Bibliography of Publications on Llamas up to 26/2/2017. The first list of approx. 1,500 references is arranged by author (A-Z), the second list is in reverse chronological order. Select subject listings can be found in the Bibliography section of this website where additional information such as abstracts, URLs to copies of the full article or further information on-line etc. is included. This bibliography is held in EndNote which can be searched on many items- title, author, date of publication and used to cite in written , etc. I am prepared to share this EndNote with interested parties if you care to contact me personally via this website.

Title Álvarez, B., et al. (2015). "An Exopolysaccharide-Deficient Mutant of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Efficiently Displays a Protective Llama Antibody Fragment against Rotavirus on Its Surface." Appl Environ Microbiol 81(17): 5784-5793.

Rotavirus is the leading cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries, where it causes a high number of deaths among infants. Two vaccines are available, being highly effective in developed countries although markedly less efficient in developing countries. As a complementary treatment to the vaccines, a Lactobacillus strain producing an anti-rotavirus antibody fragment in the gastrointestinal tract could potentially be used. In order to develop such an alternative therapy, the effectiveness of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG to produce and display a VHH antibody fragment (referred to as anti-rotavirus protein 1 [ARP1]) on the surface was investigated. L. rhamnosus GG is one of the best-characterized probiotic bacteria and has intrinsic antirotavirus activity. Among four L. rhamnosus GG strains [GG (CMC), GG (ATCC 53103), GG (NCC 3003), and GG (UT)] originating from different sources, only GG (UT) was able to display ARP1 on the bacterial surface. The genomic analysis of strain GG (UT) showed that the genes welE and welF of the EPS cluster are inactivated, which causes a defect in exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, allowing efficient display of ARP1 on its surface. Finally, GG (UT) seemed to confer a level of protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea similar to that of wild-type GG (NCC 3003) in a mouse pup model, indicating that the EPS may not be involved in the intrinsic antirotavirus activity. Most important, GG (EM233), a derivative of GG (UT) producing ARP1, was significantly more protective than the control strain L. casei BL23. AN - 26092449

Aba, M. A. (1995). Studies on the reproductive endocrinology of llamas and alpacas : from mating throughout early pregnancy. Uppsala, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Aba, M. A. (1998). Hormonal interrelationships in reproduction of female llamas and alpacas. Uppsala, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.

Aba, M. A. and M. Forsberg (1995). "Heterologous radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody, an equine standard and a human tracer." Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 36(3): 367-375.

This paper describes a radioimmunoassay to measure plasma LH levels in llamas and alpacas. The assay was used to demonstrate increased LH levels after mating in llamas and alpacas, and to monitor LH responses to a single dose of GnRH in llamas (adult ♂♂ and ♀♀ at different ages).

Aba, M. A., et al. (1995). "Endocrine changes after mating in pregnant and non-pregnant llamas and alpacas." Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 36(4): 489-498.

Plasma concentrations of oestradiol-17β, progesterone, 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α and LH were monitored in llamas and alpacas after mating with an intact ♂. Concentrations of LH and the PGF2α metabolite were high immediately after copulation. Ovulation occurred in 92% of the animals. A significant increase in progesterone was recorded on day 4 after mating. In non-pregnant animals the lifespan of the corpus luteum was estimated to be 8-9 days. Luteolysis was associated with the release of PGF2α. In pregnant animals, a transient decrease in progesterone concentration was observed between days 8 and 18 in both species. No significant changes in PGF2α secretion were found during this period. Oestradiol-17β concentration was high on the day of mating, declined to low values on day 4, and started to increase again on day 8. Peak values after luteolysis in non-pregnant animals were significantly higher than in pregnant animals. It is suggested that progesterone from the corpus luteum exerts a negative influence on follicle activity in pregnant animals by reducing oestradiol-17β secretion.

Aba, M. A., et al. (2000). "Levels of progesterone and changes in prostaglandin F2α release during luteolysis and early pregnancy in llamas and the effect of treatment with flunixin meglumine." Animal Reproduction Science 59(1/2): 87-97.

The secretory patterns of progesterone in relation to concentrations of 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PGFM) during the period of luteolysis or of maternal recognition of pregnancy were determined in the blood of llamas mated with an intact or a vasectomized male. The ability of flunixin meglumine (FM) to postpone luteolysis in non-pregnant llamas was investigated by injecting the drug intravenously every 6 h at 2.2 mg/kg from days 6 to 12 post-copulation into a group of non-pregnant llamas. A pulsatile pattern of PG release was recorded during luteolysis in non-pregnant llamas, giving further support to the hypothesis that PG is the luteolytic agent in llamas. The mean number of peaks per animal rose from 0.3 on day 7 to 3.8 on day 10 and then declined to 1.1 on day 12 with corresponding mean peak amplitude changing from 465 to 1234 and 566 pmol/litre respectively. In pregnant llamas, prostaglandin pulsatile release also occurred. The mean number of peaks per animal rose from 0.4 on day 7 to 0.8 on day 10 and then declined to 0.2 on day 11 and 0.6 on day 12, with corresponding mean peak amplitude changing from 494 to 676, 388 and 547 pmol/litre respectively. The transient decrease and subsequent recovery in progesterone concentrations occurred in connection with PG release during early pregnancy. Oestradiol-17β plasma peak concentrations attained after luteolysis were significantly higher than those recorded in early pregnant animals (approximately 30 and II pmol/litre). Concentrations of PGFM decreased rapidly after the first administration of FM and remained low throughout the first 2 days of treatment. Thereafter, pulsatile release of prostaglandins started, and luteolysis proceeded; but a delay of 1-1.5 days in the progesterone decline was observed. It is suggested that a higher dose and/or a more intensive injection schedule of FM is required to prevent luteolysis in llamas than in other ruminants.

Aba, M. A., et al. (1999). "Control of ovarian activity in Llamas (Lama glama) with medroxyprogesterone acetate." Reproduction in domestic animals 34(6): 471-476.

Progesterone and progestogens have proved to be effective in controlling follicle development and synchronization of ovarian activity in different species. In this study, vaginal sponges containing 120 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate were used to synchronize ovarian activity in llamas and to predict the time when a mature follicle will be present. Six llamas were treated for 9 days with intra-vaginal sponges containing 120 mg MPA. Six days later, ovulation was induced by GnRH injection (n=4). Treatments were repeated at 2-month intervals. Mating with a vasectomized male (n = 8 treatments) or mating with an intact male (n = 10 treatments). Plasma progesterone concentrations varied between animals until day 6 after insertion of the sponge. Thereafter, progesterone levels remained close to the limit of detection until ovulation was induced. The mean oestradiol-17β plasma concentration was lowest 3-4 days after insertion of the sponge. Thereafter, concentrations increased and reached peak levels at day 6 after sponge withdrawal. All animals ovulated and developed a corpus luteum with a normal lifespan. Plasma concentrations of PGF2α metabolite and cortisol increased in parallel after copulation. PG concentrations returned to basal levels 3-4 h after mating whereas the cortisol concentrations remained elevated for about 12 h after copulation. The protocol evaluated in this study was shown to be useful for the synchronization of ovarian activity and for predicting the time when an ovulatory follicle will be present in llamas.

Aba, M. A., et al. (1998). "Plasma concentrations of 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α, progesterone, oestrone sulphate, oestradiol-17β and cortisol during late gestation, parturition and the early postpartum period in llamas and alpacas." Animal Reproduction Science 50(1/2): 111-121.

Blood samples were taken from 6 llamas and 5 alpacas, kept on natural pasture at La Raya Research Station in Peru (4250 m above sea level), every 2 weeks from day 7 until the end of the eighth month and at 7-day intervals between 9 and 10.5 months of pregnancy. Thereafter, samples were taken twice a day until parturition, 4 times a day for the first 10 days after parturition and twice a day for the next 10 days. During the last 100 days of pregnancy, 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α concentrations increased steadily until the day of parturition, when a massive surge was detected (P<0.01) concomitant with a decrease in progesterone concentration (P<0.01). The highest PGF2α metabolite concentrations (159±35 and 92±29 nsmallcap˜M in llamas and alpacas respectively) were detected in the sample collected during the morning on the day of parturition. By day 3 post partum, PGF2α metabolite concentrations had returned to basal levels. Plasma concentrations of oestrone sulphate started to increase 80 days before parturition and reached peak concentrations immediately before parturition (15±3 and 18±5 nsmallcap˜M in llamas and alpacas respectively). Oestrone sulphate concentration decreased sharply (P<0.01) on the day of parturition in llamas and 1 day later in alpacas; subsequently it remained relatively unchanged until at least 20 days post partum. Oestradiol-17β concentrations were >180 pmol/l during the last 45 days of pregnancy, began to decrease on the day of parturition and reached a very low level within the following 2 days. High oestradiol-17β concentrations were recorded 7 days post partum in all alpacas (P<0.05) and within 10 days of parturition in 5 llamas (P<0.01). No significant cortisol peaks were observed around parturition, but mean concentrations were increased in both species.

Abal, M. A., et al. (1996). "Concentrations of progesterone during storage of whole blood from llama (Lama glama): effects of anticoagulants, storage time and temperature." Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 37(1): 123-125.

Effects of storage time and temperature on concentration of progesterone in serum and plasma with 0.1 mg/ml sodium heparin or 10 mg/ml sodium fluoride as anticoagulants were examined in blood samples from 3 pregnant llamas between 5 and 7 months of gestation. The mean progesterone concentrations in samples stored for 24 h at 4°C and 25°C were not significantly different. The presence of anticoagulants did not affect progesterone concentration. It is concluded that progesterone can be measured accurately in llama blood samples stored at room temperature for 24 h.

Abbas, S. F. and I. S. Milad (2003). "Performance and some body measurements as a management tool of imported llama (Lama glama) under Libyan condition." Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences 34(5): 265-274.

