life (Autumn 1993) no. 27, pp. 34-5 and on composting it in Llama life No. 21 (Spring 1992), pp. 8-9.

Llama Fibre/Fleece

Websites [https://del.icio.us/mprssrwc/Shearing]

Images [https://uk.pinterest.com/richardcox0905/llama-products-wool/]

 

Publications

Anna, M. V. & R. R. Aurelia (2005) Characteristics of selected parameters of hair from llamas (Lama glama) kept at Warsaw Zoo. Annals of Warsaw Agricultural University, Animal Science, 35-39.

Antonini, M. (2010) Hair follicle characteristics and fibre production in South American camelids. Animal, 4, 1460-1471.

Ayala, C. 2001. Physical characteristics of wool from young llamas. 186-188. Wageningen: Wageningen Pers.

Coates, W. & R. Ayerza (2004) Comparison of llama fiber obtained from two production regions of Argentina. Journal of Arid Environments, 58, 513-524.

Delgado Santivañez, J., A. Valle Zaráte & C. Mamani. 2001. Fibre quality of a Bolivian meat-oriented llama population. 101-109. Wageningen: Wageningen Pers.

Duga, L. 1986. The most important characters of fibres from South American Camelidae (llamas and alpacas and their crosses and guanacos). 215-217. Montevideo: Editorial Hemisfero Sur.

Frank, E. N. (2011) Fiber production in South American camelids. Advances in processing and breeding. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal, 19, 16-19.

Frank, E. N., M. H. V. Hick, M. Pesarini, P. M. L. Hick, C. I. Capelli & M. R. Ahumada. 2001. SUPREME-project: classification of fibres of different types of fleeces in Argentine llamas. 251-259. Wageningen: Wageningen Pers.

Frank, E. N., M. V. H. Hick & M. R. Ahumada (2007) Argentine Llamas fleeces grading by subjective and objective identified body positions. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 27, 358-359.

Frank, E. N., M. V. H. Hick, C. D. Gauna, H. E. Lamas, C. Renieri & M. Antonini (2006) Phenotypic and genetic description of fibre traits in South American domestic camelids (llamas and alpacas). Small Ruminant Research, 61, 113-129.

Frank, E. N., M. V. H. Hick, C. D. Gauna & M. G. Molina (2005) Genetic parameters estimation for fiber production traits of Argentine Llamas. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 25, GM7.

Frank, E. N., M. V. H. Hick, H. E. Lamas, C. D. Gauna & M. G. Molina (2006) Effects of age-class, shearing interval, fleece and color types on fiber quality and production in Argentine Llamas. Small Ruminant Research, 61, 141-152.

Frank, E. N., M. V. H. Hick, M. G. Molina & L. M. Caruso (2009) Heritabilities, phenotypic correlations, genetic correlations and repeatability of production variables in Argentine lamas. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal, 17, 103-107.

-----------(2011) Genetic parameters for fleece weight and fibre attributes in Argentinean Llamas reared outside the Altiplano. Small Ruminant Research, 99, 54-60.

Frank, E. N., C. Renieri, M. V. H. Hick, V. l. Manna, C. D. Gauna & J. J. Lauvergne. 2002. Segregation analysis of irregular spotting and full white in llama. 0-4. Montpellier: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA).

Hick, M. H. V., E. N. Frank, M. F. Castillo, A. Prieto & M. d. R. Ahumada (2016) Determination of the textile potential of small ruminants primary (Creole) populations in less favored areas. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 36, 91-102.

Hick, M. V. H., E. N. Frank, A. Prieto & M. F. Castillo (2014) Ethno-zootechnical characterization of the population of fiber bearing llamas from the province of Jujuy, Argentina. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal, 22, 1-8.

Iñiguez, L. C., R. Alem, A. Wauer & J. Mueller (1998) Fleece types, fiber characteristics and production system of an outstanding llama population from Southern Bolivia. Small Ruminant Research, 30, 57-65.

Laime Huarcaya, F. D. M., R. Pinares Huamaní, V. Paucara Ocsa, V. Machaca Machaca & E. C. Quispe Peña (2016) Technological traits of the Chaku llama fibre before and after dehairing. Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), 27, 209-217.

Lam, C.-H. (1978) The physical properties and processing behaviour of llama fibres. Leeds

Martinez, Z., L. C. Iniguez & T. Rodríguez (1997) Influence of effects on quality traits and relationships between traits of the llama fleece. Small Ruminant Research, 24, 203-212.

Quispe, E. C., L. Chipa & R. Pinares (2015) Analysis of the productivity and economics of manual deharing of Chaku llama (Lama glama). Archivos de Zootecnia, 64, 191-197.

Quispe, E. C., R. A. Sauri, J. J. Bengoechea & M. D. Quispe (2017) Fibre EC: A new equipment to assessment South American camelid fibre. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 37, 51.

Quispe, J. L., M. Antonini, T. Rodríguez & Z. Martínez. 2001. The SUPREME project: classification and characterization of llama fibre. Young animals in the southern Bolivian altiplano. 286-294. Wageningen: Wageningen Pers.

Renieri, C., M. Antonini & E. Frank. 2004. Fibre recording systems in camelids. 131-143. Roma: International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR).

Renieri, C., E. N. Frank, M. V. H. Hick, V. l. Manna, C. D. Gauna & J. J. Lauvergne. 2002. Segregation analysis of coat colour phenotypes in Llama. 0-4. Montpellier: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA).

Llama G

LLama Gate

Publications

Graziotti, G. H., Chsmizo, V. E., Rios, C., Acevedo, L. M., Rorriguez-Menendez, J. M.,

Sluis, L. V. D., Gerken, M. &  Paredes, M. G. (2001) SUPREME-project: analysis of locomotion in llamas and alpacas grazing different habitats. Wageningen, Wageningen Pers. pp 315-319

Sluijs, L. V. D., M. Gerken & H. Preuschoft (2010) Comparative analysis of walking gaits in South American camelids. Journal of Zoology, 282, 291-299.

  1. Van der Sluijs, M. Gerken and H. Preuschoft , Comparative analysis of walking gaits in South American camelids’, Journal of Zoology, Volume 282, Issue 4, pages 291–299, December 2010.

 

Llama Genetics

Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26490188

Lama glama αS1-casein: Identification of new polymorphisms at the CSN1S1 gene. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939542

Molecular Characterization of the Llamas (Lama glama) Casein Cluster Genes Transcripts (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3) and Regulatory Regions. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25923814

Molecular Evolution of the Family Camelidae: A Mitochondrial DNA Study on JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/49586

Next-Generation Sequencing of a Single Domain Antibody Repertoire Reveals Quality of Phage Display Selected Candidates. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26895405

Aguirre, I. M., R. Fuentes & M. O. Celedón (2014) Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates. Veterinary Microbiology, 168, 312-317.

Anello, M., M. S. Daverio, S. R. Romero, F. Rigalt, M. B. Silbestro, L. Vidal-Rioja & F. Di Rocco (2016) Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina. Genetica, 144, 85-97.

Anello, M., M. S. Daverio, M. B. Silbestro, L. Vidal-Rioja & F. d. Rocco (2019) Characterization and expression analysis of KIT and MITF-M genes in llamas and their relation to white coat color. Animal Genetics, 50, 143-149.

Anello, M., E. Fernández, M. S. Daverio, L. Vidal-Rioja & F. D. Rocco (2019) TYR gene in llamas: polymorphisms and expression study in different color phenotypes. Frontiers in Genetics, 10, 568.

Bustamante, A. V., A. Zambelli, D. A. d. Lamo, J. v. Thungen & L. Vidal-Rioja (2002) Genetic variability of guanaco and llama populations in Argentina. Small Ruminant Research, 44, 97-101.

Daverio, M. S., M. Anello, V. A. Ersinger, S. Alvarez, E. Frank, L. Vidal-Rioja & F. d. Rocco (2019) Identification of llama KRTAP7-1 and KRTAP8-1 fiber genes and polymorphism screening. Small Ruminant Research, 175, 149-154.

Jacklin, F. C., Johnson, W. E.,  Appleton, B. R., (2014) The Genetic Inheritance of the Blue-eyed White Phenotype in Alpacas Journal of Heredity, Volume 105, Issue 6, November-December 2014, Pp. 941–951.

Kessler, M. 1997. Studies on the geneology of New-World camelids (llama, alpaca and guanaco) by means of mitochondrial DNA. Structure and composition of the New-World camelid population of Germany. 176 pp.: Fachbereich Veterinärmedizin, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Giessen.

Mueller, J. P. (2017) Community based small ruminant genetic improvement programs. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal, 25, 59-73.

 

Llama Guarding

Websites

Llamas protectors of lambs
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/7453479.stm

Images

Publications

Efficacy of Guard Ilamas to Reduce Canine Predation on Domestic Sheep on JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3783611?

 Cavalcanti, S. M. C. &  Knowlton, F. F. (1998) Evaluation of physical and behavioral traits of llamas associated with aggressiveness toward sheep-threatening canids. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 61, 143-158.

Dohner, J. V. 2007. Livestock guardians: using dogs, donkeys and llamas to protect your herd. North Adams: Storey Publishing.

Jenkins, D. 2003. Guard animals for livestock protection: existing and potential use in Australia. Orange: NSW Agriculture.

Meadows, L. E. & F. F. Knowlton (2000) Efficacy of guard llamas to reduce canine predation on domestic sheep. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28, 614-622.

Llama H

Llama Health Care

Camelid Wellness.  (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902272).

Bertin, F. R., J. M. Squires, J. E. Kritchevsky & S. D. Taylor (2015) Clinical findings and survival in 56 sick neonatal New World Camelids. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 29, 368-374.

Johnson, L. R. W. (1994) Llama herd health. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 248-258.

Jones, M. & M. Boileau (2009) Camelid herd health. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 25, 239-263.

Karen Nicholson (2016), A Whole Farm Approach to Parasite Management
http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.com/2012/04/whole-farm-approach-to-parasite.html

Kempf, I., D. Patureau & A. M. Pourcher (2017) Antibiotics, resistant bacteria and resistance genes in farm effluents and what becomes of them. Bulletin des G.T.V., 33-39.

Risco-castillo, V., Wheeler, J. C., Rosadio, R., García-Peña, F.Jj., Arnaiz-Seco, I., Hoces, D., Castillo, H., Veliz, A. &  Ortega-Mora, L. M. (2014) health impact evaluation of alternative management systems in vicuña (vicugna vicugna mensalis) populations in peru. tropical animal health and production 46, 641-646.

  1. C. Wheeler, R. Rosadio, F. J. García-Peña, I. Arnaiz-Seco, D. Hoces, H. Castillo, Á. Veliz & L. M. Ortega-Mora (2014) Health impact evaluation of alternative management systems in vicuña (Vicugna

Llama Heat Stress

Heat Stress

Websites

Are You Ready for Summer? (Heat Stress a.k.a. Have You Sheared Your Llama/Alpaca Yet? http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/are-you-ready-for-summer-heat-stress.htmlAccess

Heat Stress In Llamas and Alpacas. http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/heat-stress-in-llamas-and-alpacas.htmlAccess

Publications

D’Souza, D. (2016) Signs of Heat Stress and Precautionary Measure’, Llama Link, No 41, p. 7.

Evans, C. N (1991), Heat Stress Llamas Llamas (July/August), pp 102-4.

Fowler, M.E., Hyperthermia in llamas and alpacas. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 1994. 10(2): p. 309-317.

Gerken, M. (2010) Relationships between integumental characteristics and thermoregulation in South American camelids. Animal, 4, 1451-1459.

Middleton, J.R. and S.M. Parish, Heat stress in a llama (Lama glama): a case report and review of the syndrome. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 1999. 6(2): p. 265-269.

Moore, J. (1992) Minimizing Heat Stress in Pack Llamas,  Llama Life, No. 21, p18.

Medicine and Surgery of South American camelids pp. 170-172.

Riek, A., L. Brinkmann, M. Gauly, J. Perica, T. Ruf, W. Arnold, C. Hambly, J. R. Speakman & M. Gerken (2017) Seasonal changes in energy expenditure, body temperature and activity patterns in llamas (Lama glama). Scientific Reports, 7, 7600.

Riek, A., A. Stölzl, R. M. Bernedo, T. Ruf, W. Arnold, C. Hambly, J. R. Speakman & M. Gerken (2019) Energy expenditure and body temperature variations in llamas living in the High Andes of Peru. Scientific Reports, 9, 4037.

Schwalm, A., et al., Influence of heat stress on thermoregulation and fertility in shorn and unshorn male llamas (Lama glama). Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 2008. 36(5): p. 324-328.

Strain, M. G. & S. S. Strain (1988) Handling heat stress syndrome in llamas. Veterinary Medicine, 83, 494-498.

Llama History

Llama Herding and Settlement in Prehispanic Northern Chile: Application of an Analysis for Determining Domestication on JSTOR.

http://www.jstor.org/stable/279691

  1. Maturrano, D. Hoces, Y. Hu, J. C. Wheeler, M. W. Bruford, Comparing genetic diversity and demographic history in codistributed wild South American camelids Heredity

    https://doi.org/10.1038/s41437-018-0120-z

Genetic Analysis Reveals the Wild Ancestors of the Llama and the Alpaca.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3067673

The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27048619

Images

Cowie, H., (2017) Llama London Reacktion 200pp.
Fowler, Murray E. (1989). Medicine and Surgery of South American Camelids : Llama, Alpaca, Vicun\0303a, Guanaco. Ames: Iowa State University Press. Chapter 1 General Biologyand Evolution pp. 3-16.

 

(1988) Peter Scott: First Public Auction Camelids Camelid Chronicle   No.:4

Bourke, D. A. (1992) Camelids in Chile Camelid Chronicle 18 (Summer) 12-13.

Burke, R. L. (1990) The llama figurine in Andean prehistory : analysis of llama figurines from the Callejon de Huaylas, Peru.

Capriles, J. M.  (2014) The Economic Organization of Early Camelid Pastoralism in the Andean Highlands of Bolivia (Paperback)BAR Publishing, United Kingdom

Dransart, P. (2003) Earth, Water, Fleece and Fabric : An Ethnography and Archaeology of Andean Camelid Herding Routledge

Duke, G. S. (2019) 'Doing' Llama Face Stew: A Late Moche Culinary Assemblage as a Domestic Dedicatory Deposit. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 29, 517-535.

Flannery, K. V., (2009) The Flocks of the Wamani: A Study of llama herders on the punas of Ayacucho, Peru, Walfnut Creek, CA, Left Coact Press.

Göbel, B. (2001) The symbolism of llama breeding in North-Western Argentina. Wageningen, Wageningen Pers. pp 175-180.

Güttler, E. (1992) Problems in the husbandry and breeding of llamas in the Argentinian Andes. Zoologische Garten 62, 23-32.