This study was conducted to evaluate the environmental influences on birthing and mortality rate under a new climatic regions to improve husbandry and breeding practices. An easy and relatively accurate method to predict the liveweight of the llama using body measurements, which consisted of establishing a prediction formula based on linear body measurement was used. 655 records of llama were utilized and 126 llamas were randomly selected to establish the relationship between liveweight and body measurements. Most births were recorded during May to December (77.8%). Few births were recorded during August to October (13.6%). Mortalities were higher among young animals than adults (32.4 vs. 21.9%). Mortalities were higher in females than in males for both young (35.5 vs. 29.2%) and adult (22.8 vs. 12.8%) llamas. Mortality rate was higher in young llama (10.14%) than in adult ones (7.30%) during winter. In adult llama, mortality rate was high in winter (7.30%) and low in summer (4.34%). The regression equation of height at withers, heart girth and paunch girth could be used with great accuracy (R2=0.94; P<0.001) to predict the liveweight of llama.

Abbeele, A. v. d., et al. (2010). "A llama-derived gelsolin single-domain antibody blocks gelsolin-G-actin interaction." Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 67(9): 1519-1535.

RNA interference has tremendously advanced our understanding of gene function but recent reports have exposed undesirable side-effects. Recombinant Camelid single-domain antibodies (VHHs) provide an attractive means for studying protein function without affecting gene expression. We raised VHHs against gelsolin (GsnVHHs), a multifunctional actin-binding protein that controls cellular actin organization and migration. GsnVHH-induced delocalization of gelsolin to mitochondria or the nucleus in mammalian cells reveals distinct subpopulations including free gelsolin and actin-bound gelsolin complexes. GsnVHH 13 specifically recognizes Ca2+-activated gelsolin (Kd ∼10 nM) while GsnVHH 11 binds gelsolin irrespective of Ca2+ (Kd ∼5 nM) but completely blocks its interaction with G-actin. Both GsnVHHs trace gelsolin in membrane ruffles of EGF-stimulated MCF-7 cells and delay cell migration without affecting F-actin severing/capping or actin nucleation activities by gelsolin. We conclude that VHHs represent a potent way of blocking structural proteins and that actin nucleation by gelsolin is more complex than previously anticipated.

Abdouslam, O. E., et al. (2003). "Prevalence of external and internal parasites in llamas (Lama glama) at Surman park in Libya." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 10(1): 61-65.

This study was conducted on 83 adult llamas and 12 crias Lama glama, to determine the prevalence of parasites in llamas kept at the Surman park in Libya. These llamas were free from external parasites and haemoparasites. Faecal examination revealed that 85.5% of the adults had at least one type of egg. In adults, Nematodirus spp. was found in 55.4%, trichostrongyles in 31.3%, Strongyloides spp. in 31.3%, Trichuris spp. in 20.5%, unidentified large egg in 6.02%, Fasciola hepatica in 1.2% and Eimeria spp. in 1.2%. Eight of the crias (66.6%) had at least one type of egg. Trichuris spp. was found in 41.6%, Nematodirus spp. in 16.6%, Capillaria spp. in 8.33%, trichostrongyles in 8.33% and Eimeria also in 8.33%. The significance of these findings is discussed.

Abdouslam, O. E., et al. (2003). "Effect of anthelmintic treatment on haematological and coagulation parameters in llamas (Lama glama) infected with gastrointestinal parasites." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 10(2): 149-152.

Approximately 10 g of faeces were collected from 5 male and 5 female llamas Lama glama (12-18 months of age) to determine the effect of anthelmintic treatment. Faecalysis revealed infection with Nematodirus sp. (n=6 cases), Capillaria sp. (n=1) and Strongyloides sp. (n=1). Mixed infection was identified in two individuals. After two treatments with albendazole (5 mg/kg body weight) given two weeks apart, 8 animals recovered from infection, while mild infection with Nematodirus sp. persisted in two animals. Based on results of comprehensive haematological and coagulation parameters determined in blood samples collected before and after treatment, it appears that there was an improvement in the haemogram of llamas posttreatment. Erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume increased significantly (P<0.05) after treatment with albendazole. Other haematological and coagulation parameters showed no significant alterations pre- and posttreatment.

Abe, M., et al. (2014). "A rice-based soluble form of a murine TNF-specific llama variable domain of heavy-chain antibody suppresses collagen-induced arthritis in mice." Journal of Biotechnology 175: 45-52.

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) plays a pivotal role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. Although anti-TNF antibody therapy is now commonly used to treat patients suffering from these inflammatory conditions, the cost of treatment continues to be a concern. Here, we developed a rice transgenic system for the production of a llama variable domain of a heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) specific for mouse TNF in rice seeds (MucoRice-mTNF-VHH). MucoRice-mTNF-VHH was produced at high levels in the rice seeds when we used our most recent transgene-overexpression system with RNA interference technology that suppresses the production of major rice endogenous storage proteins while enhancing the expression of the transgene-derived protein. Production levels of mTNF-VHH in rice seeds reached an average of 1.45% (w/w). Further, approximately 91% of mTNF-VHH was released easily when the powder form of MucoRice-mTNF-VHH was mixed with PBS. mTNF-VHH purified by means of single-step gel filtration from rice PBS extract showed high neutralizing activity in an in vitro mTNF cytotoxicity assay using WEHI164 cells. In addition, purified mTNF-VHH suppressed progression of collagen-induced arthritis in mice. These results show that this rice-expression system is useful for the production of neutralizing VHH antibody specific for mTNF.

Abraham, M. C., et al. (2016). "Testicular length as an indicator of the onset of sperm production in alpacas under Swedish conditions." Acta Vet Scand 58: 10.

The popularity of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) is increasing in Sweden as well as in other countries; however, knowledge about optimal management practices under Swedish conditions is still limited. The wide age range reported when the onset of puberty can occur, between 1 and 3 years of age, makes management decisions difficult and may be influenced by the conditions under which the alpacas are kept. The aim of this study was to find out when Swedish alpacas can be expected to start producing sperm, by using testicular length and body condition score as a more precise indirect indicator than age.|This study suggests that animals with a testicular length ≥3.8 cm would be producing sperm; however, if it is crucial to know that there is no sperm production for management purposes, the threshold level for testicular length used to differentiate between sperm-producing and non-sperm producing animals should be ≤1.6 cm instead. If only one variable is considered, testicular length appears to better than age alone to predict sperm production. Body condition score together with testicular length explains the individual onset of puberty and better guide management recommendations.|Using a combination of these parameters (testicular length, body condition score and age) as a tool for decision making for alpaca husbandry under Swedish conditions is suggested. AN - 26829925

Abutarbush, S. M. (2015). "Tetraplegia due to fracture of the articular facet of the fourth cervical vertebra in a llama (Lama glama)." Global Veterinaria 14(3): 366-368.

An 8 year old intact male llama, used for exhibition in a zoo, was presented with 24 hours history of progressive weakness and recumbency. During neurological examination, the llama appeared to have tetraplegia due to a spinal cord lesion in the segment starting from the first to the fifth cervical vertebrae. Radiographic examination of the cervical spine revealed fracture of the articular facet of the fourth cervical vertebra. The fracture was likely occurred during the administration of an anthelmintic medication where the llama must have had struggled against restraint. The llama did not respond to treatment and was humanely euthanized. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report of cervical vertebral fracture causing spinal cord damage and tetraplegia in South American camelids. Care should be taken during handling llamas and rough manipulation should be avoided.

Adam, C. L., et al. (1992). Ovulation and embryo recovery in the llama. Newmarket, R & W Publications: 125-127.

Ovarian follicular activity, induction of ovulation and non-surgical embryo recovery were investigated in 20 llamas over a 2-yr period. Ovarian structures were observed by transrectal ultrasonography. Follicles developed in waves, during which a single dominant follicle reached max. (ovulatory) size. Ovulation was induced by mating and/or injection with HCG or a GnRH analogue. The corpus luteum reached max. size 4-8 days after ovulation and had regressed by days 10-13 in non-pregnant animals. A PGF2α analogue given between days 6 and 8 advanced luteolysis. For embryo recovery, ovulation was induced by HCG or the GnRH analogue at the time of mating. 27 embryos were recovered by transcervical flushing of the uterus 6-14 days after ovulation.

Adam, C. L., et al. (1989). "Plasma progesterone concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant llamas (Lama glama)." Veterinary record 125(25): 618-620.

Female llamas ovulate in response to copulation, and progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum indicates recent ovulation (mating) and, or, pregnancy. The plasma progesterone concentration was 0.9 to 1.4 ng/ml in five non-pregnant llamas and 7.4 to 9.2 ng/ml in three llamas in the last month of pregnancy. After ovulation had been induced in nine of 10 llamas by a single i.m. injection of 500 or 750 iu of human chorionic gonadtrophin, the plasma progesterone concentration increased after two days from 0.5 to 1.2 ng/ml to 4.6 to 10.3 ng/ml after six to nine days and returned to basal values after 10 to 13 days, reflecting life-span of a corpus luteum in the absence of conception. After a male llama had been introduced into a group of 13 females, 10 matings which resulted in eight conceptions occurred in the first 11 days, and 11 of the llamas became pregnant. The llamas' progesterone concentrations increased after mating and remained high if conception had occurred: 6 to 12 ng/ml in months one to four, and 5 to 9 ng/ml in months five to nine of the 11-month gestation. Two of the 13 llamas had high concentrations of progesterone although they did not become pregnant.

Adams, G. P. (1991). Ovarian function in llamas and cattle : factors affecting follicular growth and emergence of follicular waves.

Adams, G. P. (2007). "Theriogenology in llamas and alpacas." Large Animal Veterinary Rounds 7(10): 6 pp.

The reproductive characteristics of llamas and alpacas are similar, and clinical management need not distinguish between the two. Camelids are the only large domestic species that are induced ovulators. Sexual behaviour and copulation time is strikingly different from any other domestic species. In addition, gestation is unusually long and uterine anatomy, placentation, and birthing distinctly differ from any other species. This issue of Large Animal Rounds discusses the reproductive management of South American camelids. The paper covers sexual and mating behaviour, ultrasonography of the ovaries and uterus, follicular dynamics, luteal dynamics, ovarian irregularities, breeding shemes, puberty and postpartum period, synchronization and fixed-time breeding and pregnancy diagnosis.