Healy, K. (2001) Llamas, weavings and organic chocolate: multicultural grassroots development in the Andes and Amazon of Bolivia. Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame Press.

Hollister, N. (1918) The Domestication of the Llama. Science, 47, 461.

Kessler, M. (1997) Studies on the geneology of New-World camelids (llama, alpaca and guanaco) by means of mitochondrial DNA. Structure and composition of the New-World camelid population of Germany. Fachbereich Veterinärmedizin, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Giessen. p 176 pp.

Markermann, A., Stemmer, A., Siegmund-Schultze, M., Piepho, H. P. &  Zarate, A. V. (2009) Stated preferences of llama keeping functions in Bolivia. Livestock Science 124, 119-125.

Markermann, A.,  &  Zarate, A. V.  (2010) Traditional llama husbandry and breeding management in the Ayopaya region, Bolivia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 42, 79-87.

Means, P.A., The Domestication of the Llama. Science, 1918. 47(1211): p. 268-269.
Marín, J. C., B. Zapata, B. A. González, C. Bonacic, J. C. Wheeler, C. Casey, M. W. Bruford, R. E.

Miller, G. & Burger, R. L., ‘Our Father the Cayman, Our Dinner the Llama: Animal Utilization at Chavin de Huantar, Peru’, American Antiquity, Vol. 60, No. 3 (July, 1995), pp. 421-458.

Melo, C., A. Manunza, M. Melo, L. Olivera & M. Amills. 2011. Analysis of the mitochondrial diversity of alpacas in nine farming areas of the southern region of Peru. 533-535. Zaragoza: Asociación Interprofesional para el Desarrollo Agrario.

Ochoa, Jorge Flores (1994) Gold of the Andes; The Llamas, Alpacas, Vicunas and Guanacos of South America. Volume One Pathey,

Palma, E. Means, P. A. (1918) The Domestication of the Llama. Science, 47, 268-269.

Paz, O. (1994) La llama doble : amor y erotismo. Barcelona, Seix Barral

Pollard, Gordon C., and Isabella M. Drew. (1975) “Llama Herding and Settlement in Prehispanic Northern Chile: Application of an Analysis for Determining Domestication.” American Antiquity, vol. 40, no. 3 (1975), pp. 296–305.

Porter, V., L. Alderson, S. J. G. Hall & D. P. Sponenberg. (2016). Mason's world encyclopedia of livestock breeds and breeding. Volume 1 and Volume 2.

Sanchez-Villagra, M. R., V. Segura, M. Geiger, L. Heck, K. Veitschegger & D. Flores (2017) On the lack of a universal pattern associated with mammalian domestication: differences in skull growth trajectories across phylogeny. Royal Society Open Science, 4, 170876.

Stordy, C. R. J. (1921) The Breeding of sheep, llamas and alpacas in Peru with a view to improving raw material to the textile trades’,  Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 69, 118-132.

Taylor, P., Tn Search of the Perfect Llama – The Argentine Story (unpublished paper)

Taylor, P., The Repro Story (unpublished paper)

Tomka, S.A. (1992). Vicuas as and llamas—parallels in behavioral ecology and implications for the domestication of Andean camelids. Hum. Ecol. 20: 407–33.

Wheeler, J. C., Russel, A. Y. F. &  Stanley, H. F. (1992) A measure of loss: prehispanic llama and alpaca breeds. Archivos de Zootecnia 41, 467-475.

Wheeler, J. C., (2012) South American Camelids, Past, Present and Future, Journal of Camelid Science, 5, (1), 1-24.

Yacobaccio, H. D. & B. L. Vilá (2016) A model for llama (Lama glama Linnaeus, 1758) domestication in the southern Andes. Anthropozoologica, 51, 5-13.

Llama Handling and Restraint

Watertown Llama & Alpaca Chute".  (https://www.facebook.com/llama.alpaca.chute/?fref=ts).

When to Hold 'Em and When Best to Fold 'Em.  http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/when-to-hold-em-and-when-best-to-fold.html.

Fowler, M. E. (1989) Restraint & Handling Camelid Chronicle   No. 8.

Jones, M. L. (2013). Chute restraint. 23-25. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

----------------(2013) Ear squeeze (ear twitch). 27-28. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

 

Hunting with Llamas

Websites

http://ultramaxsports.com/races/treelinepursuits/2017/05/11/pack-llamas-are-the-ultimate-backcountry-weapon/

http://rentpackllamas.com/why-hunt-with-pack-llamas/

Llama Husbandry

General

Websites

“Lama Health & Husbandry". 

http://www.rmla.com/Health.htm.

“Hints for the Llama Farm - Helpful Hints, Time Saving Tips, and Safety Suggestions".  (http://www.shagbarkridge.com/info/fall.html).

“Plant Poisoning in Llamas". 

http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/plant-poisoning-in-llamas-and-alpacas.html.

Publications

Ali, T. M. 1994. A manual for the primary animal health care worker. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

Anderson, D. E. &  Whitehead, C. E. (2009) Alpaca and llama health management. Philadelphia, Pa., W. B. Saunders Co

Bennett, M. M. & N. L. Richards (2015) Camelid wellness. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract, 18, 255-80.

Bromage, G. 2006. Llamas and alpacas: a guide to management. Marlborough: Crowood Press.

Campero, J. R. 2005. Camelids in South America. Lama (Lama pacos) production systems in Bolivia. 145-158. Roma: International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR).

Cebra, C. ,Anderson, David E., Tibary, Ahmed , Van Saun, Robert J. Johnson LaRue Willard Llama and Alpaca Care: Medicine, Surgery, Reproduction, Nutrition, and Herd ... -

Coleby, P. (2000). Natural goat and alpaca care. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

Duncanson, G. (2008) Camelid consult overview: Part One. Veterinary Times, 38, 18.

Duncanson, G. ( 2012). Animal husbandry. in Veterinary treatment of llamas and alpacas1-12.

Ebel, S. (1989) The llama industry in the United States. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 5, 1-20.

Fowler, M. E. (1996) Husbandry and diseases of camelids. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 15, 155-169.

------------(1999) Llama and alpaca behaviour: a clue to illness detection. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 6, 135-152.

------------(2000). Medical management of South American camelids. 151-183. Bikaner: The Camelid Publishers.

Gauly, M. 2002. New World Camelidae. A manual for owners, breeders and veterinarians. Berlin: Parey Buchverlag.

------------(2004) Aspects of animal welfare in South American Camelids husbandry. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 111, 127-130.

Gauly, M., W. Egen & M. Trah (1997) Husbandry of South American camelids kept in central Europe. Tierärztliche Umschau, 52, 343-350.

Gauly, M., J. Vaughan & C. Cebra. 2018. South American camelids. Attitude, breeding, diseases. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag KG.

Gordon, I. (1997) Controlled Reproduction in Horses, Deer and Camelids (Controlled Reproduction in Farm Animals)  CABI Publishing

Güttler, E. (1992) Problems in the husbandry and breeding of llamas in the Argentinian Andes. Zoologische Garten 62, 23-32.

Gunsser, I. (2009) Problems in keeping and in transporting of llamas and alpacas. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 116, 121-124.

Güttler, E. (1992) Problems in the husbandry and breeding of llamas in the Argentinian Andes. Zoologische Garten, 62, 23-32.

Isaac, P. (1999) Understanding some of the needs and requirements of the llama. Veterinary Times, 29, 31-32.

Long, P. O. 2010. Camelid herd health and husbandry - basics and how to communicate them. 362-364. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

Marcoppido, G. & B. Vila (2013) Management of extra-Andean llamas. Comments that contribute to their welfare in non-originating context. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 33, 139-154.

Markemann, A., A. Stemmer, M. Siegmund-Schultze, H. P. Piepho & A. V. Zárate (2009) Stated preferences of llama keeping functions in Bolivia. Livestock Science, 124, 119-125.

Markemann, A. & A. V. Zárate (2010) Traditional llama husbandry and breeding management in the Ayopaya region, Bolivia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 42, 79-87.

Moseley, G. (1995) Commercial management of small Camelidae in northern Europe. Veterinary Annual, 35, 320-330.

Nuernberg, M. & A. Valle Zárate. 2001. Evaluation of camelid-based farming systems in rural communities in the highlands of Bolivia. 27-33. Wageningen: Wageningen Pers.

Raggi, S. L. A. (2000) Advances in research and management of llamas (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) in Chile. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria, 27, 27-37.

Weaver, S. (2009) Llamas and Alpacas: Keeping a Small-Scale Camelid Herd

Williamson, L. H. (2014) Ten reasons to be called to a camelid farm and what you need to know before you get there. Gainesville, North American Veterinary Community (NAVC). p unpaginated.

Zanolari, P. (2011) Veterinary herd management and consulting for New World camelids. Forum Kleinwiederkäuer/Petits Ruminants, 6-13.

 

 

Llama I

 

Llama Integumentary System

Websites

skin lesions associated with demodex sp. in a llama (lama glama)] on

http://www.jstor.org/stable/40665087

Skin lesions in alpacas and llamas with low zinc and copper status - a preliminary report. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.496.2357&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Publications [Including skin diseases/parasites]

Saun, Robert J. Van. 2016, "Skin Disease in Camelids" Llama Link.12-13.

Llama Injecting

McGee Bennett, M. (2003) Medicating made Easier Camelid Chronicle No 61 2 p17.

Llama Mating

Llama Chase and Mating - YouTube.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bzebF8n3huQ

Mating llama's - YouTube.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLJNeHPp9OU

McElderry-Maxwell, J. (2019) Why male and female alpacas must be kept separately http://www.bagendsuris.com/?page_id=1230&fbclid=IwAR04q_7qBa2gJ708hROoEEpmTKn5_7IXiXwEinn2oc5TG4CgRS6VQifMBvk

 

Tibary, Ahmed and Abdelhaq Anouassi, 2001, Uterine Infections in Camelidae, Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow, Issue 3, August 2001.

Llama M

Llama Meat

Websites

Carcass traits and saleable meat yield of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25917946

Effect of electrical stimulation and ageing period on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat and eating quality

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26331964

Llama/Alpaca Meat

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1Ssyv1DI72UC&pg=PA13&dq=llama&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj7yNeJyYfRAhWFzRoKHeusD-8Q6AEITzAJ#v=onepage&q=llama&f=false

Microbial ecology involved in the ripening of naturally fermented llama meat sausages. A focus on lactobacilli diversity

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27434177

Llama Meat Nutritional Properties (Downloadable article, 2010)

https://www.worldcat.org/title/llama-meat-nutritional-properties/oclc/6606017714&referer=brief_results

Effects of supplementary feeding on carcass and meat quality traits of young llamas (Lama glama)

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201400009114

Meat and carcass quality from Peruvian llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos)

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201300939454

Images

Publications

Cristofanelli, S., et al., Meat and carcass quality from Peruvian llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos). Meat Science, 2016.
Fontana, C., et al., Microbial ecology involved in the ripening of naturally fermented llama meat sausages. A focus on lactobacilli diversity. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2016. 236: p. 17-25.

Holman, N. (1992) Llama Meat Camelid Chronicle (Spring) p. 3.

Limon, G., J. Guitian, and N.G. Gregory, A note on the slaughter of llamas in Bolivia by the puntilla method. Meat Science, 2009. 82(3): p. 405-406.

Maindi Hook (1993) Meat Production and Llamas Llama Life, No. 27 (Aurumn), pp. 10-11.

Mamani-Linares, L.W., F. Cayo, and C. Gallo, Effect of season on proximate composition and fatty acids profile of llama meat in extensive rearing. Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), 2013. 24(4): p. 417-424.

Mamani-Linares, L.W., F. Cayo, and C. Gallo, Carcass characteristics, quality of meat and chemical composition of meat llama: a review. Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), 2014. 25(2): p. 123-150.

Mamani-Linares, L.W. and C.B. Gallo, Meat quality, proximate composition and muscle fatty acid profile of young llamas (Lama glama) supplemented with hay or concentrate during the dry season. Meat Science, 2014. 96(1): p. 394-399.

Pausch, I. (2015) Slaughter of the animal species llama and animal welfare - a progress report. Fleischwirtschaft, 95, 98-106.

Polidori, P., C. Renieri, M. Antonini & G. Lebboroni (2007) Llama meat nutritional properties. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 6, 857-858.

Rosenfeld, S. A. &  Sayre, M. R. (2016) Llamas on the land: production and consumption of meat at chavín de huántar, Peru. Latin American Antiquity 27, 497-511.

Smith, M.A., et al., Carcass traits and saleable meat yield of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia. Meat Science, 2015. 107: p. 1-11.

Smith, M.A., et al., Effect of electrical stimulation and ageing period on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat and eating quality. Meat Science, 2016. 111: p. 38-46.

United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe. Working Party on Agricultural Quality Standards., Llama / alpaca meat : carcases and cuts : UNECE standard. 2006 ed. ed. 2008, New York: United Nations. 36pp.

Llama N

Llama NeoNatal Care

Anderson, B. N. 1996. Llama babies : up, dry, and nursing. Salem, OR: A+ Llamas.

Anderson, D. E., T. A. Cotton & C. E. Whitehead. 2008. Neonatal care for camelids: breeding to birthing to weaning. Manhattan: Veterinary Medical Continuing Education, Kansas State University.

Celedón, M. O., J. Osorio & J. Pizarro (2006) Isolation and identification of pestiviruses in alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama) introduced to the Región Metropolitana, Chile. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, 38, 247-252.

Riek, A., M. Gerken & E. Moors (2007) Measurement of milk intake in suckling llamas (Lama glama) using deuterium oxide dilution. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 867-875.

Train, G. M. & S. S. Strain (1987) Caring for the premature Llama. Veterinary Medicine, 82, 1243-1244.

Whitehead, C. E. (2009) Neonatal diseases in llamas and alpacas. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 25, 367-384.

Whitehead, C. E. & D. E. Anderson (2006) Neonatal diarrhea in llamas and alpacas. Small Ruminant Research, 61, 207-215.

 

Llama Nutrition

Websites

All Hay Is Not Created Equal. 

(http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/all-hay-is-not-created-equal.html).

Feeding Behaviour of Camelids. 

http://elib.tiho-hannover.de/dissertations/stoelzla_ws15.pdf.

Feeding Camelids. 

http://www.cal-ila.org/Downloads/ILA/(6)%20Feeding%20Camelids.pdf.

Camelid Complete. 

http://www.camelidcompletefeeds.co.uk/.

Camelid Nutrition Bibliography. http://trace.tennessee.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1022&context=utk_largpubs

Camelid Nutrition.

http://www.mazuri.com/product_pdfs/A%20Guide%20to%20Llama%20Nutrition.pdf

Camelid Nutrition.

http://www.rmla.com/html/-camelid_nutrition.htm

Nuterna World Llama Feed

http://www.nutrenaworld.com/products/more-species/llama-alpaca-feed/index.jsp            .

Badminton Llama & Alpaca Mix.

http://www.badmintonfeeds.co.uk/products/llamamix.htm

Camelibra NG-2 for Camelids.

http://www.gwfnutrition.com/camelibra-ng2-camelid?gclid=CO-Zw-mUqsICFbMatAodjmkAGQ

Camelid Care Sprinkle on Minerals.

http://www.carrs-billington.com/shop/farm-supplies-agricultural-equipment/animal-medicines/camelids/camelid-care-sprinkle-on-minerals

Detection of fiber-digesting bacteria in the forestomach contents of llamas (Lama glama) by PCR. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0325754113700154

Diet selection and utilization by llama and sheep in a high altitude-arid rangeland of Bolivia. http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_6/b_fdi_45-46/010007761.pdf

Digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites in llama and alpaca fed barley and barley alfalfa forages (Book, 2005)  https://www.worldcat.org/title/digestibility-nitrogen-balance-and-blood-metabolites-in-llama-and-alpaca-fed-barley-and-barley-alfalfa-forages/oclc/63143531?referer=list_view

Effect of nutrition on reproduction in llamas and alpacas.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18533244

Effect of nutrition on reproduction in llamas and alpacas. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0093691X08002094

Effect of nutrition on reproduction in llamas and alpacas - Theriogenology . http://www.theriojournal.com/article/S0093-691X(08)00209-4/abstract

Effects of supplementary feeding on carcass and meat quality traits of young llamas (Lama glama). http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201400009114

Fatty acid composition of llama muscle and internal fat in two Argentinian herds. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201400099166

Feed and Nutrition - Shagbarkridge.

http://www.shagbarkridge.com/info/feed.html

Feeding Behaviour of Camelids.

http://elib.tiho-hannover.de/dissertations/stoelzla_ws15.pdf

Feeding Camelids.

http://www.cal-ila.org/Downloads/ILA/(6)%20Feeding%20Camelids.pdf

Fibregest for Camelids. http://www.gwfnutrition.com/fibregest-camelid?gclid=CO-Zw-mUqsICFbMatAodjmkAGQ

Grazing ecology of goats, red deer and South American camelids. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?did=6&uin=uk.bl.ethos.651100

Heygates Llama Mix. http://www.heygatesfeeds.co.uk/general/llama-and-alpaca-feeds/

Hubbards Llama Feed. https://www.hubbardlife.com/llama.aspx

Kaufman's Llama Gold. http://ka-hi.com/llama-alpaca-gold.html

L.A. Hern Llama Feed. http://www.hearnestore.com/natural-alpaca-llama-pellets-50-lb-llama-alpaca-feed-supplement/

Llama Feed.

http://multipurina.ca/en/llama-alpaca/products/

Llama Feeding.

http://www.nose-n-toes.com/carefeed.htm

Llama medicine. Nutrition.

http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/2647238

Llama Nutrition.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749072015305545

Llama Nutrition.

http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/llama-nutrition.html

Llama nutrition.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7953953

Llama Nutrition in Equador.

Llamas, llama production and llama nutrition in the Ecuador highlands. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014019638471010X

MasterPlan Llama Minerals.

http://www.pearsonpond.com/Product_MasterPlanMinerals.html

Mazuri Llama Feed.

http://www.mazuri.com/llama.aspx

Mineral status comparisons between llamas and sheep in the Bolivian Altiplano (Book, 1981)  https://www.worldcat.org/title/mineral-status-comparisons-between-llamas-and-sheep-in-the-bolivian-altiplano/oclc/7841215?referer=list_view

Mole Valley Llama Feed.

http://www.molevalleyfarmers.com/mvf/info/smallholders/Alpaca_Feed

Nuterna World Llama Feed.

http://www.nutrenaworld.com/products/more-species/llama-alpaca-feed/index.jsp

Nutri Llama Feed. http://twinoaksfeedandsupply.com/catalog/product/28321/nutri-source-llama-and-alpaca-feed#.WEE4DbKLSUk

Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids,& New World Camelids. http://www.vetelib.com/threads/12704-Nutrient-Requirements-of-Small-Ruminants-Sheep-Goats-Cervids-New-World-Camelids?highlight=camelids

Nutrient requirements of South American camelids: A factorial approach - Small Ruminant Research. http://www.smallruminantresearch.com/article/S0921-4488(05)00247-6/abstract

Nutrition of domesticated South American llamas and alpacas. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US9160380

Nutritional Diseases of Llamas and Alpacas. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749072009000723

Nutritional diseases of South American camelids - Small Ruminant Research. http://www.smallruminantresearch.com/article/S0921-4488(05)00248-8/abstractAccess,

Nutritional Requirements and Assessing Nutritional Status in Camelids. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749072009000310Access,

Plant Poisoning in Llamas. http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/plant-poisoning-in-llamas-and-alpacas.html

Selenium in Camel – A Review.
Skin lesions in alpacas and llamas with low zinc and copper status - a preliminary report.

Supplementation of alfalfa hay and ensilage to increase live weight in male Ancuta Llamas (Book, 1999)  https://www.worldcat.org/title/supplementation-of-alfalfa-hay-and-ensilage-to-increase-live-weight-in-male-ancuta-llamas/oclc/738527651?referer=list_view
Suspect copper toxicity in an alpaca.

Total parenteral nutrition in a neonatal llama. .
Verm-X Intestinal Support Supplement for Llamas. https://www.viovet.co.uk/Verm-X_for_Farm_Animals/c18938/?quick_find=149175&gclid=CInDjZTo-dACFSQz0wodkJQGyw

Vitamin D3 Drench for Alpacas and Llamas. http://www.carrs-billington.com/shop/Vitamin-D3-Drench-for-Alpacas-and-Llamas

Voluntary intake and digestion of ryegrass straw by llama × guanaco crossbreds and sheep | The Journal of Agricultural Science | Cambridge Core.

Publications:

(1988) Nutrition of Camelids Camelid Chronicle   No. 3

Andrews, A. H. & A. Cox (1997) Suspected nutritional deficiency causing anaemia in llamas (Lama glama). Veterinary Record, 140, 153-154.

Antkowiak, M. 1999. Malnutrition and hypothermia in a neonatal llama.

Bennett, M. M. & N. L. Richards (2015) Camelid wellness. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract, 18, 255-80.

Cebra, C., D. E. Anderson, A. Tibary, R. J. Van Saun & L. R. W. Johnson. 2014. Llama and Alpaca Care: Medicine, Surgery, Reproduction, Nutrition, and Herd Health. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Coleby, P. 2000. Natural goat and alpaca care. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.

Dumont, B. & M. Meuret (1993) Intake dynamics of goats and llamas feeding on garrigue grazing lands. Annales de Zootechnie, 42, 193.

Duncanson, G. R. 2012. Nutrition and metabolic diseases. 13-21.

Hervas Ordoñez, T. (1994) Llamas, llama production and llama nutrition in the Ecuador Highlands. Journal of Arid Environments, 26, 67-71.

Hovda, L. R., S. M. McGuirk & D. P. Lunn (1990) Total parenteral nutrition in a neonatal llama. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 196, 319-322.

Jalali, A. R., M. R. Weisbjerg, E. Nadeau, Ǻ. T. Randby, B. O. Rustas, M. Eknæs & P. Nørgaard (2015) Effects of forage type, animal characteristics and feed intake on faecal particle size in goat, sheep, llama and cattle. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 208, 53-65.

Johnson, L. W. (1994) Llama nutrition. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 10, 187-201.

Kayouli, C., C. Dardillat & J. P. Jouany (1993) Comparative study of the muralytic activity of rumen microbes measured in situ in llamas and sheep. Annales de Zootechnie, 42, 184.

Kiani, A., L. Alstrup &  Nielsen J. D. (2015) Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets. Domest Anim Endocrinol, 53, 9-16 ST  - Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets.

Linden, D. R., D. E. Anderson, J. Lakritz, D. M. Rings, P. M. Ramsey & N. Evans (2007) Apparent digestibility of organic zinc forms in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos). Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 14, 181-185.

Long, P. (1999) A practitioner approach to llama and alpaca nutrition. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 6, 275-277.

------------(2004). A practitioner approach to llama and alpaca nutrition. 747-749. Bikaner: The Camelid Publishers.

López, A. & L. A. Raggi (1992) Nutritional requirements of South American Camelidae: llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos). Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, 24, 121-130.

Martin, F. S. & F. C. Bryant (1989) Nutrition of domesticated South American llamas and alpacas. Small Ruminant Research, 2, 191-216.

Matthewman, L. & K. Allenspach (2013) Pre and probiotics - practical applicatons for VNs in practice. VN Times, 13, 8-9.

National Research Council (2006), Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids National Academies Press.

Navarre, C. B. 2003. Simplified nutrition of camelids. 287-289. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

Nielsen, M. O., A. Kiani, E. Tejada, A. Chwalibog & L. Alstrup (2014) Energy metabolism and methane production in llamas, sheep and goats fed high- and low-quality grass-based diets. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 68, 171-185.

Nielsen, M. O., E. Tejada, A. Chwalibog, A. H. Tauson & L. Nielsen. 2010. Digestive efficiency, metabolism of nitrogen and methane emission in sheep, goats and llamas fed grass based diets differing in protein content. 497-498. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Nilsen, B., N. P. Johnston, N. Stevens & T. F. Robinson (2015) Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), 99, 873-9.

Norambuena, M. C., M. Silva, F. Urra, C. Ulloa-Leal, A. Fernández, G. P. Adams, W. Huanca & M. H. Ratto (2013) Effects of nutritional restriction on metabolic, endocrine, and ovarian function in llamas (Lama glama). Animal Reproduction Science, 138, 252-260.

Ordoñez, T. H. (1994) Llamas, llama production and llama nutrition in the Ecuador highlands. Journal of arid environments, 26, 67-71.

Rahn-Chique, K., N. Carrion, and M. Murillo, Determination of copper, magnesium and zinc in mononuclear leukocytes by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Investigación Clínica, 2012. 53(4): p. 342-352.

Reiner, R. J. 1985. Nutrition of alpacas grazing high altitude rangeland in southern Peru. Texas Tech University.

Rubsamen, K. & W. v. Engelhardt (1975) Water metabolism in the llama. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A, 52, 595-598.

San Martin, F. & F. C. Bryant. 1993. Comparative Nutrition Of Sheep And Camelids. In Proceedings, Small Ruminant Workshop, 93. Small Ruminant CRSP, University of California, Davis.

Saun, R. J., (2006) Nutritional diseases of South American camelids. Small Ruminant Research, 61, 153-164.

---------------(2008) Effect of nutrition on reproduction in llamas and alpacas. Theriogenology, 70, 508-514.

----------------(2009) Nutritional diseases of llamas and alpacas. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 25, 797-810.

-------------- (2009) Nutritional requirements and assessing nutritional status in camelids. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 25, 265-279.

Saun, R. J. , B. R. Callihan & S. J. Tornquist (2000) Nutritional support for treatment of hepatic lipidosis in a llama. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 217, 1531-1535.

Saun, R.  2010. Nutritional unbalances in camelids. unpaginated. Santiago: World Buiatrics Association.

Stölzl, A. M., C. Lambertz, J. Hummel, G. Breves & M. Gauly (2017) Dry matter intake and feed selection in South American camelids under Central European conditions: do gender or species specific differences on different hay qualities exist? Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 130, 415-423.

Sumar, J. 2010. Nutrition in camelids. 343-357. Santiago: World Buiatrics Association.

Silva, M. E., M. G. Colazo & M. H. Ratto (2012) GnRH dose reduction decreases pituitary LH release and ovulatory response but does not affect corpus luteum (CL) development and function in llamas. Theriogenology, 77, 1802-1810.

Van Saun, R. (2008) Effect of nutrition on reproduction in llamas and alpacas. Theriogenology, 70, 508-514.

Van Saun, R. J. (2009) Nutritional requirements and assessing nutritional status in camelids. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice, 25, 265-279.

Wauters, J. J. M., N. Duchi, P. Guevara, W. Onate, P. Castillo, J. Lopez & R. d. Wilde. 2004. Comparison of the digestibility of paja de paramo and barley straw between sheep (Ovis aries), llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama paco). 766-769. Bikaner: The Camelid Publishers.

Weaver, D. M., J. W. Tyler, R. S. Marion, S. W. Casteel, C. M. Loiacono & J. R. Turk (1999) Subclinical copper accumulation in llamas. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 40, 422-424.

Wolf, P. & J. Kamphues (2009) Questions arising in the field of veterinary dietary advisory services concerning small rodents. Kleintierpraxis, 54, 317-321.

Llama P

Llama Parasites (Also see Barber’s Pole Worm, Round Worm, Tape Worm, Whip Worm, etc.)

Parasites in General

Web pages

Economic benefits of controlling internal and external parasites in South American camelids. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do;jsessionid=F4ED9550531132E808FAE728FC59D953?request_locale=es&recordID=US9315647&sourceQuery=&query=&sortField=&sortOrder=&agrovocString=&advQuery=&centerString=&enableField=

Endo- and ectoparasites of South American camelids and their control. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25995027

Llamas and Alpacas in Europe: Endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25933827.

 

Images

Publications

External/Ecto  Parasites- General

Abdouslam, O. E., L. S. Al-Bassam, S. A. Al-Izzi & S. M. Azwai (2003) Prevalence of external and internal parasites in llamas (Lama glama) at Surman park in Libya. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 10, 61-65.

Aguirre, D. H. & M. M. Cafrune. 2007. Parasitoses of South American Camelidae. EEA Anguil "Ing.Agr. Guillermo Covas281-296.

Altmann, D. 1975. The principal diseases of old-world and new-world Camelidae. 53-60. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Arzamendia, Y., L. E. Neder, G. Marcoppido, F. Ortiz, M. Arce, H. E. Lamas & B. L. Vilá (2012) Effect of the prevalence of ectoparasites in the behavioral patterns of wild vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna). Journal of Camelid Science, 5, 105-117.

Ballweber, L. R. (2009) Ecto- and endoparasites of New World camelids. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 25, 295-310.

Barnett, J. E. F., G. D. Preston, L. M. Steele, L. M. Gibbons, S. F. E. Scholes, A. Schock & R. J. Higgins (2008) Parasite-induced leucomyelopathy in llamas (Lama glama). Veterinary Record, 163, 516-517.

Bertin, F. R. & S. D. Taylor (2016) Cerebrospinal nematodiasis in 20 camelids. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 30, 1390-1395.

Bornstein, S. & K. d. Verdier (2010) Some important ectoparasites of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama). Journal of Camelid Science, 3, 49-61.

Brolin-Schlanger, L. (2003) Prevalence of external parasites in alpacas and llamas in Andean Ecuador. Minor Field Studies - International Office, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 24 pp.