Adams, G. P., et al. (1989). "In situ morphologic dynamics of ovaries, uterus and cervix in llamas." Biology of Reproduction 41(3): 551-558.

The appearance of the ovaries, uterus and cervix of 21 non-pregnant and pregnant (<50 days) llamas was monitored daily by rectal ultrasonography, and uterine tone was monitored by rectal palpation. Follicles were characteristically arranged along the periphery of the ovary, and large follicles and the corpus luteum protruded distinctly from the ovarian surface. The preovulatory follicle grew at a mean rate of 0.7 mm per day, and its av. diameter on the day before ovulation was 10.6±0.9 mm. Ovulation (day 0) was detected on average 1.8 days after a single mating. The mature corpus luteum was 11-13 mm in diameter and was characteristically hypoechogenic with a white (echogenic) horizontal area in the centre. Pregnancy occurred in 7 of the llamas and was detected as early as 11 days after mating. All 7 singleton embryonic vesicles were in the left uterine horn; the members of the single set of twins were in opposite horns. Uterine and cervical echotexture was darker during follicular dominance than during luteal dominance and pregnancy, indicating a decrease in tissue interfaces or an increase in intercellular fluid during follicular dominance. The cervical folds became echogenic and prominent during luteal dominance. The curling of the uterine horns was greater (P<0.001) for the left horn than for the right horn and was greater (P<0.001) for animals showing luteal dominance and for pregnant animals than for animals showing follicular dominance. The uterus was highly turgid during follicular dominance compared with the phase of luteal dominance and pregnancy (P<0.001).

Adams, G. P., et al. (2005). "Ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas." Biology of Reproduction 73(3): 452-457.

Studies were conducted to document the existence of an ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas (experiment 1) and llamas (experiment 2) and to determine if the effect is mediated via the pituitary (experiment 3). In experiment 1, female alpacas (n=14 per group) were given alpaca seminal plasma or saline intramuscularly or by intrauterine infusion. Only alpacas that were given seminal plasma i.m. ovulated (13/14, 93%; P<0.01). In experiment 2, ovulation was detected in 9/10 (90%) llamas at a mean of 29.3±0.7 h after seminal plasma treatment. Plasma progesterone concentrations were maximal by Day 9 and were at nadir by Day 12 post-treatment. In experiment 3, female llamas were given llama seminal plasma, GnRH, or saline i.m., and ovulation was detected in 6/6, 5/6, and 0/6 llamas, respectively (P<0.001). Treatment was followed by a surge (P<0.01) in plasma LH concentration beginning 15 min and 75 min after treatment with GnRH and seminal plasma, respectively. Plasma LH remained elevated longer in the seminal plasma group (P<0.05) and had not yet declined to pre-treatment levels after 8 h. Compared with the GnRH group, corpus luteum tended to grow longer and to a greater diameter (P=0.1) and plasma progesterone concentration was twice as high in the seminal plasma group (P<0.01). Results document the existence of a potent factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas that elicited a surge in circulating concentrations of LH and induced an ovulatory and luteotropic response.

Adams, G. P., et al. (1990). "Effects of lactational and reproductive status on ovarian follicular waves in llamas (Lama glama)." Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 90(2): 535-545.

41 llamas were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography for at least 30 days. The presence or absence of a corpus luteum and the diameter of the largest and 2nd largest follicle in each ovary were recorded. Llamas were classed as lactating or non-lactating, and were allocated to groups that were (1) unmated (anovulatory group), (2) mated by a vasectomised ♂ (ovulatory, non-pregnant group) (3) mated by an intact ♂ and confirmed pregnant (pregnant group). Ovulation occurred on the 2nd day after mating with a vasectomised or intact ♂ in 26 of 27 (96%) ovulating llamas. Interval from mating to ovulation (2.0±0.1 days) and growth rate of preovulatory follicle (0.8±0.2 mm per day) were not affected by lactational status or the type of ♂ (vasectomised vs. intact). Waves of follicular activity were indicated by periodic increases in the number of follicles and the emergence of a dominant follicle that grew to ≥7 mm in diameter. The correlation of the number of follicles with the diameter of the largest follicle was -0.2 (P = 0.002). Successive dominant follicles emerged at intervals of 19.8±0.7 days in unmated and vasectomy-mated llamas and 14.8±0.6 days in pregnant llamas (P = 0.001). Lactation was associated with an interval between follicular waves that was 2.5±0.05 days less than the average of all groups (P = 0.03). The max. diameter of anovulatory dominant follicles ranged from 9 to 16 mm, and was greater (P<0.05) for non-pregnant llamas (anovulatory group, 12.1±0.4 mm; ovulatory group, 11.5±0.2 mm) than for pregnant llamas (9.7±0.2 mm). In addition, lactation was associated with a smaller (P<0.05) max. diameter of dominant follicles averaged over all reproductive stages (10.4±0.2 vs. 11.7±0.3 mm). The corpus luteum was maintained for an average of 10 days after ovulation in non-pregnant llamas and to the end of the observational period in pregnant llamas. The presence (ovulatory non-pregnant group) and persistence (pregnant group) of a corpus luteum was associated with a decrease in the number of follicles and reduced prominence of dominant follicles (anovulatory group > ovulatory, non-pregnant group > pregnant group). Lactation was also associated with a reduced prominence of dominant follicles. The results demonstrated that follicular activity occurred in waves for llamas at all reproductive stages, and that lactation and the presence of a corpus luteum was associated with depressed follicular development.

Adams, G. P., et al. (1991). "Form and function of the corpus luteum in llamas." Animal Reproduction Science 24(1-2): 127-138.

In the 1st of 2 experiments, the presence and diameter of the corpus luteum was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasonography for a minimum of 30 days in 59 llamas. Animals were categorised as non-lactating or lactating and allotted to the following groups (reproductive status): (1) non-mated (anovulatory); (2) mated by a vasectomised ♂ (ovulatory, non-pregnant); (3) mated by an intact male (pregnant). In experiment 2, luteal diameter was monitored by transrectal ultrasonography in 68 pregnant llamas during the 1st 60 days of pregnancy. Corpus luteum diameter was significantly correlated (0.83) with plasma progesterone concentration. Corpora lutea were not detected and the plasma progesterone concentration did not exceed 0.4 ng/ml in anovulatory llamas. The corpus luteum was first detected on day 3.1±0.2 (day 0 = mating) in both ovulatory non-pregnant and pregnant llamas. In these 2 groups, the corpus luteum reached the max. diameter on day 5.9±0.3 and 21.4±1.2 resp., and the max. diameter was 12.8±0.3 and 16.3±0.3 mm. Except on the 1st day of detection of the corpus luteum, lactational status did not affect luteal growth and regression. Reproductive status (ovulatory, non-pregnant vs. pregnant) did not affect luteal growth and regression; the growth patterns were the same until day 9 at which time the corpus luteum was regressing in non-pregnant llamas and still growing in pregnant llamas. A corpus luteum was not detected after day 12 in non-pregnant llamas, and was detected up to day 60 (end of observations) in pregnant llamas. A prolonged luteal phase (pseudopregnancy) was not observed in any non-pregnant (non-mated or mated by a vasectomised ♂) llama. In pregnant llamas, plasma progesterone concentration reduced temporarily on day 8, as in non-pregnant llamas, but increased after day 10.

Adams, G. P., et al. (1991). "Hemorrhagic ovarian follicles in llamas." Theriogenology 35(3): 557-568.

Ovaries of 74 llamas were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography for at least 30 days. Haemorrhagic follicles were observed in 13 (18%) llamas (incidence per anovulatory dominant follicle, 16%). The proportion of llamas in which a haemorrhagic follicle was detected was different among groups (nonmated, 8/25; mated to vasectomized male, 4/21; mated to an intact male, nonpregnant, 1/10; mated to a vasectomized male, pregnant, 0/18). A haemorrhagic follicle, observed grossly after ovariectomy, was large (13 mm) and fluctuant, with a thin translucent wall and dark red contents. No ovulatory stigma was detected, and after incising the wall, bloody fluid escaped and the follicle collapsed leaving only a a small blood clot within the antrum. The antral contents appeared to become organized after follicle growth ceased. Ultrasonic indications of antral haemorrhage were not observed in any follicles in which ovulation was later detected (0/45 ovulatory follicles). All of the haemorrhagic follicles were apparently anovulatory and were repeatable within the individuals. Luteinization of the haemorrhagic follicle was indicated (thickened wall) in 2 llamas by an elevated plasma progesterone concentration and/or by ultrasound. By their large size, haemorrhagic follicles may be interpreted as haemorrhagic follicular cysts; however, they were not associated with other ovarian irregularities or with infertility.

Adams, R. and F. Garry (1994). "Llama neonatology." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 209-227.

Afshar, A., et al. (1995). "Application of competitive ELISA for the detection of bluetongue virus antibodies in llamas and wild ruminants." Journal of Wildlife Diseases 31(3): 327-330.

A competitive ELISA (C-ELISA), using a group-specific monoclonal antibody against bluetongue virus (BTV), was applied to detect anti-BTV antibodies in serum samples from 2 llamas (Llama glama) experimentally infected with BTV serotype 10. Antibodies were detected in both llamas by 1 or 2 weeks after infection. Antibodies to BTV increased exponentially during the first 4 weeks in both llamas and stabilized at an elevated level during the remaining 5-week period of study. The C-ELISA was evaluated for 1442 field sera from bluetongue-free areas, collected from 398 llamas in New Zealand as well as 451 elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis), 323 bison (Bison bison) and 270 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Canada. Based on the frequency distribution of the C-ELISA values, it was proposed that the current negative cut-off value of 50% inhibition established for bovine field sera also can be applied to the sera from the wild ruminants. The C-ELISA values for other wild ruminant field sera collected in bluetongue-free areas of Canada from 98 native caribou (R. tarandus caribou), 32 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), 14 moose (Alces alces), and 9 musk-oxen (Ovibos maschatus) and 15 yak (Bos grunniens) also were <50%, with the exception of 3 caribou samples.