Cebra, C. 2007. Internal parasites in llamas and alpacas: importance and detection methods. 251-252. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

Corapi, W. V., K. B. Eden, J. F. Edwards & K. F. Snowden (2015) Heterobilharzia americana infection and congestive heart failure in a llama (Lama glama). Veterinary Pathology, 52, 562-565.

Duncanson, G. R. 2012. Zoonotic diseases. 214-223.

Dunkel, B., R. W. Sweeney, P. L. Habecker & A. M. Komaromy (2011) Intraocular nematodiasis in a llama (Lama glama). Canadian Veterinary Journal, 52, 181-183.

Foreyt, W. J. 1997. Veterinary parasitology reference manual. Pullman: SCAVMA Bookstore.

Folwer, M. E. (1996) Husbandry and diseases of camelids. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 15, 155-169.

Fowler, M. E. (1997) Unique parasitisms of South American camelids in North and South America. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 4, 257-260.

Gahlot, T. K.  And Chhabra, M. B. (2009) Selected Research on Camelid Parasitology Camel Pub.

Gevrey, J. (1989) Llamas and sheep : cross infection studies. Bulletin de la Société Française de Parasitologie, 7, 245-249.

Geurden, T., Claerebout, E. &  Vercruysse, J. (2005) Parasite infections in llamas in temperate zones. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 74, 347-354.

Geurden, T., E. Claerebout & J. Vercruysse (2005) Parasite infections in llamas in temperate zones. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 74, 347-354.

Gillespie, R. A. M., L. H. Williamson, T. H. Terrill & R. M. Kaplan (2010) Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia. Veterinary Parasitology, 172, 168-171Jones, K. R. & G. W. Garcia (2019) Endoparasites of domesticated animals that originated in the Neo-Tropics (new world tropics). Veterinary Sciences, 6, 24.

Kaufmann, C. (2009) Haemotrophic mycoplasmas: blood parasites in New World camelids. Forum Kleinwiederkäuer/Petits Ruminants, 6-11.

Krogdahl, D. W., J. P. Thilsted & S. K. Olsen (1987) Ataxia and hypermetria caused by Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 190, 191-193.

Lambacher, B., T. Wittek, A. Joachim, A. Dadak, A. Stanitznig, B. Hinney, A. Tichy, G. Duscher & S. Franz (2016) From the New World to the Old World: endoparasites of South American camelids in Austria. Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift, 103, 33-42.

Leguía, G. (1991) The epidemiology and economic impact of llama parasites. Parasitology Today, 7, 54-56.

Lusat, J. 2011. Importance and management of mange mites and gastrointestinal parasites in alpaca and llama populations in the UK.

Marin, R. E., B. Brihuega & G. Romero (2008) Seroprevalence of infectious diseases in Llamas from Jujuy province, Argentina. Veterinaria Argentina, 25, 281-287.

Marley, S. E. & G. A. Conder. 2002. The use of macrocyclic lactones to control parasites of domesticated wild ruminants. 371-393..

Nagy, D. W., J. Lakritz, J. W. Tyler, J. Jarboe, C. M. Loiacono & M. F. Haddad (2002) The treatment of suspected cerebrospinal nematodiasis with moxidectin in 3 llamas (Llama glama). Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 9, 145-149.

Navone, G. T. & M. L. Merino (1989) Contribution to knowledge of the endoparasitic fauna of Lama guanicoe Muller, 1776, from the Mitre Peninsula, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Boletín Chileno de Parasitología, 44, 46-51.

Pavlović, I., D. Nešić, D. Valter, G. Mitić & V. Hudina (1992) Helminth fauna of bison, camels, llamas, Barbary, Somali and domestic sheep, and goats in Belgrade zoo in 1990. Veterinarski Glasnik, 46, 271-275.

Rashid, M. H., I. Beveridge, J. L. Vaughan & A. Jabbar (2019) Worm burdens and associated histopathological changes caused by gastrointestinal nematodes in alpacas from Australia. Parasitology Research, 118, 1031-1038.

Rashid, M. H., H. Gebrekidan & A. Jabbar (2018) Multiplexed-tandem PCR (MT-PCR) assay to detect and differentiate gastrointestinal nematodes of alpacas. Parasites and Vectors, 11, (28 June 2018).

Rashid, M. H., M. A. Stevenson, A. J. D. Campbell, J. L. Vaughan, I. Beveridge & A. Jabbar (2019) An assessment of worm control practices used by alpaca farmers in Australia. Veterinary Parasitology, 265, 91-100.

Rashid, M. H., M. A. Stevenson, J. L. Vaughan, M. A. Saeed, A. J. D. Campbell, I. Beveridge & A. Jabbar (2019) Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of alpacas in Australia: II. A longitudinal study. Parasitology Research, 118, 901-911.

Rashid, M. H., J. L. Vaughan, M. A. Stevenson, A. J. D. Campbell, I. Beveridge & A. Jabbar (2018) Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia. Parasites and Vectors, 11, (4 July 2018).

Rickard, L. G. & J. K. Bishop (1991) Helminth parasites of llamas (Lama glama) in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 58, 110-115.

--------------(1991) Redescription of Trichuris tenuis Chandler, 1930, from llamas (Lama glama) in Oregon with a key to the species of Trichuris present in North American ruminants. Journal of Parasitology, 77, 70-75.

Rickard, L. G. (1992) Llama parasites. Large animal veterinarian covering health and nutrition (USA).

Rickard, L. G. (1993) Parasitic gastritis in a llama (Lama glama) associated with inhibited larval Teladorsagia spp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea). Veterinary Parasitology, 45, 331-335.

Rickard, L. G. (1994) Parasites [llama]. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 239-247.

Schlögl, C., S. Bork-Mimm & K. Pfister (2010) Investigation on the infestation of South American camelids with external parasites. Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 38, 293-296.

Scarratt, W. K., S. S. Karzenski, M. A. Wallace, M. V. Crisman, G. K. Saunders, D. O. Cordes & D. P. Sponenberg (1996) Suspected parelaphostrongylosis in five llamas. Progress in Veterinary Neurology, 7, 124-129.

Schmaschke, R. (2015) Endo- and ectoparasites of South American camelids and their control. Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere, 43, 169-79.

Smith, B. B. (1993) Major infectious and non-infectious diseases of the llama amd alpaca. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 35, 33-39.

Smith, M. C. (2005) Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of common small ruminant parasites. Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Annual Convention, American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 24-24 September, 2005, 123-127.

Soulsby, E. J. L. 1982. Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. London SW1P 1SB: Bailliere Tindall, 10 Greycoat Place.

Storey, B. E., L. H. Williamson, S. B. Howell, T. H. Terrill, R. Berghaus, A. N. Vidyashankar & R. M. Kaplan (2017) Validation of the FAMACHA© system in South American camelids. Veterinary Parasitology, 243, 85-91.

Soulsby, E. J. L. 1982. Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. London SW1P 1SB: Bailliere Tindall, 10 Greycoat Place.

Stropnická, L. & V. Svobodová (2011) Occurrence of endo- and ectoparasites in llamas and alpacas in the Czech Republic. Folia Veterinaria, 55, 30-32.

Švandová, I. (1987) Observations on parasitic infections, their prevalence and treatment in artiodactyls in the Liberec zoo. Veterinářství, 37, 132-134.

Tait, S. A., J. A. Kirwan, C. J. Fair, G. C. Coles & K. A. Stafford (2002) Parasites and their control in South American camelids in the United Kingdom. Veterinary Record, 150, 637-638.

Taylor, M. (2016) Parasites of new world camelids. Veterinary Times, 46, 12, 14.

Twomey, D. F., G. Wu, R. Nicholson, E. N. Watson & A. P. Foster (2014) Review of laboratory submissions from New World camelids in England and Wales (2000-2011). Veterinary Journal, 200, 51-59.

Vasquez D, M. S. & C. Marchinares A (1971) Parasitological survey in sheep and other animal species of Puno Department, Peru. Revista del Instituto de Zoonosis e Investigacion Pecuaria, Lima, 1, 25-109.

Viesselmann, L. C., R. Videla, J. Schaefer, A. Chapman, H. Wyrosdick & D. M. W. Schaefer (2019) Mycoplasma haemolamae and intestinal parasite relationships with erythrocyte variables in clinically healthy alpacas and llamas. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 33, 2336-2342.

Walker, J. G. & E. R. Morgan (2014) Generalists at the interface: nematode transmission between wild and domestic ungulates. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 3, 242-250.

Walker, P. G. 2015. Camelid case reports: the good, the bad, and the ugly! , 320-323. Gainesville: North American Veterinary Community (NAVC).

Welchman, D. d. B., J. G. Parr, R. Wood, A. M. J. Mead and A. F. Starnes (2008). "Alpaca and llama nematodes in Britain." Veterinary Record 162(25): 832.

Williamson, L. H. 2014. Fecal fluency: a review of fecal tests and how to interpret the results. 102-106. Stillwater: American Association of Bovine Practitioners.

Windsor, R. S., R. H. S. Windsor & M. Teran (1992) Economic benefits of controlling internal and external parasites in South American camelids. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 653, 398-405.

Zanolari, P. (2010) Parasite control in South American camelids. Forum Kleinwiederkäuer/Petits Ruminants, 6-14.

 

Llama Pregnancy

Whitehead, C. E. (2017) Pregnancy diagnosis in camelids. Livestock 22, 330-334.

Llama R

Llama Reproductive System

Reproductive System

Websites

Bioactivity of ovulation inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) in bovine seminal plasma and its effects on ovarian function in cattle. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796284

Clinical and Serologic Evaluation of Two Llamas (Lama glama) Infected with Toxoplasma gondii during Gestation on JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3285721?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Comparative histological study of reproductive mechanism of female llama (Lama glama). Ovary and oviduct. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=CL9700515

Comparison of differents methods of sperm selection of llama raw semen. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27523254

Comparison of two cooling protocols for llama semen: with and without collagenase and seminal plasma in the medium. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27561901

Composition of milk from llamas in the United States [1995]. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US9564497

Double ovulation and occurrence of twinning in alpacas (Vicugna pacos). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25963129

Embryo transfer technique: Factors affecting the viability of the corpus luteum in llamas - Animal Reproduction Science. http://www.animalreproductionscience.com/article/S0378-4320(10)00350-7/fulltext

Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26490188

Evaluation of DNA fragmentation in llama (Lama glama) sperm using the sperm chromatin dispersion test. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201400028460

Evaluation of the acrosomal status in Lama glama sperm incubated with acrosome reaction inducers. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26164525

Improvement of llama (Lama glama) seminal characteristics using collagenase.

LH release and ovulatory response after intramuscular, intravenous, and intrauterine administration of β-nerve growth factor of seminal plasma orig. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26164804

Llama and Alpaca Care: Medicine, Surgery, Reproduction, Nutrition, and Herd ... - Chris Cebra, David E. Anderson, Ahmed Tibary, Robert J. Van Saun, LaRue Willard Johnson - Google Books.

Llama and Alpaca Care: Medicine, Surgery, Reproduction, Nutrition, and Herd ... - Chris Cebra, David E. Anderson, Ahmed Tibary, Robert J. Van Saun, LaRue Willard Johnson - Google Books. https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=8sU0AwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=llama+nutrition&ots=P1s_JvqqbQ&sig=qeCAN2lk8K9PzrRNN_rhQ9XyPOQ#v=onepage&q=llama%20nutrition&f=false

Images

 

Publications

General

Adams, G. P. (2007) Theriogenology in llamas and alpacas. Large Animal Veterinary Rounds, 7, 6 pp.

Arafa, W. M., P. J. Holman & T. M. Craig (2017) Genotypic and phenotypic evaluation for benzimidazole resistance or susceptibility in Haemonchus contortus isolates. Parasitology Research, 116, 797-807.

Bourke, D. A., C. L. Adam & C. E. Kyle (1992) Ultrasonography as an aid to controlled breeding in the llama (Lama glama). Veterinary Record, 130, 424-428.

Bravo, P. W. (1994) Reproductive endocrinology of llamas and alpacas. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 265-279.

Bravo. P. W. (2002) The reproductive process of South American camelids Seagull Publishing.

Cotton, T. (2008). Reproductive hormones in camelids. 290. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

----------(2008.) Reproductive physiology of camelids, male and female. 285. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

Des Côteaux, L. And Colloton, J. et al.  (2009)  Practical Atlas of Ruminant and Camelid Reproductive Ultrasonography Wiley-Blackwell

Gauly, M. (1997) Reproduction in South American camelids. A review. Tierärztliche Praxis, 25, 74-79.

Güttler, E. 1986. Investigations on the management, breeding, physiology and pathology of reproduction and diseases in llamas in the Argentinian Andes. 169pp.: Justus-Liebig-Universität, Giessen.

Hernández-Caravaca, I., P. J. Llamas-López, M. J. Izquierdo-Rico, C. Soriano-Úbeda, C. Matás, J. C. Gardón & F. A. García-Vázquez (2017) Optimization of post-cervical artificial insemination in gilts: effect of cervical relaxation procedures and catheter type. Theriogenology, 90, 147-152.

Huanca, W. (2013) The challenges in reproductive management of South American camelids. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal, 21, 233-236.

----------(2015) Reproductive biotechnologies in domestic South American camelids as alternatives for genetic improvement. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal, 23, 1-4.

Johnson, L. W. (1989) Llama reproduction. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 5, 159-182.

Knauf, S., A. Schwalm & A. Wehrend (2008) Physiology of reproduction in domesticated South American camelids. Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 36, 313-318.

Leroy, J. L., T. Flahou, K. Moerloose & A. d. Kruif (2004) The reproduction in llama and alpaca mares. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 73, 310-316.

Martin, P. A. 2003. Reproductive patterns of alpacas and llamas, with reference to the vicuña and guanaco. 523-546. Ames: Iowa State Press.

Merlian, C. P., J. D. Sikes, B. W. Read, W. J. Boever & D. Knox (1979) Comparative characteristics of spermatozoa and semen from a bactrian camel, dromedary camel and llama. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine, 10, 22-25.

Müller, K. 2015. Reproduction in South American camelids - an overview. 34. Loughborough: British Veterinary Zoological Society.

Nes, E. V. & M. C. Pieterse (2007) Reproduction in the llama and alpaca. Veehouder en Dierenarts, 21, 20-22.

Saun, R. J. V. (2008) Effect of nutrition on reproduction in llamas and alpacas. Theriogenology, 70, 508-514.

Smith, C. L., A. T. Peter & D. G. Pugh (1994) Reproduction in llamas and alpacas: a review. Theriogenology, 41, 573-92.

Sumar, J. 1991. Contribution of the radioimmunoassay technique to knowledge of the reproductive physiology of South American camelids. 353-370. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.

Sumar, J. B. (1996) Reproduction in llamas and alpacas. Animal Reproduction Science, 42, 405-415.

Tibary, A., C. Fite, A. Anouassi and A. Sghiri (2006). "Infectious causes of reproductive loss in camelids." Theriogenology  66(3): 633-647.

Van Saun, R. (2008) Effect of nutrition on reproduction in llamas and alpacas. Theriogenology, 70, 508-514.

Vaughan, J. (2011) Ovarian function in South American camelids (alpacas, llamas, vicunas, guanacos). Animal Reproduction Science, 124, 237-243.

Wurzinger, M., A. Willam, J. Delgado, M. Nürnberg, A. V. Zárate, A. Stemmer, G. Ugarte & J. Sölkner (2008) Design of a village breeding programme for a llama population in the High Andes of Bolivia. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 125, 311-319.

Zielińska, P. & P. Jurka (2007) Characteristics of llamas and alpacas reproduction. Życie Weterynaryjne, 82, 202-207.

Genetics

Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26490188

Genetic Analysis Reveals the Wild Ancestors of the Llama and the Alpaca. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3067673

Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842726

The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27048619

Lama glama αS1-casein: Identification of new polymorphisms at the CSN1S1 gene. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939542

Molecular Characterization of the Llamas (Lama glama) Casein Cluster Genes Transcripts (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3) and Regulatory Regions. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25923814

Molecular Evolution of the Family Camelidae: A Mitochondrial DNA Study on JSTOR. http://www.jstor.org/stable/49586

Next-Generation Sequencing of a Single Domain Antibody Repertoire Reveals Quality of Phage Display Selected Candidates. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26895405

Aguirre, I. M., R. Fuentes & M. O. Celedón (2014) Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates. Veterinary Microbiology, 168, 312-317.

Anello, M., M. S. Daverio, S. R. Romero, F. Rigalt, M. B. Silbestro, L. Vidal-Rioja & F. Di Rocco (2016) Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina. Genetica, 144, 85-97.

Anello, M., M. S. Daverio, M. B. Silbestro, L. Vidal-Rioja & F. D. Rocco (2019) Characterization and expression analysis of KIT and MITF-M genes in llamas and their relation to white coat color. Animal Genetics, 50, 143-149.

Bustamante, A. V., A. Zambelli, D. A. d. Lamo, J. v. Thungen & L. Vidal-Rioja (2002) Genetic variability of guanaco and llama populations in Argentina. Small Ruminant Research, 44, 97-101.

Cruz, A. (2015) Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas. Anim Reprod Sci, 163, 48-55.

Daverio, M. S., M. Anello, V. A. Ersinger, S. Alvarez, E. Frank, L. Vidal-Rioja & F. d. Rocco (2019) Identification of llama KRTAP7-1 and KRTAP8-1 fiber genes and polymorphism screening. Small Ruminant Research, 175, 149-154.

Harmsen, M. M., R. C. Ruuls, I. J. Nijman, T. A. Niewold, L. G. J. Frenken & B. d. Geus (2000) Llama heavy-chain V regions consist of at least four distinct subfamilies revealing novel sequence features. Molecular Immunology, 37, 579-590.

Jacklin, F. C., Johnson, W. E.,  Appleton, B. R., (2014) The Genetic Inheritance of the Blue-eyed White Phenotype in Alpacas Journal of Heredity, Volume 105, Issue 6, November-December 2014, Pp. 941–951.

Jin, L., C. K. Cebra, R. J. Baker, D. E. Mattson, S. A. Cohen, D. E. Alvarado & G. F. Rohrmann (2007) Analysis of the genome sequence of an alpaca coronavirus. Virology, 365, 198-203.

Kessler, M. 1997. Studies on the geneology of New-World camelids (llama, alpaca and guanaco) by means of mitochondrial DNA. Structure and composition of the New-World camelid population of Germany. 176 pp.: Fachbereich Veterinärmedizin, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Giessen.

Marín, J. C., B. Zapata, B. A. González, C. Bonacic, J. C. Wheeler, C. Casey, M. W. Bruford, R. E. Palma, E. Poulin, M. A. Alliende & Á. E. Spotorno (2007) Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 80, 121-140.

Marín, J. C., R. Rivera, V. Varas, J. Cortés, A. Agapito, A. Chero, A. Chávez, W. E. Johnson & P. Orozco-terWengel (2018) Genetic variation in coat colour genes MC1R and ASIP provides insights into domestication and management of South American camelids. Frontiers in Genetics, 9, 487.

Memon, M. A. & D. K. Stevens (1997) Termination of unwanted pregnancy in a llama with cloprostenol and subsequent pregnancy: a case report. Theriogenology, 47, 615-618.

Mueller, J. P. (2017) Community based small ruminant genetic improvement programs. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal, 25, 59-73.

Odbileg, R., S. Konnai, K. Ohashi & M. Onuma (2005) Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of inflammatory cytokines of Camelidae (llama and camel). Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 67, 921-925.

Rojas, M., H. G. Dias, J. L. S. Gonçalves, A. Manchego, R. Rosadio, D. Pezo & N. Santos (2019) Genetic diversity and zoonotic potential of rotavirus A strains in the southern Andean highlands, Peru. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 66, 1718-1726.

 

Male Genetalia/Sperm Production/Fertlility

Anderson, D. E. 2013. Male genitalia anatomical comments and breeding behavior and soundness. 273-275. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Cruz, R. S., S. M. Giuliano, M. C. Gambarotta, J. M. Morrell, M. C. Abraham, M. H. Miragaya & M. I. Carretero (2016) Comparison of differents methods of sperm selection of llama raw semen. Animal Reproduction Science, 173, 8-12.

????------2013. Male genitalia anatomical comments and breeding behavior and soundness. 273-275. Chichester: Delhon, G. A. & I. v. Lawzewitsch (1987) Reproduction in the male llama (Lama glama), a South American camelid. I. Spermatogenesis and organization of the intertubular space of the mature testis. Acta Anatomica, 129, 59-66.

Director, A., S. Giuliano, V. Trasorras, I. Carretero, M. Pinto & M. Miragaya (2007) Electroejaculation in llama (Lama glama). Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 14, 203-206.

Gauly, M., G. Erhardt & V. Dzapo (1997) Annual changes in serum levels of thyroid hormones in male llamas (Lama glama) and their correlation with reproduction parameters. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 4, 159-163.

----------(2004). Annual changes in serum levels of thyroid hormones in male llamas (Lama glama) and their correlation with reproduction parameters. 186-194. Bikaner: The Camelid Publishers.

Gauly, M. (1997). Seasonal changes in semen characters and serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol-17β, thyroxine and triiodothyronine in male llamas (Lama glama) in Central Europe. 163 pp.: Justus-Liebig-Universität, Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin, Giessen.

Heath, A. M., D. G. Pugh, E. A. Sartin, B. Navarre & R. C. Purohit (2002) Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of testicular biopsies in llamas. Theriogenology, 58, 1125-1130.

Pearson, L. K. &  Tibary, A. (2014) Reproductive disorders of male camelids. Clinical Theriogenology  6, 571-577.

Soler, C., M. Sancho, A. García, M. C. Fuentes, J. Núñez & H. Cucho (2014) Ejaculate fractioning effect on llama sperm head morphometry as assessed by the ISAS® CASA system. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 49, 71-78.

Zampini, R., L. M. Sari, M. E. Argañaraz, F. G. Fumuso, D. E. Barraza, M. I. Carretero & S. A. Apichela (2018) Mating induces production of MMP2 in the llama oviduct: Analysis of MMP2 effect on semen. Anim Reprod Sci, 192, 223-232.

 

Giuliano, S., M. Carretero, M. Gambarotta, D. Neild, V. Trasorras, M. Pinto & M. Miragaya (2010) Improvement of llama (Lama glama) seminal characteristics using collagenase. Animal Reproduction Science, 118, 98-102.

Mating

England, B. G., W. C. Foote, A. G. Cardozo, D. H. Matthews & S. Riera (1971) Oestrous and mating behaviour in the llama (Llama glama). Animal Behaviour, 19, 722-726.

 

Female Specific

Aba, M. A. 1998. Hormonal interrelationships in reproduction of female llamas and alpacas. Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Aba, M. A. 1995. Studies on the reproductive endocrinology of llamas and alpacas : from mating throughout early pregnancy. Uppsala: Department of Clinical Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Bianchi, C. P., A. Meikle, M. A. Benavente, M. A. Álvarez, V. L. Trasorras, M. H. Miragaya, E. Rodríguez & M. A. Aba (2015) Oestrogen and progesterone receptors and COX-2 expression in endometrial biopsy samples during maternal recognition of pregnancy in llamas (Lama glama). Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 50, 980-988.

Bianchi, C. P., L. Sahlin, A. Meikle, B. Masironi, M. V. Cavilla & M. A. Aba (2010) Endometrial population of oestrogen receptors alpha and beta and progesterone receptors A and B during the different phases of the follicular wave of llamas (Lama glama). Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 45, 872-880.

Campbell, A. J. & A. Tibary (2017) Infertility of female and male camelids. Clinical Theriogenology, 9, 311-319.

Norambuena, M. C., M. Silva, F. Urra, C. Ulloa-Leal, A. Fernández, G. P. Adams, W. Huanca & M. H. Ratto (2013) Effects of nutritional restriction on metabolic, endocrine, and ovarian function in llamas (Lama glama). Animal Reproduction Science, 138, 252-260.

Riveros, J. L., G. Schuler, C. Bonacic, B. Hoffmann, M. G. Chaves & B. Urquieta (2010) Ovarian follicular dynamics and hormonal secretory profiles in guanacos (Lama guanicoe). Animal Reproduction Science, 119, 63-67.

Silva, M., F. Urra & M. Ratto (2017) Estradiol but not progesterone plasma concentration correlates with uterine vascularization during the reproductive cycle in llamas. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 37, 58.

--------- (2018) Uterine endometrial vascularization during ovarian follicular growth in llamas: the effect of estradiol plasma concentration. Theriogenology, 106, 164-169.

Sumar, J. & W. Bravo (1991) In situ observation of the ovaries of llamas and alpacas by use of a laparoscopic technique. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 199, 1159-1163.

Vaughan, J. L. & A. Tibary (2006) Reproduction in female South American camelids: a review and clinical observations. Small Ruminant Research, 61, 259-281.

 

Ovulation

Aba, M. A., M. A. Quiroga, N. Auza, M. Forsberg & H. Kindahl (1999) Control of ovarian activity in Llamas (Lama glama) with medroxyprogesterone acetate. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 34, 471-476.

Adam, C. L., C. E. Moir & P. Shiach (1989) Plasma progesterone concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant llamas (Lama glama). Veterinary Record, 125, 618-620.

Adams, G. P., M. H. Ratto, M. E. Silva & R. A. Carrasco (2016) Ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) in seminal plasma: a review and update. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 51, 4-17.

Adams, G. P., J. Sumar & O. J. Ginther (1990) Effects of lactational and reproductive status on ovarian follicular waves in llamas (Lama glama). Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 90, 535-545.

-----------(1991) Hemorrhagic ovarian follicles in llamas. Theriogenology, 35, 557-568.

------------J. Sumar & O. J. Ginther (1991) Form and function of the corpus luteum in llamas. Animal Reproduction Science, 24, 127-138.

-----------M. H. Ratto, W. Huanca & S. Jaswant (2005) Ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. Biology of Reproduction, 73, 452-457.

------------& M. H. Ratto (2013) Ovulation-inducing factor in seminal plasma: a review. Animal Reproduction Science, 136, 148-156.

Adams, G. P., M. H. Ratto, M. E. Silva & R. A. Carrasco (2016) Ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) in seminal plasma: a review and update. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 51, 4-17.

Aller, J. F., A. K. Cancino, G. E. Rebuffi & R. H. Alberio (2010) Effect of estradiol benzoate used at the start of a progestagen treatment on superovulatory response and embryo yield in lactating and non-lactating llamas. Animal Reproduction Science, 119, 322-328.

Aller, J. F. & R. H. Alberio (1996) Follicular dynamics in llamas during the autumn and winter. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 16, 319-323.

Aller, J. F., J. F. Alberio & G. Rebuffi (1996) The relationship between rectal palpations and ultrasound used for the determination of the term of gestation in llamas. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 16, 331-335.

Alberio, R. H. & J. F. Aller (1996) Control and synchronisation of the follicular cycle mediated by the exogenous influence of progesterone in llamas. Revista Argentina de Producción Animal, 16, 325-329.

Bianchi, C. P., A. Meikle, M. A. Alvarez, M. A. Benavente, M. V. Cavilla, E. Rodríguez & M. A. Aba (2013) Oestrogen, progesterone and oxytocin receptors and COX-2 expression in endometrial biopsy samples from the induction of ovulation to luteolysis in llamas (Lama glama). Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 48, 681-690.

Bourke, D. A., C. E. Kyle, T. G. McEvoy, P. Young & C. L. Adam (1995) Superovulatory responses to eCG in llamas (Lama glama). Theriogenology, 44, 255-268.

Cancino, A. K., J. F. Aller, G. Rebuffi & R. H. Alberio (2011) Control of ovarian follicular dynamics in early postpartum llama (Lama glama). Archivos de Zootecnia, 60, 1009-1020.

Cavilla, M. V., C. P. Bianchi, F. Aguilera, M. Hermida & M. A. Aba (2016) Hormonal changes and follicular activity after treatment with intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices in llamas. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 51, 930-939.

Cavilla, M. V., C. P. Bianchi, C. Maistruarena & M. A. Aba (2013) Ultrasonographic and endocrine characterization of follicular waves in llamas with a special reference to the overlapping phenomenon during successive waves. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 48, 923-930.

Conde, P. A., C. Herrera, V. L. Trasorras, S. M. Giuliano, A. Director, M. H. Miragaya, M. G. Chaves, M. I. Sarchi, D. Stivale, C. Quintans, A. Agüero, B. Rutter & S. Pasqualini (2008) In vitro production of llama (Lama glama) embryos by IVF and ICSI with fresh semen. Animal Reproduction Science, 109, 298-308.

England, B. G. 1967. Ovulation, corpus luteum function and estrous behavior in the llama.

England, B. G., W. C. Foote, A. G. Cardozo, D. H. Matthews & S. Riera (1971) Oestrous and mating behaviour in the llama (Llama glama). Animal Behaviour, 19, 722-726.

Evangelista V, S., A. Cordero R, A. Santiani A, M. Vásquez E, O. Cárdenas M & W. Huanca L (2009) Equine chorionic gonadotrophin (ECG) stimulation during the luteal and non-luteal phases on ovarian response and embryo quality in llamas. Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP), 20, 33-40.

Fernández, A., C. Ulloa-Leal, M. Silva, C. Norambuena, G. P. Adams, M. Guerra & M. H. Ratto (2014) The effect of repeated administrations of llama ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) during the peri-ovulatory period on corpus luteum development and function in llamas. Animal Reproduction Science, 149, 345-352.