Agbedanu, P. N., et al. (2015). "Doxycycline as an inhibitor of p-glycoprotein in the alpaca for the purpose of maintaining avermectins in the CNS during treatment for parelaphostrongylosis." Vet Parasitol 212(3-4): 303-307.

Meningeal worms (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) are a common malady of alpacas, often refractory to conventional treatments. Ivermectin is a very effective anthelmintic used against a variety of parasites but this drug is not consistently effective against alpaca meningeal worms once the parasite has gained access to the CNS, even if used in a protracted treatment protocol. Ivermectin is not effective against clinical cases of P. tenuis, raising the possibility that the drug is not sustained at therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A specific protein (designated as p-glycoprotein (PGP)) effluxes ivermectin from the brain at the blood-brain barrier, thus hampering the maintenance of therapeutic concentrations of the drug in the CNS. Minocycline is a synthetic tetracycline antibiotic with an excellent safety profile in all animals tested to date. Minocycline has three unique characteristics that could be useful for treating meningeal worms in conjunction with ivermectin. First, minocycline is an inhibitor of PGP at the blood-brain barrier and this inhibition could maintain effective concentrations of ivermectin in the brain and meninges. Second, minocycline protects neurons in vivo through a number of different mechanisms and this neuroprotection could alleviate the potential untoward neurologic effects of meningeal worms. Third, minocycline is a highly lipid-soluble drug, thus facilitating efficient brain penetration. We thus hypothesized that minocycline will maintain ivermectin, or a related avermectin approved in ruminants (abamectin, doramectin, or eprinomectin), in the alpaca CNS. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the gene encoding the alpaca PGP, expressed the alpaca PGP in a heterologous expression system involving MDCK cells, and measured the ability of minocycline to inhibit the efflux of avermectins from the MDCK cells; doxycycline was used as a putative negative control (based on studies in other species). Our in vitro studies surprisingly revealed that doxycycline was effective at inhibiting the efflux of ivermectin and doramectin (minocycline had no effect). These two avermectins, in combination with doxycycline, should be considered when treating meningeal worms in alpacas. AN - 26371853

Aguer, C. (1980). La santa llama. Buenos Aires, Ediciones Agon.

Agüero, A., et al. (2001). "Superovulation in llamas: comparison of two treatments." InVet - Investigación Veterinaria 3(1/2): 13-18.

The objective of the present work was to compare different superovulatory protocols in relation to the ovarian response obtained and the quantity and quality of the embryos recovered. The experiment was designed with three groups: I: control without superovulatory treatment (n=5); II: single dose of 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; n=8); III: single dose of of 500 IU of eCG and 50 mg of FSHp (n=17). The follicular wave was synchronized with intravaginal devices, impregnated with progesterone, inserted during 5 days and after the removal the groups received the corresponding superovulatory treatments. After treatment, all females were mated twice with an interval of 24 hours and GnRH was applied after the first mating. Follicular dynamics was monitored using rectal palpation and ultrasound scanning. Embryos were recovered by transcervical uterine flushing on day 7 postmating. Mean numbers of total follicles observed (mean±1 SD) were 2.8±0.8; 5.2±2.5 and 5.9 ±1.7 for groups I, II and III and mean embryos collected were 0.2±0.4; 2.1±2.9 and 1.9±2.7 respectively. Significant differences were found between control and treatment groups (P<0.05); there were no significant differences between treatment groups (P>0.05). We conclude that treatment with a single dose of 500 UI of eCG stimulates the growth and development of multiple follicles, allows the obtaining of good quality embryos, represents a lower economic cost and is easier and more practical to implement.

Aguilar Cabrera, J. C. (1999). Suplementación de heno y ensillaje de alfalfa para el incremento de peso vivo en llamas ancutas machos.

No abstract supplied.

Aguirre, D. H., et al. (2000). "Experimental infestation of llamas (Lama glama) with Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)." Experimental & Applied Acarology 24(8): 661-664.

Two llamas (L. glama) were infested with ∼20 000 B. microplus larvae each and maintained under controlled conditions to collect the detached adult ticks. A total of 72 engorged and semi-engorged females were recovered with a mean weight of 163.0±70.6 mg. Sixty-three (87.5%) of these ticks oviposited and 60 (95.2%) of the egg masses produced larvae. Six of the heaviest females laid 18 838 eggs from which 16 545 (87.8%) hatched. These results show that llamas are able to maintain a population of B. microplus under experimental conditions. Further studies are required to determine the role of llamas as alternative hosts for B. microplus under field conditions.

Aguirre, D. H., et al. (1994). "Experimental inoculation of Anaplasma marginale in llamas (Lama glama)." Medicina Veterinaria 11(5): 296...300.

Two llamas, negative to the slide agglutination test (SAT) for anti-rickettsial antibodies, were inoculated i.m. with 2.5 × 109Anaplasma marginale (strain without appendages). Parasitaemia was not observed in the blood smears obtained from the llamas and there was no change in body temperature or haematocrit. However, one of the llamas was positive to the SAT carried out 30 and 47 days after inoculation. It is suggested that llamas could be asymptomatic carriers of A. marginale infection.

Aguirre, I. M., et al. (2014). "Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile." Veterinary microbiology 168(2/4): 324-330.

Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity.

Ajata Avircata (2006). Perfil metabólico y balance de nitrógeno en llamas (Lama glama) alimentadas con jipi de quinua y heno de cebada, municipio de Viacha - departamento de La Paz.

This research was completed in LetanÃas, Viacha, La Paz, Bolivia, to determine the metabolic profile in blood plasma (total protein, glucose, urea, albumin, total lipids, creatinine, triglycerides, and cholesterol concentrations), live weight gain, and Nitrogen balance in adult llamas fed with 4 rations of barley and quinoa residue. Eight adult (4-5 year old) Q'ara type llamas were used in this study. Study llamas were trained to stay in metabolic cages with feces collection harnesses. Llamas were given one of the following feed rations: ration A (20% quinoa residue, 80% barley), ration B (40% quinoa residue, 60% barley), ration C (60% quinoa residue, 40% barley), and ration D (80% quinoa residue 20% barley). The results were protein concentration 7.44±0.39 g/dl; albumin 4.66±0.80 mg/dl; urea 13.87±3.70 mg/dl; creatinine 1.65±0.19 mg/dl; glucose 127.67±50.32 mg/dl; total lipids 318.2±144.14 mg/dl; triglycerides 39.35±13.49 mg/dl; cholesterol 53.85±13.53 mg/dl. Live weight gain was -0.0094±1.44 kg. Nitrogen balance was 0.610±0.0868 g/kg. According to the results of this research, metabolites in blood plasma are higher when compared to other research. Gain in body weight was negative in rations A and D and positive in rations B and C. This is attributed to a better equilibrium among energy levels and protein in these last rations. The nitrogen balance was positive for all four rations due to an adequate source of protein in the feed.

Akazawa-Ogawa, Y., et al. (2016). "The role of intra-domain disulfide bonds in heat-induced irreversible denaturation of camelid single domain VHH antibodies." J Biochem 159(1): 111-121.

Camelid-derived single domain VHH antibodies are highly heat resistant, and the mechanism of heat-induced VHH denaturation predominantly relies on the chemical modification of amino acids. Although chemical modification of disulfide bonds has been recognized as a cause for heat-induced denaturation of many proteins, there have been no mutagenesis studies, in which the number of disulfide bonds was controlled. In this article, we examined a series of mutants of two different VHHs with single, double or no disulfide bonds, and scrutinized the effects of these disulfide bond modifications on VHH denaturation. With the exception of one mutant, the heat resistance of VHHs decreased when the number of disulfide bonds increased. The effect of disulfide bonds on heat denaturation was more striking if the VHH had a second disulfide bond, suggesting that the contribution of disulfide shuffling is significant in proteins with multiple disulfide bonds. Furthermore, our results directly indicate that removal of a disulfide bond can indeed increase the heat resistance of a protein, irrespective of the negative impact on equilibrium thermodynamic stability. AN - 26289739

Al-Ani, F. K., et al. (1992). "Studies on some haematological parameters of camel and llama in Iraq." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 40(2): 103-106.

Fifteen female camels and 10 female llamas (Lama pacos) were examined for red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin concn, packed cell volume and total and differential cell counts. The serum was analysed for total proteins, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorous, urea, creatinine, glucose, cholesterol, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen and 6 different enzymes. The mean and standard deviation of the different variables are discussed in relation to previous reports. It is concluded that the total RBC, white blood cell counts, haemoglobin concn, packed cell volume and total protein are similar in the llama and the camel.

Alarcón, V., et al. (1990). "Comparison of three methods of pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas and llamas." Theriogenology 34(6): 1119-1127.

55 alpacas and 20 llamas, aged 3-8 yr and mated to fertile ♂♂, were subjected to pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasound, rectal palpation and non-return to oestrus (oestrus detected by teaser ♂♂). Accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis by the non-return method was 84 and 88% for alpacas at 70 and 125 days of pregnancy resp, and 85 and 95% at 75 and 125 days for llamas. For the ultrasound method, the accuracy was 92% at 80 days of pregnancy for alpacas, and 100% at 75 days for llamas. The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis by rectal palpation was 100% for both species. In alpacas, the accuracy by rectal palpation was significantly higher than that by the other 2 methods; the 3 methods did not differ significantly in llamas. Accuracy did not differ significantly between species for any method.

Al-Bassam, L. S., et al. (2007). "Effect of season on haematological parameters in clinically normal llamas (Lama glama) raised in Libya." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 14(2): 187-190.