Huanca, W., A. Cordero, T. Huanca, O. Cardenas, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2009) Ovarian response and embryo production in llamas treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin alone or with a progestin-releasing vaginal sponge at the time of follicular wave emergence. Theriogenology, 72, 803-808.

Norambuena, M. C., M. Silva, F. Urra, C. Ulloa-Leal, A. Fernández, G. P. Adams, W. Huanca & M. H. Ratto (2013) Effects of nutritional restriction on metabolic, endocrine, and ovarian function in llamas (Lama glama). Animal Reproduction Science, 138, 252-260.

Ratto, M., W. Huanca, S. Jaswant & G. P. Adams (2006) Comparison of the effect of natural mating, LH, and GnRH on interval to ovulation and luteal function in llamas. Animal Reproduction Science, 91, 299-306.

Ratto, M. H., R. Gatica & J. E. Correa (1997) Timing of mating and ovarian response in llamas (Lama glama) treated with pFSH. Animal Reproduction Science, 48, 325-330.

Ratto, M. H., J. Singh, W. Huanca & G. P. Adams (2003) Ovarian follicular wave synchronization and pregnancy rate after fixed-time natural mating in llamas. Theriogenology, 60, 1645-1656.

Silva, M. E., M. G. Colazo & M. H. Ratto (2012) GnRH dose reduction decreases pituitary LH release and ovulatory response but does not affect corpus luteum (CL) development and function in llamas. Theriogenology, 77, 1802-1810.

Silva, M. E., M. P. Recabarren, S. E. Recabarren, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2012) Ovarian estradiol modulates the stimulatory effect of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) on pituitary LH secretion in llamas. Theriogenology, 77, 1873-1882.

Silva, M., A. Fernández, C. Ulloa-Leal, G. P. Adams, M. A. Berland & M. H. Ratto (2015) LH release and ovulatory response after intramuscular, intravenous, and intrauterine administration of β-nerve growth factor of seminal plasma origin in female llamas. Theriogenology, 84, 1096-1102.

Silva, M., C. Ulloa-Leal, C. Norambuena, A. Fernández, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2014) Ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) from seminal plasma origin enhances Corpus Luteum function in llamas regardless the preovulatory follicle diameter. Animal Reproduction Science, 148, 221-227.

Sumar, J. (1994) Effects of various ovulation induction stimuli in alpacas and llamas. Journal of Arid Environments, 26, 39-45.

Tribulo, P., O. Bogle, R. J. Mapletoft & G. P. Adams (2015) Bioactivity of ovulation inducing factor (or nerve growth factor) in bovine seminal plasma and its effects on ovarian function in cattle. Theriogenology, 83, 1394-401.

Ulloa-Leal, C., O. A. Bogle, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2014) Luteotrophic effect of ovulation-inducing factor/nerve growth factor present in the seminal plasma of llamas. Theriogenology, 81, 1101-1107.

Mating/Corpulation/Fertilization

Apichela, S., M. A. Jiménez-Díaz, M. Roldan-Olarte, J. N. Valz-Gianinet & D. C. Miceli (2009) In vivo and in vitro sperm interaction with oviductal epithelial cells of llama. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 44, 943-951.

Apichela, S. A., J. N. Valz-Gianinet, S. Schuster, M. A. Jiménez-Díaz, E. M. Roldán-Olarte & D. C. Miceli (2010) Lectin binding patterns and carbohydrate mediation of sperm binding to llama oviductal cells in vitro. Animal Reproduction Science, 118, 344-353.

Berland, M. A., A. v. Baer, J. Ruiz, V. H. Parraguez, P. Morales, G. P. Adams & M. H. Ratto (2011) In vitro fertilization and development of cumulus oocytes complexes collected by ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration in superstimulated llamas. Theriogenology, 75, 1482-1488.

Bravo, P. W., M. E. Fowler, G. H. Stabenfeldt & B. Lasley (1990) Endocrine responses in the llama to copulation. Theriogenology, 33, 891-899.

Bravo, P. W., G. H. Stabenfeldt, M. E. Fowler & B. L. Lasley (1992) Pituitary response to repeated copulation and/or gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration in llamas and alpacas. Biology of Reproduction, 47, 884-888.

Duncanson, G. (2008) Camelid consults - Part Two: Recumbency and reproduction. Veterinary Times, 38, 20.

England, B.G., et al., Oestrous and mating behaviour in the llama (Llama glama). Animal Behaviour, 1971. 19(Part 4): p. 722-726.

Silva, M., F. Urra, C. Ulloa-Leal & M. H. Ratto (2017) A comparative study of the effects of intramuscular administration of gonadorelin, mating and intrauterine infusion of either raw seminal plasma or seminal plasma purified β-NGF on luteal development in llamas. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 52, 625-631.

Trasorras, V., C. Baca Castex, A. Alonso, S. Giuliano, R. Santa Cruz, C. Arraztoa, G. Chaves, D. Rodríguez, D. Neild & M. Miragaya (2014) First llama (Lama glama) pregnancy obtained after in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture of gametes from live animals. Animal Reproduction Science, 148, 83-89.

Trasorras, V., S. Giuliano, G. Chaves, D. Neild, A. Agüero, M. Carretero, M. Pinto, C. B. Castex, A. Alonso, D. Rodríguez, J. M. Morrell & M. Miragaya (2012) In vitro embryo production in Llamas (Lama glama) from in vivo matured oocytes with raw semen processed with Androcoll-E using defined embryo culture media. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 47, 562-567.

Artificial InsemminationI [See Artificial Insemmination]

Websites

 

Pregnancy

Aba, M. A., M. Forsberg, H. Kindahl, J. Sumar & L. E. Edqvist (1995) Endocrine changes after mating in pregnant and non-pregnant llamas and alpacas. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 36, 489-498.

Abalos, M. C., F. Acuña, A. K. Cancino & J. F. Aller (2018) Effect of GnRH analogue administration on Day 7 after natural mating on formation accessory corpus luteum, progesterone concentration and conception rate in llamas (Lama glama). Animal Reproduction Science, 190, 47-52.

Bravo, P. W., M. E. Fowler, G. H. Stabenfeldt & B. L. Lasley (1990) Ovarian follicular dynamics in the llama. Biology of Reproduction, 43, 579-585.

Bravo, P. W., D. R. Stewart, B. L. Lasley & M. E. Fowler (1996) Hormonal indicators of pregnancy in llamas and alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 208, 2027-2030.

Carretero, M. I., M. Miragaya, M. G. Chaves, M. Gambarotta & A. Agüero (2010) Embryo production in superstimulated llamas pre-treated to inhibit follicular growth. Small Ruminant Research, 88, 32-37.

Drew, M. L., B. M. Alexander & G. R. Sasser (1995) Pregnancy determination by use of pregnancy-specific protein B radioimmunoassay in llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 207, 217-219.

Gauly, M. & D. Bourke (1997) Pregnancy testing in American camelids. Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 104, 15-17.

Herrera, E. A., R. A. Riquelme, E. M. Sanhueza, L. A. Raggi & A. J. Llanos (2002) Use of fetal biometry to determine fetal age in late pregnancy in llamas. Animal Reproduction Science, 74, 101-109.

Herrid, M., M. Billah & J. A. Skidmore (2017) Successful pregnancies from vitrified embryos in the dromedary camel: avoidance of a possible toxic effect of sucrose on embryos. Animal Reproduction Science, 187, 116-123.

Trasorras, V. L., M. G. Chaves, M. H. Miragaya, M. Pinto, B. Rutter, M. Flores & A. Agüero (2009) Effect of ECG superstimulation and buserelin on cumulus-oocyte complexes recovery and maturation in llamas (Lama glama). Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 44, 359-364.

Zampini, R., M. E. Argañaraz, D. C. Miceli & S. A. Apichela (2014) Detection of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in llama (Lama glama) oviduct. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 49, 492-498.

 

Birthing

Husáková, T., K. Hauptmanová & L. Pavlata (2013) Alpaca and llama - premature birth of youngs and care for them. Veterinářství, 63, 625-630.

Post-Natal

Anderson, D. E., T. A. Cotton & C. E. Whitehead. 2008. Neonatal care for camelids: breeding to birthing to weaning. Manhattan: Veterinary Medical Continuing Education, Kansas State University.

Anderson, D. E. 2013. Field diagnosis of choanal atresia. 147-150. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

---------- 2013. Nasotracheal intubation. 47-50. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

---------- 2013. Orotracheal intubation. 43-46. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Riek, A. & M. Gerken (2010) Estimating total body water content in suckling and lactating llamas (Lama glama) by isotope dilution. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 42, 1189-1193.

Llama R

Llama Respiratory System

Respiratory System

Websites

The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25829556

Images

 Publications

Banchero, N. & R. F. Grover (1972) Effect of different levels of simulated altitude on O2 transport in llama and sheep. American Journal of Physiology, 222, 1239-1245.

Banchero, N., R. F. Grover & J. A. Will (1971) Oxygen transport in the llama (Lama glama). Respiration Physiology, 13, 102-115.

Braunitzer, G., B. Schrank & A. Stangl (1977) Sequence of alpha chains of the haemoglobins of swine and llama. (Aspects of respiration at high altitude.). Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie, 358, 409-412.

Braunitzer, G., B. Schrank, A. Stangl & C. Bauer (1977) Regulation of respiration at high altitude and its molecular interpretation: sequence of beta chains of haemoglobins of swine and llama. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie, 358, 921-925.

-------------(1978) Haemoglobins. XXII. Phosphate-protein interaction and respiration in llama, human fetus, and horse. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie, 359, 547-558.

Cepeda, C. P., C. Navarro & M. O. Celedón (2011) A serological survey of parainfluenza-3 virus in South American camelids from Chile. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, 43, 177-179.

Chang, C. D., T. R. Boosinger, P. M. Dowling, E. E. McRae, J. W. Tyler & D. G. Pugh (1993) Nocardiosis in a llama. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 5, 631-634.

Chiodi, H. (1971) Comparative study of the blood gas transport in high altitude and sea level Camelidae and goats. Respiration Physiology, 11, 84-93.

Duke, T., C. M. Egger, J. G. Ferguson & M. M. Frketic (1997) Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol infusion in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 58, 153-156.

Duncanson, G. 2013. South American camelid (SAC) medicine. 143-165.  Medicine and surgery of the respiratory and circulatory systems. 112-120.

Fenwick, B. W., M. Fowler, M. Kock & L. Matern (1982) Complete choanal atresia in a llama. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 181, 1409-1410.

Fitzgerald, S. D. & D. D. Harrington (1991) Pulmonary nocardiosis in a young llama. Equine Practice, 13, 26-29.

Frank, W., E. C. Reisinger, W. Brandt-Hamerla, I. Schwede & W. Handrick (2009) Mycobacterium microti - pulmonary tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 121, 282-286.

Galbreath, E. J., R. E. Holland, A. L. Trapp, E. Baker-Belknap, R. K. Maes, B. Yamini, F. A. Kennedy, A. K. Gilardy & D. Taylor (1994) Adenovirus-associated pneumonia and hepatitis in four llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 204, 424-426.

Gentz, E. J., E. G. Pearson, E. D. Lassen, S. P. Snyder & E. Sharpnack (1994) Polycythemia in a llama. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 204, 1490-1492.

Gerros, T. C. & W. C. Stone (1994) What is your diagnosis? [Complete bilateral choanal atresia in a llama]. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 205, 179-180.

Grubb, T. L., J. W. Schlipf, T. W. Riebold, C. K. Cebra, L. Poland, X. Zawadzkas & N. Mailhot (2003) Minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in spontaneously breathing llamas and alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 223, 1167-1169.

Hammer, S., M. Gauly & K. H. Bonath. (2001). Medetomidine/ketamine-anaesthesia of llama (Lama glama) under field conditions and its influence on haemodynamics, respiration and metabolism. 267-268. Wageningen: Wageningen Pers.

Herceg, M., I. Huber & V. Gomercic. (1976). Hyaline membranes in the lungs of a newborn llama (Lama glama). 123-125. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

------------(1978) Haemoglobins. XXII. Phosphate-protein interaction and respiration in llama, human fetus, and horse. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie, 359, 547-558.

Kiorpes, A. L., W. A. Lindsay & W. M. Adams (1986) Repair of complete choanal atresia in a llama. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 189, 1169-1171.

Lascola, K. M., A. M. Hoffman, M. R. Mazan & D. Bedenice (2007) Respiratory mechanics in sedated and nonsedated adult llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 68, 676-684.

Ledesma, M. M., A. M. Díaz, C. Barberis, C. Vay, M. A. Manghi, J. Leoni, M. S. Castro & A. Ferrari (2017) Identification of Lama glama as reservoirs for Acinetobacter lwoffii. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, 278.

Levine, S. A., W. A. Lindsay & K. A. Beck (1987) The use of a silicone T-tube to treat tracheal stenosis in a llama. Veterinary Surgery, 16, 241-244.

Mama, K. R., A. E. Wagner, D. A. Parker, P. W. Hellyer & J. S. Gaynor (1999) Determination of the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in llamas. Veterinary Surgery, 28, 121-125.

Mama, K. R., A. E. Wagner & E. P. Steffey (2001) Circulatory, respiratory and behavioral responses in isoflurane anesthetized llamas. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 28, 12-17.

Mattoon, J. S., T. C. Gerros, J. E. Parker, C. A. Carter & R. M. LaMarche (1997) Upper airway obstruction in a llama caused by aberrant nasopharyngeal bots (Cephenemyia sp.). Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 38, 384-386.

Mattoon, J. S., T. C. Gerros & M. Brimacombe (2001) Thoracic radiographic appearance in the normal llama. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, 42, 28-37.

Miesner, M. D. (2013). Tracheotomy/tracheostomy. 143-146. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

--------------------(2013). Transtracheal wash. 151-154. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Moser, L., K. Kegler, C. Precht & P. Zanolari (2019) Bronchioalveolar carcinoma in an adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos). BMC Veterinary Research, 15, (9 May 2019).

Prado, T. M., T. J. Doherty, E. B. Boggan, H. M. Airasmaa, T. Martin-Jimenez & B. W. Rohrbach (2008) Effects of acepromazine and butorphanol on tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 69, 182-188.

Rhodes, S., T. Crawshaw, R. d. l. Rua-Domenech, S. Bradford, K. P. Lyashchenko, G. Mamo, D. Summers, U. Wernery & P. Zanolari. 2015. Mycobacterial infections in camelids. 216-234.

Robinson, R. M. (1982) Coccidioidomycotic pneumonia in a llama. Southwestern Veterinarian, 34, 176.

Schmidt, N. 2010. What small animal technicians and assistants need to know about small ruminants. 142-145. Gainesville: The North American Veterinary Conference.

Schwalm, A., G. Erhardt, M. Gerken, E. Moors & M. Gauly (2008) Influence of heat stress on thermoregulation and fertility in shorn and unshorn male llamas (Lama glama). Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 36, 324-328.