This study was conducted on 10 llamas (Lama glama, 5 males and 5 females) to determine the changes in haematological parameters in different seasons. Statistically significant differences were detected in the mean values of haemoglobin, packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet and neutrophil count. Haemoglobin concentration was highest in summer. Packed cell volume was higher in spring and summer than in winter. Platelet count in spring differed significantly from that in winter and summer. Neutrophil count was significantly different in winter and spring. The significance of these findings are discussed.

Alberio, R. H. and J. F. Aller (1996). "Control and synchronisation of the follicular cycle mediated by the exogenous influence of progesterone in llamas." Revista Argentina de Producción Animal 16(4): 325-329.

Alcaino, H., et al. (1991). "Gastrointestinal helminthiasis in llamas (Lama glama) from Region I of Chile." Parasitología al Dia 15: 93-96.

Aldous, K. M. a. and J. S.-C. F. s. S.-C. F. s. Allen (1991). The long-loan Llama. London, MacRae.

Alejandro Camino, D. C. and K. Julio Sumar (2000). Importance of alpacas and llamas in the changing context of development research. Kathmandu, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development: 285-296.

A detailed account is given of the important role of the lamoids (2 domesticated species, the llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos), and 2 wild species, the vicuna (Lama vicugna) and guanaco (Lama guanicoe)) in the agroecosystem of the Andean region. It is concluded that lamoids offer a good substitute (economically and environmentally)for sheep in the agropastoral farming systems of the high altitude Andes.

Ali Quisbert, E. (2008). Efecto de la privación de alimentos en el perfil metabólico de llamas (Lama glama) en la estación experimental de Letanias - Viacha.

In the highlands, where regular agriculture and livestock are not viable, raising camelids is the only means of subsistence for rural families. While grazing during the dry season in the high Andean region, llamas face serious nutritional deficiencies due to limited forage availability. This study was done at the experimental station of the Benson Agriculture and Food Institute located in the community of Letanias which is in the municipality of Viacha. The objective was to determine the effect of food deprivation on the metabolic profile of blood plasma (concentration of urea-nitrogen, total protein, albumin, and creatinine) as well as the concentration of nitrogen in feces and urine of four and five year old llamas. These llamas were fed on a diet of 80% barley hay and 20% alfalfa hay during two periods of study (before and after food deprivation). Eight male Q'ara llamas were cannulated with a one meter tube in the jugular vein for blood sampling and trained to stay in metabolic cages. The study took place over a period of seven weeks, in which there was a four week period where food was reduced to 30%. The statistical analysis used was the paired t test. The results obtained were: urea-nitrogen concentration = 23.31 ± 8.73 mg/dl, total protein = 9.15 ± 1.50 mg/dl, albumin = 4.47 ± 0.41 mg/dl, and creatinine = 2.39 ± 0.49 mg/dl. The results for nitrogen concentration (%) in feces and urine were 1.61 ± 0.09 and 0.82 ± 0.15 respectively. The average weight loss for the animals was 13.25 kg. According to the results obtained in this study, the concentration of metabolites in blood plasma is within the range reported in other investigations. Statistical analysis indicates no significant differences (p<0.05) in the study periods before and after food deprivation for urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, and nitrogen in the feces. In contrast, there was a significant difference (p<0.01) in plasma creatinine, nitrogen in the urine, and animal body weight.

Al-Izzi, S. A., et al. (2004). "Haematological parameters in clinically normal llamas (Lama glama)." Praxis Veterinaria (Zagreb) 52(3): 225-232.

Haematological parameters were determined in 73 llamas, including nursing, juveniles and adults of both sexes. These parameters included: erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, reticulocyte count, platelet count, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, plasma proteins, fibrinogen, prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time. There were significant (P&lt;0.05) differences in the mean values of erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, nucleated erythrocytes, reticulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and fibrinogen between age groups. Erythrocyte count and basophils were higher (P&lt;0.05), while mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin were lower (P&lt;0.05) in all males than those in all females. Data presented here were comparable with those reported in the literature.

Allen, A. J., et al. (2015). "Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States." J Vet Diagn Invest 27(2): 226-230.

In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. AN - 25680921

Allen, J. S.-A. c. f. s. (1992). The long-loan llama. London, Red Fox.

Aller, J., et al. (1998). "Detection of pregnancy and stage of gestation in llamas (Lama glama) by rectal palpation and ultrasonics." Archivos de Zootecnia 47(177): 43-50.

Of 227 llamas subjected to rectal palpation, 64.7% were diagnosed pregnant, and 87.1% of these females gave birth. Pregnancy detection by ultrasonics in 24 pregnant and 8 non-pregnant females confirmed the diagnoses made by rectal palpation in all females. The average biparietal diameter of fetuses from females diagnosed pregnant early, at an intermediate stage and late in the breeding season was 20.8, 18.4 and 12.5 mm respectively, the difference between early and late diagnoses being significant. Of females diagnosed pregnant early, at an intermediate stage and late in the season, 56.7, 36.0 and 7.2% respectively gave birth within 20 days of pregnancy diagnosis. It was concluded that rectal palpation provides a useful method for diagnosis of pregnancy and the stage of pregnancy in llamas.

Aller, J. F., et al. (2015). "Birth of live llama (Lama glama) derived from embryo transfer storage at 5°C for 24 h." Small Ruminant Research 132: 99-102.

The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of maintaining llama embryos metabolically inhibited but viable at 5°C during 24 h. Adult females (n=20) were used as embryo donors and were superstimulated with eCG. A total 61 embryos were non-surgically collected from 16 of the 20 llamas flushed at Day 7 after mating. Fourteen excellent hatched blastocysts were stored in sterile test tubes containing 1.5 ml of TCM 199-Hepes+10% cow serum (v/v concentration)+antibiotics and cooled to 5°C (cooling rate=0.5°C/min) and maintained at 5°C during 24 h. After this, the embryos were warmed on warming plate (38°C), washed three times and loaded individually into 0.25 ml French straws. Fourteen adult llamas were used as recipients and embryos were transferred only into the left uterine horn of the recipient regardless of side ovulation. All recipient llamas were pregnancy tested by transrectal ultrasonography at 45 days after transfer. Three (21.5%) pregnant females were detected and delivered three normal healthy male calves at term. To our knowledge, these offspring are the first llamas produced following transfer of refrigerated embryos. In summary, llama embryos can be cooled to 5°C and maintained in storage for up to 24 h without significant losses of viability.

Aller, J. F., et al. (2015). "Embryo yield in llamas synchronized with two different intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices and superovulated with eCG." Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 13(3): e04SC01.

The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of two intravaginal devices (ID) containing the same dose (0.5 g) of progesterone (P4) on subsequent ovarian response, embryo production and circulating P4 concentration profile in llamas (Lama glama) treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for ovarian superstimulation. Female llamas were randomly assigned (n=10 llamas per group) to one of the following groups and treated (Day 0) with an ID containing 0.5 g of vegetal P4 to synchronize the emergence of a new follicular wave: (i) DIB 0.5® and (ii) Cronipres M15®. On Day 3 llamas were intramuscularly treated with 1000 IU of eCG. The IDs were removed on Day 7. Llamas were naturally mated (Day 9) and treated with GnRH analogue to induce ovulation. A second mating was allowed 24 h later. Embryos were collected between 7 and 8 days after the first mating. Blood samples were taken every day from Day 0 to Day 7 to measure circulating P4 concentrations. The results indicated that DIB device maintained greater plasma P4 levels as compared to Cronipres until Day 2. However, the mean (±SD) number of corpora lutea and recovered embryos was not affected (p&lt;0.05) by the type of ID (5.3±2.6 vs 4.2±2.2 and 3.5±2.7 vs 2.6±3.0 for DIB and Cronipres, respectively). In conclusion, both DIB and Cronipres devices can be successfully used to synchronize the emergence of follicular wave prior to a single dose of eCG in superovulation protocol in llamas.

Aller, J. F., et al. (1996). "The relationship between rectal palpations and ultrasound used for the determination of the term of gestation in llamas." Revista Argentina de Producción Animal 16(4): 331-335.

Aller, J. F. and R. H. Alberio (1996). "Follicular dynamics in llamas during the autumn and winter." Revista Argentina de Producción Animal 16(4): 319-323.

Aller, J. F., et al. (2010). "Effect of estradiol benzoate used at the start of a progestagen treatment on superovulatory response and embryo yield in lactating and non-lactating llamas." Animal Reproduction Science 119(3/4): 322-328.

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of estradiol benzoate (EB) and intravaginal progestagen treatment on ovarian follicular dynamics and superstimulatory response in eCG-treated llamas. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to evaluate the effect of EB and progestagen treatment starting at different phases of dominant follicle (DF1) development on regression pattern and subsequent follicle wave emergence (WE2) in lactating and non-lactating llamas. Early lactating (n=24, 30±4 days postpartum) and non-lactating (n=24) females were assigned in equal numbers (n=8) to one of three groups according to the phase of DF1 (growing, static or regressing) determined by ultrasonography from day -3 to day 0. At day 0, llamas received an intravaginal sponge (MPA, 150 mg) and 5 mg of MPA (i.m.). Half of the females (n=4) of each group were injected with 2 mg (i.m.) of EB and half were not (control group). A 2×2×3 (lactational status, EB treatment and follicular phases) factorial design was used. Each sponge was removed 8 days later. Ovaries were monitored from day 0 to day 12. Daily blood samples were taken to determine 17β-estradiol (E2) profiles from day 0 to day 8. The DF1 regression pattern was not affected (P&gt;0.05) by the phase of follicle wave at the start of the treatment or any interactions among main effects. Follicle wave emergence in EB-treated llamas was delayed (P&lt;0.05) by 2.3 days compared with non-treated llamas. Following EB treatment, plasma concentrations of E2 were greater (P&lt;0.05) from day 1 to day 5 in the treated than in non-treated females, but not from day 6 onward (P&gt;0.05). Experiment 2 was designed to evaluate the effect of this treatment on the ovarian superovulatory response and embryo yield following eCG treatment administered on day of follicular wave emergence as determined in the Experiment 1. The same lactating (n=18, 61±4 days postpartum) and non-lactating (n=18) llamas at random stages of follicle wave were treated as those in Experiment 1 and received 1200 IU of eCG at the time of WE2 (EB-treated=day 6.5 and non-treated=day 4.5). Llamas were mated 5 days after sponge withdrawal. A second mating was allowed 24 h later. Embryos were collected between 7 and 8 days after the first mating and blood samples were taken to determine progesterone (P4) concentrations. The mean number of follicles on day of mating and the number of CL on day of embryo collection were not affected by lactational status, EB treatment or their interactions (P&gt;0.05). Ovulation rate and mean (±SEM) number of recovered embryos for EB treatment group (67.5% and 2.4±0.4) were greater (P&lt;0.05) than for no EB treatment (51.1% and 1.1±0.4). Plasma P4 concentrations and number of CL per llama were correlated (r=0.49; P=0.014). In conclusion, progestagen plus EB treatment facilitates the prediction of the emergence of a new follicular wave approximately 6 days after treatment and resulted in a higher ovulation rate and embryo production in ovarian superstimulated llamas regardless of lactational status.

Aller, J. F., et al. (1997). "Semen collection in llamas (Lama glama) from the Argentinian Puna." Veterinaria Argentina 14(132): 104-107.

The feasibility of semen collection from wild llamas was studied.

Aller, J. F., et al. (2002). "Successful transfer of vitrified llama (Lama glama) embryos." Animal Reproduction Science 73(1/2): 121-127.

The exploitation of the domestic animals species of South American camelids is of great social importance for the native people living in the High Andes. The reproductive physiology of these species is a unique challenge in the development of advanced breeding techniques. At present, the cryopreservation of embryos has not been developed and very few investigations have been conducted. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the in vivo survival of vitrified llama embryos after transfer to recipient females. Donors females were treated with a CIDR-estradiol benzoate-eCG regimen and were mated naturally 6 days after CIDR withdrawal. One ovulatory dose (8 µg) of GnRH was administered immediately after mating. A second mating was allowed 24 h later. Embryo recovery was performed nonsurgically between 8 and 8.5 days after the first mating. Twenty-two ova/embryos were recovered from 12 donor females. Hatched blastocysts were exposed to vitrification solution (20% glycerol+20% ethylene glycol+0.3 M sucrose+0.375 M glucose+3% polyethylene glycol (P/V)) in three steps, and after loading into 0.25 ml straws, were plunged into liquid nitrogen. For embryo transfer, recipients animals were ovulation-synchronized using GnRH administered at the same time as donors. A total of eight vitrified-warmed embryos and 12 fresh embryos were nonsurgically transferred to four and six recipient females, respectively (two embryo per recipient). The pregnancy rates were 50 and 33.3% for recipients that had received vitrified embryos and fresh embryos, respectively. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of this simple vitrification method for cryopreservation of llama embryos.

Aller R, F., et al. (1989). "Catheterization of fetal and maternal blood vessels in the llama (Lama glama)." Avances en Ciencias Veterinarias 4(1): 69-74.

Catheters were placed in carotid and pedal arteries in the fetuses and in the pedal artery in the dams. The surgical technique of fetal and maternal catheterization in llamas was little different from that in sheep.

Alpers, S. A. (2013). Miss Lilly The Cute Little Llama: The Cute Little Llama, Xlibris US.

Alstine, W. G. v. and I. Mitsui (2010). "Sudden death associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an alpaca (Llama pacos)." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22(3): 448-450.

A healthy, 3-year-old, intact male alpaca (Llama pacos) died suddenly and unexpectedly and had an unusual pattern of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that was restricted to the interventricular septal and right ventricular myocardium. Grossly pale areas in the affected myocardium corresponded histologically to thickened and disorganized myofibers with excessive branching and marked nuclear pleomorphism. Mitoses were absent. Inflammation and fibrosis were minimal. A few thickened muscular arteries were scattered in the affected myocardium.

Altenbrunner-Martinek, B., et al. (2007). "Congenital malformation of the front limbs in a llama (Lama glama): polydactyly in combination with arthrogryposis." Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 120(11/12): 508-512.

A 10-month-old male llama with malformation of both front limbs was presented [Austria, date not given]. Both front limbs had one more digit located medially. The distal phalanx of this additional digit at the left front limb reached the ground by the tip of the keratinized pad and toenail. The accessory digit at the right front limb was bent in a 90° angle caudolaterally. Beside the digital bones of the accessory digits, the second metacarpal bone and the first carpal bone could be detected in both front limbs by radiological examination. A bilateral slight carpal valgus deformity could be seen.

Alturki, N. A., et al. (2015). "Isolation of Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies Against Native Proteins Using Recombinant Multivalent Peptide Ligands." Methods Mol Biol 1348: 167-189.

Generation of antibodies against desired epitopes on folded proteins may be hampered by various characteristics of the target protein, including antigenic and immunogenic dominance of irrelevant epitopes and/or steric occlusion of the desired epitope. In such cases, peptides encompassing linear epitopes of the native protein represent attractive alternative reagents for immunization and screening. Peptide antigens are typically prepared by fusing or conjugating the peptide of interest to a carrier protein. The utility of such antigens depends on many factors including the peptide's amino acid sequence, display valency, display format (synthetic conjugate vs. recombinant fusion) and characteristics of the carrier. Here we provide detailed protocols for: (1) preparation of DNA constructs encoding peptides fused to verotoxin (VT) multimerization domain; (2) expression, purification, and characterization of the multivalent peptide-VT ligands; (3) concurrent panning of a non-immune phage-displayed camelid VHH library against the peptide-VT ligands and native protein; and (4) identification of VHHs enriched via panning using next-generation sequencing techniques. These methods are simple, rapid and can be easily adapted to yield custom peptide-VT ligands that appear to maintain the antigenic structures of the peptide. However, we caution that peptide sequences should be chosen with great care, taking into account structural, immunological, and biophysical information on the protein of interest. AN - 26424272

Álvarez, B., et al. (2015). "An exopolysaccharide-deficient mutant of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG efficiently displays a protective llama antibody fragment against rotavirus on its surface." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81(17): 5784-5793.

Rotavirus is the leading cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries, where it causes a high number of deaths among infants. Two vaccines are available, being highly effective in developed countries although markedly less efficient in developing countries. As a complementary treatment to the vaccines, a Lactobacillus strain producing an anti-rotavirus antibody fragment in the gastrointestinal tract could potentially be used. In order to develop such an alternative therapy, the effectiveness of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG to produce and display a VHH antibody fragment (referred to as anti-rotavirus protein 1 [ARP1]) on the surface was investigated. L. rhamnosus GG is one of the best-characterized probiotic bacteria and has intrinsic antirotavirus activity. Among four L. rhamnosus GG strains [GG (CMC), GG (ATCC 53103), GG (NCC 3003), and GG (UT)] originating from different sources, only GG (UT) was able to display ARP1 on the bacterial surface. The genomic analysis of strain GG (UT) showed that the genes welE and welF of the EPS cluster are inactivated, which causes a defect in exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, allowing efficient display of ARP1 on its surface. Finally, GG (UT) seemed to confer a level of protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea similar to that of wild-type GG (NCC 3003) in a mouse pup model, indicating that the EPS may not be involved in the intrinsic antirotavirus activity. Most important, GG (EM233), a derivative of GG (UT) producing ARP1, was significantly more protective than the control strain L. casei BL23.

Alvarez, R. and G. Lidén (2009). "Low temperature anaerobic digestion of mixtures of llama, cow and sheep manure for improved methane production." Biomass and Bioenergy 33(3): 527-533.

Biogas production in anaerobic digestion in farm-scale units is typically performed under mesophilic conditions when used for producing domestic fuel and stabilizing animal waste for the use of digested manure as a fertilizer. Previous studies on the digestion of llama and cow manure have shown the feasibility of producing biogas under altiplano conditions (low pressure and low temperature) and of llama manure as a promising feedstock. The present study concerns the utilization of various mixtures of feedstocks from the Bolivian altiplano under low temperature conditions (18-25°C). Laboratory scale experiments were performed on the digestion of mixtures of llama, sheep and cow manure in a semi-continuous process using ten 2-L stainless steel digesters to determine the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) and the feed composition. The semi-continuous operation of mixture of llama-cow-sheep manure proved to be a reliable system, which could be operated with good stability. The results suggest that in a system digesting a mixture of llama-cow-sheep manure at low temperature (18-25°C) the maximum OLR value is between 4 and 6 kg VS m3 d-1. The methane yields obtained in the mixture experiments were in the range 0.07-0.14 m3 kg-1 VS added, with a methane concentration in the gas of between 47 and 55%.

Alvarez, R., et al. (2006). "Biogas production from llama and cow manure at high altitude." Biomass and Bioenergy 30(1): 66-75.

Methane production from llama and cow manures from the Bolivian high plateau (The "Altiplano") was studied using a parallel reactor set-up consisting of 10 lab-scale biogasifiers. The effects of pressure (495 and 760 mmHg), temperature (11 and 35°C), hydraulic retention time (20 and 50 days), and manure content in the slurry (10%, 20% and 50%) were evaluated with respect to productivity and methane yields based on two 24-1 fractional factorial designs with 8 treatments for each kind of manure. The reactors were operated semi-continuously with daily manure feeding for periods between 50 and 100 days. Temperature was the main factor effect found, and the hydraulic retention time and the manure content in feed were also found significant whereas the effect of pressure was not significant in the range studied. The methane yield obtained with cow manure at 11°C was between 6.4 and 33.61 CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids added) whereas at 35°C the methane yield was between 49.6 and 131.31 CH4 kg-1 VS. The methane yield from llama manure was somewhat lower than for cow manure (between 3.3 and 19.31 CH4 kg-1 VS at 11°C and between 35.6 and 84.11 CH4 kg-1 VS at 35°C, respectively). However, overall llama manure was found to be the best raw material of the two for biogas production, due to its high content of volatile solid - higher than has been previously reported for most manures - and also its high nitrogen and phosphorous content.