Šehić, M. 2004. Disorders of abdominal and thoracic organs in domestic animals. Roentgenology, ultrasonography and computed tomography. A review. Zagreb: Veterinarski Fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb).

Seddighi, R., S. B. Elliot, B. K. Whitlock, C. M. Egger & T. J. Doherty (2014) Antinociceptive and selected physiological effects of morphine and xylazine on tiletamine-zolazepam anesthesia in llamas. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 41, 365-371.

Timm, K. I., B. B. Smith, B. J. Watrous, J. R. Heidel, A. N. Mann & M. J. Huber (1997) Choanal atresia in llamas - a model for human beings? Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, 36, 49.

Tinkler, S. H., L. A. Mathews, A. M. Firshman & J. E. Quandt (2015) The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia. Can Vet J, 56, 370-4.

Wilken, L. & A. McPherson (2018) Application of camelid heavy-chain variable domains (VHHs) in prevention and treatment of bacterial and viral infections. Int Rev Immunol, 37, 69-76.

Williams, J. R., J. F. Evermann, R. F. Beede, E. S. Scott, P. M. Dilbeck, C. A. Whetstone & D. M. Stone (1991) Association of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in a llama with bronchopneumonia. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 3, 258-260.

 

Llama Sensory/Nervous System

Baum, K. H. (1994) Neurologic diseases of llamas. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 383-390.

Bedenice, D. & C. Whitehead (2016) A systematic approach to the neurological examination of llamas and alpacas. Livestock, 21, 308-313.

Dobey, C. L., C. Grunenwald, S. J. Newman, L. Muller & R. W. Gerhold (2014) Retrospective study of central nervous system lesions and association with Parelaphostrongylus species by histology and specific nested polymerase chain reaction in domestic camelids and wild ungulates. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 26, 748-754.

Frank, W., E. C. Reisinger, W. Brandt-Hamerla, I. Schwede & W. Handrick (2009) Mycobacterium microti - pulmonary tuberculosis in an immunocompetent patient. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 121, 282-286.

Videla, R. 2016. Neurologic disease in camelids. 327-329. Gainesville: North American Veterinary Community (NAVC).

Whitehead, C. E. 2008. Approach to the neurologic camelid: case-based signs, diagnostic findings & treatment plans. 238-240. Lakewood: American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

 

Llama Showing

Numerous webpages and you-Tube videos promoting/of llama shows in North America can be found on the WWW.

Guide to Raising Llamas: Care, Showing, Breeding, Packing, Profiting".  (http://www.vetelib.com/threads/1479-Guide-to-Raising-Llamas-Care-Showing-Breeding-Packing-Profiting?highlight=llama).

Llama T

Llama Training

Training

Web sites

“Camelid Sense". 

https://www.facebook.com/camelidsense/?ref=all_category_pyml_rhc.

“Camelidynamics Training Alpacas, Llamas & Their People". 

https://www.camelidynamics.com/.

Taylor-Browne, J. What is Cameliddynamics?

 http://www.carthveanalpacas.com/articles.html

“Llama Students". 

http://www.llama-training.co.uk/One-off%20pages%20straight%20from%20Homepage/Meet%20the%20Students.htm.

“Llama Cart Training - Youtube".  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FiY1KeoMY3o&index=43&list=PLluOUd9y_S1-UbCCW4XH8_pQHb9JQ739m.

“Rescue Llama Abel Learns to Lead - Youtube".  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=epiypkUsgmU&index=46&list=PLluOUd9y_S1-UbCCW4XH8_pQHb9JQ739m.

“Desensitizing Your Llama - Youtube".  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=okZkN57OuE4&index=22&list=PLluOUd9y_S1-UbCCW4XH8_pQHb9JQ739m.

“Soccer-Playing Llama Shows Improved Passing - Youtube".  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jtnSGGavUnE&index=17&list=PLluOUd9y_S1-UbCCW4XH8_pQHb9JQ739m.

“Llama Training-Halter - Youtube".  (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gMe-WHb_7bQ&index=16&list=PLluOUd9y_S1-UbCCW4XH8_pQHb9JQ739m.

“Clicker Trained Llama Selects Yellow Toys. - Youtube".  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t3DwSLjPkj8&index=14&list=PLluOUd9y_S1-UbCCW4XH8_pQHb9JQ739m.

“An Introduction to Clicker Training - Youtube".  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IC367wKGi4M&index=6&list=PLluOUd9y_S1-UbCCW4XH8_pQHb9JQ739m.

“Basic Training from Nose to Toes!".  (http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/basic-training-from-nose-to-toes.html).

“When to Hold 'Em and When Best to Fold 'Em".  http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/when-to-hold-em-and-when-best-to-fold.html.

“Llama Training".

http://www.llama-training.co.uk/

“Terry Crowfoot - Youtube". 

https://www.youtube.com/user/zxzllamazxz.

“Gentle Spirit Behavior and Training Llamas". 

http://www.gentlespiritllamas.com/.

 “Training Llamas to Drive to Cart DVD". 

http://www.llamas-information.com/llama-driving/training-llamas-to-drive-to-cart/.

 “Working Llamas - Harness Training". 

http://www.workingllamas.com/?id=93.

“Llama Training with Bobra Goldsmith". 

http://www.llamas-information.com/llama-training/llama-training-dvd/.

 

Images

Publications

McGee Bennet, M. (1994). "Llama Handling and Training." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2):421-34.
McGee Bennett, M. (2001) The Camelid Companion: Handling and Training Your Alpacas & Llamas.

 

Llama Therapy

 

Websites

https://www.facebook.com/therapyllamas/
https://www.carthveanalpacas.com/Using-Alpacas-as-Therapy-Animals.pdf

Using Alpacas as Therapy Animals
https://www.jnkllamas.com/uploads/4/6/1/5/46156367/delta_society_llama_sum2ca.pdf

 

Images

Publications

Ford, S., (2018) Be a Llama and Stay a Little Calmer, Hachette, 96pp.
Hendrickson, S. J. (2016) Rojo: The Perfectly Imperfect Llama, Mascot Books.

Llama Trekking

Websites

Images

Publications

Anon., (2014) A Llama Trek in New Mexico. Wall Street Journal (Online), 1-1.

Beattie, L. 1998. Making the most of your llama. Kalama, WA: Kopacetic inK.

Harmon, D. A. R. 1989. Llama packing : a guide for the low impact use of llamas in the backcountry.Region,

  1. S. F. S. P. N. (1991) Packing with llamas: partners on the trail, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region.

Llama U

Llama Uniary System

Websites

Anemia, Hematuria, and Multicentric Urinary Neoplasia in a Llama (Lama glama) Exposed to Bracken Fern

https://www.jstor.org/stable/20095481?seq=1

Publications:

Urology

Chamorro, M. F., T. Passler, K. Joiner, R. H. Poppenga, J. Bayne & P. H. Walz (2013) Acute renal failure in 2 adult llamas after exposure to oak trees (Quercus spp.). Canadian Veterinary Journal, 54, 61-64.

Dubey, J. P., T. K. Newell, S. K. Verma, R. Calero-Bernal & E. L. Stevens (2014) Toxoplasma gondii infection in Llama (Llama glama): acute visceral disseminated lesions, diagnosis, and development of tissue cysts. Journal of Parasitology, 100, 288-294.

------------(2016) Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Llama (Llama glama): Acute Visceral Disseminated Lesions, Diagnosis, and Development of Tissue Cysts. Journal of parasitology.

Engelhardt, W. & W. v. Engelhardt. 1976. Diminished renal urea excretion in the llama at reduced food intake. 61-62. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.

Gerros, T. C. (1998) Recognizing and treating urolithiasis in llamas. Veterinary Medicine, 93, 583-590.

Hutchison, J. M., E. B. Belknap & R. J. Williams (1993) Acute renal failure in the llama (Lama glama). Cornell Veterinarian, 83, 39-46.

Kozikowski, T. A., K. G. Magdesian & B. Puschner (2009) Oleander intoxication in New World camelids: 12 cases (1995-2006). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 235, 305-310.

Kubátová, A. & T. Fedorova (2018) Urinalysis of pregnant and non-pregnant alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 25, 303-306.

Lackey, M. N., E. B. Belknap, M. D. Salman, L. Tinguely & L. W. Johnson (1995) Urinary indices in llamas fed different diets. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 56, 859-865.

Patel, J. H., C. Kosheluk & P. N. Nation (2004) Renal teratoma in a llama. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 45, 938-940.

Paul-Murphy, J., L. A. Tell, W. Bravo, M. E. Fowler & B. L. Lasley (1991) Urinary steroid evaluations to monitor ovarian function in exotic ungulates: VIII. Correspondence of urinary and plasma steroids in the Llama (Lama glama) during nonconceptive and conceptive cycles. Zoo Biology, 10, 225-236.

Riquelme, R. A., G. Sánchez, L. Liberona, E. M. Sanhueza, D. A. Giussani, C. E. Blanco, M. A. Hanson & A. J. Llanos (2002) Nitric oxide plays a role in the regulation of adrenal blood flow and adrenocorticomedullary functions in the llama fetus. Journal of Physiology, 544, 267-276.

Roth, C. & M. Ganter (2007) Urolithiasis in a gelded llama. Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 35, 446-452.

Smith, S. H. & D. R. Reel (2008) Cerebral and renal candidosis in a llama (Lama glama). Veterinary Record, 162, 485-486.

Wintour, E. M., R. Riquelme, C. Gaete, C. Rabasa, E. Sanhueza, M. Silver, M. Towstoless & A. Llanos (1995) Renal function in the chronically cannulated fetal llama: comparison with studies in the ovine fetus. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 7, 1311-1319.

Llama W

Llama Worming (See Barber’s Pole Worm, Lung Worm, Round Worm, Tape Worm, Whip Worm, etc.)

Websites

Health: Fecal Egg Counts (FEC). http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/animal-health-fecal-egg-counts-fec.html

Routine Care & Maintenance for Llamas and Alpacas, Deworming

A Whole Farm Approach to Parasite Management.

Routine Care & Maintenance for Llamas and Alpacas, Deworming.

To Deworm or Not to Deworm… the Meningeal Worm Question".  (http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/to-deworm-or-not-to-deworm-meningeal.html).

 

Duncanson, G. R. (2012). Sample taking and simple diagnostic tests. 32-43.

Nutall, J. (200), Internal Parasites Camelids Chronicle 53, 2 , pp. 20-24.

Martin Hoes (2017) The Worming Enigma: What are our options? And What can We do? Llama Link No. 45, (summer), pp16-17.

Pugh, D. (2017) Proceedings of the 4th British Veterinary Cameid Conference, also reported by Annie Austen in Llama Link No. 47, (Winter), pp.20-21.

Lung Worm (Also see Parasites General)

Duff, J. P., A. J. Maxwell & J. R. Claxton (1999) Chronic and fatal fascioliasis in llamas in the UK. Veterinary Record, 145, 315-316.

Duncanson, G. R. 2012. Medicine and surgery of the respiratory and circulatory systems. 112-120.

---. 2012. Sample taking and simple diagnostic tests. 32-43.

Marley, S. E. & G. A. Conder. 2002. The use of macrocyclic lactones to control parasites of domesticated wild ruminants. 371-393. .

Tait, S. A., J. A. Kirwan, C. J. Fair, G. C. Coles & K. A. Stafford (2002) Parasites and their control in South American camelids in the United Kingdom. Veterinary Record, 150, 637-638.

Tilc, K. & Z. Hanuskova (1976) Dynamics of coccidiases and helminthiases in Siberian ibexes and other ruminants in a zoo and the respective control measures. Acta Veterinaria, Brno, 45, 133-140.

Varney, K. (2010) Quarterly review of diagnostic cases - January to March 2010. Surveillance (Wellington), 37, 36-42.

M

Publications

Mange (Also see Parasites General)

Beck, W. (2014) Treatment of Sarcoptes mange in Llamas and Alpacas. Tierärztliche Umschau, 69, 185-190.

Belknap, E. B. & R. W. Dunstan (1990) Congenital ichthyosis in a llama. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 197, 764-767Eo, K., D. Kwak, T. Shin, Y. Yeo, K. Jung, S. Kwon, S. Kim & O. Kwon (2010) Skin lesions associated with Demodex sp. in a llama (Lama peruana). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 41, 178-180.

Fowler, M.E., Lice in llamas. Avian Exotic Practice, 1986. 3(1): p. 22-25.

Johnson, L. W. 2005. Dermatologic problems of small ruminants. 299-300. Gainesville: Eastern States Veterinary Association.

Kuntze, A. & O. Kuntze (1991) Ivermectin in exotic animals: scabies in tylopodes (Camelus bactrianus, Lama guanicoe, L. glama), and scabies and ascariasis in bears (Thalarctos maritimus and Ursus arctos). Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 104, 46-48.

D' Alterio, G. L., C. Callaghan, C. Just, A. Manner-Smith, A. P. Foster & T. G. Knowles (2005) Prevalence of Chorioptes sp. mite infestation in alpaca (Lama pacos) in the south-west of England: implications for skin health. Small Ruminant Research, 57, 221-228.

Leroy, J., T. Geurden, G. Meulemans, K. Moerloose & A. d. Kruif (2003) Severe Sarcoptes scabiei mange in llamas. Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 72, 359-363.

Lusat, J. 2011. Importance and management of mange mites and gastrointestinal parasites in alpaca and llama populations in the UK. Ph.D. thesis, University of Bristol (available in electronic format.

Lusat, J., E. R. Morgan & R. Wall (2007) Itch and Scratch – Mange in Llama, Alpaca and Goat Populations in the UK  British Llama News No. 7 December, p6.

Lusat, J., E. R. Morgan & R. Wall (2009) Mange in alpacas, llamas and goats in the UK: incidence and risk. Veterinary Parasitology, 163, 179-184.

Plant, J. D., M. A. Kutzler & C. K. Cebra (2007) Efficacy of topical eprinomectin in the treatment of Chorioptes sp. infestation in alpacas and llamas. Veterinary Dermatology, 18, 59-62.

Rosychuk, R. A. W. (1994) Llama dermatology. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice, 10, 228-239.

Schlögl, C., S. Bork-Mimm & K. Pfister (2010) Investigation on the infestation of South American camelids with external parasites. Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere, 38, 293-296.

Twomey, D. F., W. A. Cooley & R. Wood (2010) Confirmation of the chewing louse, Bovicola breviceps, in a British llama (Lama glama) herd. Veterinary Record, 166, 790-791.

 

Meningeal Worm (See Round Worm)

Minerals and Vitamins

Master Blaster Mega Probiotics Symbiotics Paste. 

http://www.pearsonpond.com/Product_MasterBlaster.html.

Which One, Loose or Block Salt Feeding?
https://extension.psu.edu/which-one-loose-or-block-salt-feeding

(1989) Selenium Deficiency. Camelid Chronicle   No. 7.