Alvarez-Rueda, N., et al. (2007). "Generation of llama single-domain antibodies against methotrexate, a prototypical hapten." Molecular Immunology 44(7): 1680-1690.

Single-domain antibodies specific to methotrexate (MTX) were obtained after immunization of one llama (Llama glama). Specific VHH domains (V-D-J-REGION) were selected by panning from an immune-llama library using phage display technology. The antibody fragments specific to MTX were purified from Escherichia coli (C41 strain) periplasm by immobilized metal affinity chromatography with an expression level of around 10 mg/L. A single band around 16 000 Da corresponding to VHH fragments was found after analysis by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, while competition ELISA demonstrated selective binding to soluble MTX. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis showed that anti-MTX VHH domains had affinities in the nanomolar range (29-515 nM) to MTX-serum albumin conjugates. The genes encoding anti-MTX VHH were found by IMGT/V-QUEST to be similar to the previously reported llama and human IGHV germline genes. The V-D and D-J junction rearrangements in the seven anti-MTX CDR3 sequences indicate that they were originated from three distinct progenitor B cells. Our results demonstrate that camelid single-domain antibodies are capable of high affinity binding to low molecular weight hydrosoluble haptens. Furthermore, these anti-MTX VHH give new insights on how the antigen binding repertoire of llama single-domain antibody can provide combining sites to haptens in the absence of a VL. This type of single-domain antibodies offers advantages compared to murine recombinant antibodies in terms of production rate and sequence similarity to the human IGHV3 subgroup genes.

Alvarez-Rueda, N., et al. (2009). "A llama single domain anti-idiotypic antibody mimicking HER2 as a vaccine: immunogenicity and efficacy." Vaccine 27(35): 4826-4833.

HER2 over-expression in breast cancer correlates with reduced survival. Anti-idiotypic antibodies (Abs) that closely mimic HER2 could play a crucial role in the development of effective therapeutic vaccines. Here, we show that an anti-idiotypic single domain antibody (sdAb) 1HE isolated from a library generated from a Trastuzumab F(ab′)2-immunized llama, closely mimics HER2. SdAb 1HE shows high affinity for Trastuzumab F(ab′)2, selectively inhibits HER2 binding to Trastuzumab F(ab′)2, and sera from sdAb 1HE-immunized BALB/c mice contain anti-HER2 antibodies that inhibit viability of HER2-positive cells. These results indicate that sdAb 1HE could be used as an anti-idiotype-based vaccine to boost immunity in patients bearing HER2-positive tumours.

Alyakine, H., et al. (1999). "Surgical treatment of a congenital flexural deformity of the tarsal joint in a llama." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 6(2): 203-208.

A 13-day-old male llama with congenital flexural deformity of the tarsal joint was treated by resection of the largest branch of Peroneus tertius tendon. The animal presented a permanent flexion of the hock limiting the dorsal angle extension to 45°, and some radiographic bony modifications, the most important being medial deviation of the tuber calcanei, bending of the distal part of the tibia, and luxation of the proximal intertarsian joint. After surgery, the animal gained the use of its limb at walking and trotting gaits, but a slight lateral rotation of the distal part of the limb persisted. A two year follow up showed that some initial radiographic changes improved, but others such as osteolysis of the medial malleolus, tarsocrural subluxation and some radiographic opacities developed progressively without clinical consequences. The overall evaluation of surgical correction of the tarsal joint flexural deformity concluded to be satisfactory.

Amsel, S. I., et al. (1987). "Choosing the best site to perform venipuncture in a llama." Veterinary Medicine 82(5): 535-536.

Amstel, S. R. v., et al. (2009). "Ivermectin concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous administration to healthy llamas." Journal of Camelid Science 2: 41-49.

The response to anthelmintic treatment in clinical cases of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infestation remains unpredictable. In a previous study, ivermectin (IVM) was not detected in cerebrospinal fluid (C.S.F.) following subcutaneous administration to healthy llamas of IVM at 500 µg/kg. In the present study, the same IVM dose was added to 1 L 0.9% NaCl and administered intravenously over 30 minutes to 6 healthy llamas. C.S.F and blood were collected, at baseline and 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 60 hr after IVM administration. Serum and C.S.F. were stored at -40°C and IVM concentration was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (H.P.L.C.). No IVM was detected in the serum or C.S.F. in baseline samples. Concentrations of IVM ranging from 2291-7742 ng/ml were present in serum at 2 hr post dosing but values decreased to between 103-615 ng/ml at the 4 hr sampling, and ranged from 11-48 ng/ml at 60 hr. Low concentrations of IVM were found in the C.S.F. of all llamas on at least one of the sampling times. Immediately after administration of IVM three of the llamas showed transient lethargy and decreased appetite for 12-24 hours. One llama developed acute neurological signs 7 days after IVM administration and was euthanased three days later. Histopathologic examination revealed diffuse myelinic oedema in the brain and spinal cord. Two other llamas developed C.S.F. changes consistent with septic inflammation. C.S.F. concentrations of IVM can be achieved following I.V. administration at 500 µg/kg, however, because of the possibility of neurological damage, I.V. administration of IVM at this dose is not recommended.

Andersen, K. K., et al. (2015). "Neutralization of Clostridium difficile Toxin B Mediated by Engineered Lactobacilli That Produce Single-Domain Antibodies." Infect Immun 84(2): 395-406.

Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in the Western world. The major virulence factors of C. difficile are two exotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), which cause extensive colonic inflammation and epithelial damage manifested by episodes of diarrhea. In this study, we explored the basis for an oral antitoxin strategy based on engineered Lactobacillus strains expressing TcdB-neutralizing antibody fragments in the gastrointestinal tract. Variable domain of heavy chain-only (VHH) antibodies were raised in llamas by immunization with the complete TcdB toxin. Four unique VHH fragments neutralizing TcdB in vitro were isolated. When these VHH fragments were expressed in either secreted or cell wall-anchored form in Lactobacillus paracasei BL23, they were able to neutralize the cytotoxic effect of the toxin in an in vitro cell-based assay. Prophylactic treatment with a combination of two strains of engineered L. paracasei BL23 expressing two neutralizing anti-TcdB VHH fragments (VHH-B2 and VHH-G3) delayed killing in a hamster protection model where the animals were challenged with spores of a TcdA(-) TcdB(+) strain of C. difficile (P < 0.05). Half of the hamsters in the treated group survived until the termination of the experiment at day 5 and showed either no damage or limited inflammation of the colonic mucosa despite having been colonized with C. difficile for up to 4 days. The protective effect in the hamster model suggests that the strategy could be explored as a supplement to existing therapies for patients. AN - 26573738

Anderson, B. N. (1996). Llama babies : up, dry, and nursing. Salem, OR, A+ Llamas.

Anderson, D. E. (1999). "Liver disease, metabolism and digestion in llamas and alpacas." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 6(2): 163-169.

Liver disease is in llamas and alpacas kept in North America. Hepatic lipidosis is the most common cause of liver disease and is thought to be caused by chronic stress and concurrent metabolic demands of gestation, lactation and fibre coat growth. Other causes of liver disease include bacterial, viral, and fungal hepatitis, intoxication, neoplasia and parasite migration. Clinical signs of liver disease are vague and may include lethargy, apparent depression, recumbency, abdominal pain and hepatic encephalopathy. Symptomatic treatment is aimed at maintaining hydration, providing a ready source of energy and protein, and prevention of forestomach ulceration.

Anderson, D. E. (2004). "Comparison of trace mineral concentration in the various lobes of the liver of alpacas and llamas." Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 3(3): 162-164.

The objective of this study was to determine if the site of liver tissue collection will affect the level of selected trace minerals in the liver of alpacas and llamas. Using a randomized postmortem study, livers were collected during postmortem examination of alpacas and llamas that died of various diseases. Liver tissue was collected from the left, right and caudate lobes of the liver for analysis. Trace mineral analysis was performed at a commercial laboratory using inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy. Significant differences were not found among sites of tissue collection except for potassium. Coefficients of variation were &gt;50% for calcium, copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Site of liver tissue collection did not significantly affect trace mineral analyses in alpacas and llamas.

Anderson, D. E. (2004). Liver disease, metabolism and digestion in llamas and alpacas. Bikaner, The Camelid Publishers: 545-554.

Anderson, D. E. (2006). "Periapical tooth root infections in llamas and alpacas." Small Ruminant Research 61(2/3): 235-240.

Head and neck abscesses are a common complaint in llamas and alpacas in North America representing 3% of clinical cases presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Ohio State University (OSU-VTH). Approximately 20% of infected teeth have infection of the pulp cavity most often associated with a patent infundibulum, approximately 60% have evidence of periodontal disease and compromised periodontal ligament, and 20% are of unknown cause. Differential diagnosis includes tooth root abscess, osteomyelitis, soft tissue abscess (Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis), foreign body, parotid duct lesion, facial bone fracture, retained food bolus, and malocclusion. The aim of this paper is to review available information and provide clinical observation on etiology, diagnosis, and treatment option for tooth root infection in llamas and alpacas.

Anderson, D. E. (2009). "Uterine torsion and cesarean section in llamas and alpacas." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 25(2): 523-538.

Dystocia occurs infrequently in llamas and alpacas. Uterine torsion is one of the more common causes of dystocia that requires veterinary care. Cesarean section may be required to resolve dystocia or uterine torsion. Correction of uterine torsion is most often successful without laparotomy. Laparotomy and cesarean section can be performed successfully in llamas and alpacas in field settings. This article discusses the indications, techniques, and expected outcomes of uterine torsion and cesarean section when performed in llamas or alpacas.

Anderson, D. E., et al. (1994). "Hyperlipemia and ketonuria in an alpaca and a llama." Journal of veterinary internal medicine 8(3): 207-211.

Anderson, D. E., et al. (2010). "Granulosa theca cell tumor with erythrocytosis in a llama." Canadian Veterinary Journal 51(10): 1157-1158, 1160.