Chauvet, A. E., G. D. Shelton & B. J. Darien (1996) Vitamin E deficiency associated with myopathy in a llama. Progress in Veterinary Neurology, 7, 149-152.

Dart, A. J., H. Kinde, D. R. Hodgson, J. R. Peauroi, A. W. Selby, J. Maas & M. E. Fowler (1996) Serum α-tocopherol, vitamin A, and blood selenium concentrations, and glutathione peroxidase activity in llamas fed alfalfa hay. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 57, 689-692.

Dwyer, C., L. K. Whitfield & R. A. Laven (2019) The effect of elemental Zn boluses on concentrations of Zn in serum and faeces of South American camelids. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 67, 210-213.

Herdt, T. H. (1995) Blood serum concentrations of selenium in female llamas (Lama glama) in relationship to feeding practices, region of United States, reproductive stage, and health of offspring. Journal of Animal Science, 73, 337-344.

Judson, G. J., B. A. McGregor, K. J. Ellis & A. M. Howse (2018) Evaluation of controlled-release devices for providing chromium sesquioxide and zinc in Huacaya alpacas at pasture. Australian Veterinary Journal, 96, 458-463.

Polidori, P., M. Antonini, D. Torres, D. Beghelli & C. Renieri (2007) Tenderness evaluation and mineral levels of llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) meat. Meat Science, 77, 599-601.

Pugh, D. G., B. Waldridge & J. G. W. Wenzel (1999) Trace mineral nutrition in llamas. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 6, 209-216.

---------- 2004. Trace mineral nutrition in llamas. 728-737. Bikaner: The Camelid Publishers.

Pugh, D. G. & B. M. Waldridge. 2004. Goat and llama trace mineral nutrition. 112-113. Stillwater: American Association of Bovine Practitioners.

Saun, R. J., B. B. Smith & B. J. Watrous (1996) Evaluation of vitamin D status of llamas and alpacas with hypophosphatemic rickets. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 209, 1128-1133.

------------(2012). Understanding copper nutrition in small ruminants. 155-160. Stillwater: American Association of Bovine Practitioners.

Semevolos, S. A., S. K. Reed & L. G. Schultz (2013) Evaluation of serum trace mineral, vitamin D, and sex steroid hormone concentration, and survey data in llamas and alpacas with metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal hyperextension. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 74, 48-52.

Smith, B. B. & R. J. v. Saun (2001) Seasonal changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D concentrations in llamas and alpacas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 62, 1187-1193.

Smith, B. B., R. J. v. Saun, P. J. Reed, A. M. Craig & A. Youngberg (1998) Blood mineral and vitamin E concentrations in llamas. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 59, 1063-1070Sponheimer, M., T. Robinson, B. Roeder, J. Hammer, L. Ayliffe, B. Passey, T. Cerling, D. Dearing & J. Ehleringer (2003) Digestion and passage rates of grass hays by llamas, alpacas, goats, rabbits, and horses. Small Ruminant Research, 48, 149-154.

Starnes, A. (2008) Selenium Deficiency in Camelids BLS News No. 8 (March), p.5.

Wladridge, B. M. & D. G. Pugh (1997) Managing trace mineral deficiencies in South American camelids. Veterinary Medicine, 92, 744-750.

Waldridge, B. M., S. H. Duran, W. R. Ravis, R. Paxton, T. H. Herdt & D. G. Pugh (2004) Pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous selenium in adult llamas. Veterinary Therapeutics, 5, 272-278.

O

Ovulation – (see Reproduction – Ovulation)

P

Parasites (See Barber’s Pole Worm, Lice, Liver Fluke, Lung Worm, Meningeal Worm, Mange, Round Worm, Scabies, Ticks, Whip Worm)

Poisioning

R

Rickets

Aguirre, D. H., S. T. d. Echaide, A. B. Guglielmone & A. A. Gaido (1994) Experimental inoculation of Anaplasma marginale in llamas (Lama glama). Medicina Veterinaria, 11, 296...300.

Barlough, J. E., J. E. Madigan, V. L. Kramer, J. R. Clover, L. T. Hui, J. P. Webb & L. K. Vredevoe (1997) Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup rickettsiae in ixodid ticks from California collected in 1995 and 1996. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 35, 2018-2021.

Duncanson, G. R. 2012. Medicine and surgery of the respiratory and circulatory systems. 112-120.

-------------2012. Zoonotic diseases. 214-223.

Johnson, L. W., F. M. Garry, G. M. Weiser, R. P. Ellis, A. R. Smith, B. G. McLaughlin, D. Morris, B. Frye, P. Schultheis & D. Jorgenson. 1990. Experimental eperythrozoonosis in llamas. 17-19. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University, College of Veterinary Medicine.

Li, Y., J. Yang, Z. Chen, G. Qin, Y. Li, Q. Li, J. Liu, Z. Liu, G. Guan, H. Yin, J. Luo & L. Zhang (2015) Anaplasma infection of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) and ticks in Xinjiang, China. Parasites and Vectors, 8, (10 June 2015).

McLaughlin, B. G., C. N. Evans, P. S. McLaughlin, L. W. Johnson, A. R. Smith & J. F. Zachary (1990) An Eperythrozoon-like parasite in llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 197, 1170-1175.

McLaughlin, B. G., P. S. McLaughlin & C. N. Evans (1991) An Eperythrozoon-like parasite of llamas: attempted transmission to swine, sheep, and cats. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 3, 352-353.

Ogden, N. H., Z. Woldehiwet & C. A. Hart (1998) Granulocytic ehrlichiosis: an emerging or rediscovered tick-borne disease? Journal of Medical Microbiology, 47, 475-482.

Párraga, M. E., M. I. Gonzatti & P. M. Aso (2016) Diagnosis of Venezuelan equine anaplasmosis by polymerase chain reaction. Revista Cientifica, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad del Zulia, 26, 366-373.

Verheyen, K. I. P. & C. Fourichon. 2013. Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine. Proceedings of a meeting held in Madrid, Spain, 20-22 March 2013. Roslin: Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine

Ringworm

Duncanson, G. R. 2012. Zoonotic diseases. 214-223.

Johnson, L. W. 2005. Dermatologic problems of small ruminants. 299-300. Gainesville: Eastern States Veterinary Association.

Ranganathan, S., M. Thangam & S. A. M. Balajee (1996) Role of animals in the spread of human ringworm disease in Madras. Current Science, 71, 666.

Round Worm/Meningeal Worm (Also see Parasites General)

To Deworm or Not to Deworm… the Meningeal Worm Question. http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/to-deworm-or-not-to-deworm-meningeal.html.

Experimentally Induced Meningeal Worm (Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis) Infection in the Llama (Lama Glama): Clinical Evaluation and Implications for Parasite Translocation..

http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095392?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.

Meningeal Worm

(http://vermontllamaalpacaassociation.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/infamous-meningeal-worm.html.

Experimental Infections of Two Llamas with the Meningeal Worm (Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis) on Jstor.  http://www.jstor.org/stable/20095166.

Publications

Abdouslam, O. E., S. A. Al-Izzi, L. S. Al-Bassam & S. M. Azwai (2003) Effect of anthelmintic treatment on haematological and coagulation parameters in llamas (Lama glama) infected with gastrointestinal parasites. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 10, 149-152.

Baumgärtner, W., A. Zajac, B. L. Hull, F. Andrews & F. Garry (1985) Parelaphostrongylosis in llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 187, 1243-1245.

Bertin, F. R. & S. D. Taylor (2016) Cerebrospinal nematodiasis in 20 camelids. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 30, 1390-1395.

Bishop, J. K. & L. G. Rickard (1987) Faecal survey of llamas (Lama glama) in Oregon: incidental recovery of Nematodirus battus. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 191, 1579-1581.

Brown, T. T., Jr., H. E. Jordan & C. N. Demorest (1978) Cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis in llamas. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 14, 441-444.

Dadak, A. M., H. Asanger, A. Tichy & S. Franz (2013) Establishing an efficacious dose rate of monepantel for treating gastrointestinal nematodes in llamas under field conditions. Veterinary Record, 172, 155.

Geurden, T. & K. v. Hemelrijk (2005) Ivermectin treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes in New World camelids in Belgium. Small Ruminant Research, 58, 71-73.

Foreyt, W. J., L. G. Rickard, S. Dowling, S. Parish & M. Pipas (1991) Experimental Infections of Two Llamas with the Meningeal Worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 22, 339-344.

Ismail, Z. B., M. Levy, T. Qureshi & M. W. Lankester (2011) Clinico-pathological findings and cerebrospinal fluid analysis in llamas (Lama glama) experimentally infected with the meningeal worm Parelaphostrongylus tenuis. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 57, 175-181.

Rickard, L. G., E. J. Gentz, E. G. Pearson, A. A. Frank & B. B. Smith. 1993. Evaluation of experimental meningeal worm infections in the llama. 397-399. Philadelphia: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians (AAZV).

Rickard, L. G., E. J. Gentz, E. G. Pearson, B. B. Smith, A. A. Frank, L. L. Walker & M. J. Pybus (1994) Experimentally Induced Meningeal Worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) Infection in the Llama (Lama glama): Clinical Evaluation and Implications for Parasite Translocation. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 25, 390-402.

Welchman, D. D. B., J. G. Parr, R. Wood, A. M. J. Mead & A. F. Starnes (2008) Alpaca and llama nematodes in Britain. Veterinary Record, 162, 832.

Windsor, R. S. (1997) Type II ostertagiasis in llamas. Veterinary Record, 141, 608.

S

Salmonella

Anderson N.V., Anderson D.E., Leipold HW, Kennedy GA, Repenning L, Strathe GA. Septicemic salmonellosis in two llamas J Am Vet Med Assoc.1995 Jan 1;206(1):75-6.

Scabies

Kuntze, A. & O. Kuntze (1991) Ivermectin in exotic animals: scabies in tylopodes (Camelus bactrianus, Lama guanicoe, L. glama), and scabies and ascariasis in bears (Thalarctos maritimus and Ursus arctos). Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 104, 46-48.

Żuchowska, E. (1991) Scabies in mammals in Zoological Gardens. Wiadomości Parazytologiczne, 37, 123-125.

Shearing

 

Skin (See Integumentary System)

Streptococcus

Tavella, A., A. Bettini, M. Cocchi, I. Idrizi, S. Colorio, L. Viel, C. Zanardello & P. Zanolari (2018) Isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae in a female llama (Lama glama) in South Tyrol (Italy). BMC Veterinary Research, 14, (13 November 2018).

Strongyloides (see Tapeworm)

T

Tapeworm (Strongyloides) (Also see Parasites General)

Webpages

Importance and management of mange mites and gastrontestinal parasites in Alpaca and Llama populations in the UK. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?did=4&uin=uk.bl.ethos.549443

Publications

Abdouslam, O. E., S. A. Al-Izzi, L. S. Al-Bassam & S. M. Azwai (2003) Effect of anthelmintic treatment on haematological and coagulation parameters in llamas (Lama glama) infected with gastrointestinal parasites. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 10, 149-152.

Alcaino, H., T. Gorman & M. Burgos (1991) Gastrointestinal helminthiasis in llamas (Lama glama) from Region I of Chile. Parasitología al Dia, 15, 93-96.

Beier, E., III, T. W. Lehenbauer & S. Sangiah (2000) Clinical efficacy of fenbendazole against gastrointestinal parasites in llamas. Small Ruminant Research, 36, 17-23.

Cebra, C. K. & B. V. Stang (2008) Comparison of methods to detect gastrointestinal parasites in llamas and alpacas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 232, 733-741.

Correa, L., B. Zapata & M. Soto-Gamboa (2012) Gastrointestinal and blood parasite determination in the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) under semi-captivity conditions. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44, 11-15.

Dadak, A. M., H. Asanger, A. Tichy & S. Franz (2013) Establishing an efficacious dose rate of monepantel for treating gastrointestinal nematodes in llamas under field conditions. Veterinary Record, 172, 155.

Erskine Molina, D. & M. Miqueles Rodriguez (1975) Gastro-intestinal parasites of South American llamas in the first region of Chile. Boletin, Servicio Agricola y Ganader (Chile), 19-22.

Fagiolini, M., R. P. Lia, P. Laricchiuta, P. Cavicchio, R. Mannella, C. Cafarchia, D. Otranto, R. Finotello & S. Perrucci (2010) Gastrointestinal Parasites In Mammals Of Two Italian Zoological Gardens. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 41, 662-670.

Franz, S., T. Wittek, A. Joachim, B. Hinney & A. M. Dadak (2015) Llamas and alpacas in Europe: endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control. Veterinary Journal, 204, 255-262.

Hertzberg, H. & L. Kohler (2006) Prevalence and significance of gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa in South American Camelids in Switzerland. Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 119, 291-294.

Larrieu, E., R. Bigatti, R. Lukovich, C. Eddi, E. Banazzi, E. Gomez, R. Niec & N. Oporto (1982) A contribution to the study of gastrointestinal parasitism in guanacos and llamas. Gaceta Veterinaria, 44, 958-960.

Ticks (Also see Parasites General)

Barlough, J. E., J. E. Madigan, V. L. Kramer, J. R. Clover, L. T. Hui, J. P. Webb & L. K. Vredevoe (1997) Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup rickettsiae in ixodid ticks from California collected in 1995 and 1996. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 35, 2018-2021.

Cebra, C. K., F. B. Garry & M. L. Cebra (1996) Tick paralysis in eight New World camelids. Veterinary Medicine, 91, 673-676.

Barlough, J. E., J. E. Madigan, V. L. Kramer, J. R. Clover, L. T. Hui, J. P. Webb & L. K. Vredevoe (1997) Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup rickettsiae in ixodid ticks from California collected in 1995 and 1996. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 35, 2018-2021.

Barrington, G. M. & S. M. Parish (1995) Tick paralysis in two llamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 207, 476-477.

Toxoplasma gondii (Also see Poisioning)

Moré, G., L. Pardini, W. Basso, R. Marín, D. Bacigalupe, G. Auad, L. Venturini & M. C. Venturini (2008) Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis sp. in llamas (Lama glama) from Jujuy, Argentina. Veterinary Parasitology, 155, 158-160.

Tuberculosis (See )

U

Uses (see Llama Caddying, Driving, Guarding, Hunting, etc.)

V

Viral Disease (See ...)

Vitamins (see Minerals and Vitmains)

W

Whip Worm (Also see Parasites General)

Abdouslam, O. E., Al-Bassam, L. S., Al-Izzi, S. A., & Azwai, S. M. 2003. Prevalence of external and internal parasites in llamas (Lama glama) at Surman park in Libya. Journal of Camel Practice and Research, 10(1): 61-65.

Zanolari, P. 2010. Parasite control in South American camelids. Forum Kleinwiederkäuer/Petits Ruminants(No.12): 6-14.

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