A 2.5-year-old, female llama with weight loss and lethargy had a packed cell volume (PCV) of 45% which increased to 57% over 3 wk. Transrectal ultrasonography revealed a mass of mixed echogenicity involving the right ovary, which was removed. A histopathological diagnosis of granulosa theca cell tumor was made. This is the first report of its kind in a llama.

Anderson, D. E., et al. (1996). "Laparoscopic surgical approach and anatomy of the abdomen in llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208(1): 111-116.

Six adult castrated male llamas were used to evaluate 3 laparoscopic surgical approaches, and to determine normal laparoscopic anatomy of the abdomen. Complete blood counts were obtained before and at 24, 72 and 120 h after surgery. Laparoscopy was performed in the left paralumbar, ventral midline and right paralumbar regions. The procedure was successfully performed in 16 of 18 sites. Laparoscopy allowed viewing of rumen and omasum, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, ileum proximal loop of the ascending colon, spiral colon and urinary bladder. Postoperative subcutaneous emphysema and oedema were associated with 3 and 5 sites, respectively. White blood cells count peaked at 24 h (mean, 23 500 cells/µl). Generally, neutrophil count increased and lymphocyte count decreased during 120 h after surgery. Right paralumbar and ventral midline laparoscopy provided the most extensive examination of the abdomen and viscera. Laparoscopy may be a useful alternative to laparotomy for evaluation of abdominal viscera in llamas. The site for laparoscopy should be chosen on the basis of the most likely site of the suspected lesion.

Anderson, D. E., et al. (1999). "The effect of short duration transportation on serum cortisol response in alpacas (Llama pacos)." Veterinary Journal 157(2): 189-191.

Six male and 6 female alpacas were subjected to trailer transportation for 30 min. Serum samples obtained before transportation, immediately after transportation, and after a 4-h recovery period were assayed for cortisol. Heart rate was recorded at each time interval and observations of individual behavioural characteristics were recorded. Data were analysed using analysis of variance. Heart rate was not significantly changed by transportation stress. Serum cortisol concentration was significantly higher after transportation, but had returned to baseline concentration after the 4-h recovery period. Behavioural characteristics were not associated with changes in serum cortisol concentration.

Anderson, D. E., et al. (2013). Veterinary Techniques for Llamas and Alpacas, Wiley.

Anderson, D. E., et al. (1998). "Performing percutaneous liver biopsy in alpacas and llamas." Veterinary Medicine 93(2): 190-195.

Anderson, D. E. and R. M. McLaughlin (1997). "Fascia lata autograft for treatment of congenital cranial cruciate ligament deficiency in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210(6): 811-813.

An 11.4-kg female llama that had been born without assistance while its dam was under observation at the Kansas State University veterinary teaching hospital was observed to ambulate abnormally on its right hind limb. A cranial drawer sign could be elicited in the right stifle. Cranial displacement of the tibia relative to the femur and dysplasia of the proximal end of the tibia were seen on radiographs. When the cria was 10 days old, the joint was stabilized with a fascia lata autograft. At the time of surgery, a segment of thin, loose tissue was found where the cranial cruciate ligament would have been. Three years after surgery, the llama gave birth to a normal cria and was 60 days pregnant with a second cria. This appears to be the first report of congenital cranial cruciate ligament deficiency with tibial dysplasia in a llama.

Anderson, D. E., et al. (1997). "Multifocal polyostotic aneurysmal bone cysts in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210(6): 808-810.

A 3.3-year-old, 125-kg castrated male llama was evaluated because of acute non-weight-bearing lameness on the left hind limb. Physical examination revealed crepitus in the midportion of the femur. On radiographs, a comminuted middiaphyseal fracture was seen. There was also a region of bone lysis with cortical thinning and expansion in the distal metaphysis and epiphysis of the left femur. Multiple small circular lesions were observed in the proximal metaphysis of the left femur, and the proximal portion of the left tibia appeared irregular. The fracture was repaired with 2 compression plates. Multiple bone biopsy specimens were obtained and submitted for bacterial culture and histological examination. Cultures yielded neither bacteria nor fungi. Histological examination revealed fibrous connective tissue, normal appearing cortical bone, and an absence of medullary structures. The llama was maintained in a hind-limb sling for 14 days after surgery, at which time follow-up radiography revealed a comminuted fracture of the proximal portion of the femur. The llama was killed, and multifocal polyostotic aneurysmal bone cysts were found in the proximal and distal metaphyses of the left femur and tibia. Cysts were lined by fibroblasts or endothelial-like cells. This appears to be the first report of aneurysmal bone cysts in a llama.

Anderson, D. E. and F. Silveira (1999). "Effects of percutaneous liver biopsy in alpacas and llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 60(11): 1423-1425.

Five llamas and 10 alpacas were used to determine changes in selected serum biochemical tests after a single percutaneous liver biopsy and changes in haematological and selected serum biochemical tests after multiple percutaneous liver biopsies. A single percutaneous liver biopsy was performed in 5 llamas and 6 alpacas. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2 and 3 days after liver biopsy, and submitted for serum biochemical analysis. In the other 4 alpacas, liver biopsy was performed on day 0 and then weekly for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the time of each biopsy, and complete blood count and serum biochemical analyses were performed. Attitude and appetite of all animals were evaluated daily. None of the animals developed clinically apparent adverse effects. A mild decrease in sorbitol dehydrogenase activity was detected in animals that underwent a single liver biopsy, and mild decreases in plasma protein and albumin concentrations were detected in animals that underwent multiple biopsies. Other significant changes were not detected. It is suggested that liver biopsy is safe in healthy llamas and alpacas and that, if necessary, multiple weekly liver biopsies can be performed safely in healthy alpacas.

Anderson, D. E. and C. E. Whitehead (2009). Alpaca and llama health management. Philadelphia, Pa., W. B. Saunders Co.

Anderson, N. V., et al. (1995). "Septicemic salmonellosis in two llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 206(1): 75-76.

Andino, P. (2005). Medea llama por cobrar : teatro. Quito, Tribal Editores.

Andreasen, C. B., et al. (1994). "Evaluation of bone marrow cytology and stainable iron content in healthy adult llamas." Veterinary Clinical Pathology 23(2): 38-42.

Complete blood counts and sternal bone marrow aspirates were obtained from healthy adult llamas ranging in age from 2.5 to 8.4 years. Megakaryocyte numbers and erythroid and myeloid series maturation and morphology appeared similar to other mammalian species. The particles contained 50 to 75% marrow cells with the remainder composed of lipocytes and stromal cells. In samples with numerous particles and adequate cellularity, M/E ratios ranged from 0.9 to 2.9. Samples with higher white blood cell counts and fewer particles had higher M/E ratios. Eosinophils comprised 14.3% of the myeloid series which is higher than other domestic mammals. Haemosiderin granules were numerous in marrow particles.

Andreasen, C. B., et al. (1998). "Normal reference intervals and the effects of time and feeding on serum bile acid concentrations in llamas." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 10(2): 174-178.

50 healthy llamas, 0.5-13 years of age (22 intact males, 10 neutered males, 18 females), with no biochemical evidence of liver disease or haematological abnormalities, were used to establish serum bile acid reference intervals. Serum samples were analysed using a colorimetric enzymatic assay to establish bile acid reference intervals. A nonparametric distribution of llama bile acid concentrations was 1-23 µmol/litre for llamas &gt;1 year of age and 10-44 µmol/litre for llamas ≤1 year of age. A significant difference was found between these 2 age groups. No correlation was detected between gender and bile acid concentrations. The reference intervals were 1.1-22.9 µmol/litre for llamas&gt;1 year of age and 1.8-49.8 µmol/litre for llamas ≤1 year of age. A separate group of 10 healthy adult llamas (5 males, 5 females, 5-11 years of age) without biochemical or haematological abnormalities was used to investigate the effects of feeding and time intervals on serum bile acid concentrations. These 10 llamas were given fresh water and hay ad libitum, and serum samples were collected by indwelling jugular catheter hourly for 11 h. Llamas were then fasted overnight (12 h), and samples were taken before feeding (fasting baseline time, 23 h after trial initiation) and postprandially at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h. In feeding trials, there was no consistent interaction between bile acid concentrations and time, feeding, or 12-h fasting. Feeding or time of day did not result in serum bile acid concentrations outside the reference interval, but concentrations from individual llamas varied within this interval over time.

Andrew, S. E., et al. (2002). "Density of corneal endothelial cells, corneal thickness, and corneal diameters in normal eyes of llamas and alpacas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 63(3): 326-329.

Objective: To determine the density of corneal endothelial cells, corneal thickness, and corneal diameters in normal eyes of llamas and alpacas. Animals: 36 llamas and 20 alpacas. Procedure: Both eyes were examined in each camelid. Noncontact specular microscopy was used to determine density of corneal endothelial cells. Corneal thickness was measured, using ultrasonographic pachymetry. Vertical and horizontal corneal diameters were measured, using Jameson calipers. Results: Values did not differ significantly between the right and left eyes from the same camelid. There was no significant effect of sex on the density of corneal endothelial cells or corneal thickness in either species. Mean density of endothelial cells was 2669 cells/mm2 in llamas and 2275 cells/mm2 in alpacas. Density of endothelial cells decreased with age in llamas. Polymegathism was observed frequently in both species. Mean corneal thickness was 608 µm for llamas and 595 µm for alpacas. Corneal thickness and density of endothelial cells were negatively correlated in llamas. Older (&gt;36 months old) llamas had significantly larger horizontal and vertical corneal diameters than younger llamas, and older alpacas had a significantly larger vertical corneal diameter than younger alpacas. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: The density of corneal endothelial cells is only slightly lower in camelids than other domestic species. Density of endothelial cells decreases with age in llamas. Age or sex does not significantly affect corneal thickness in normal eyes of llamas and alpacas. Specular microscopy is useful for determining the density of corneal endothelial cells in normal eyes of camelids.

Andrews, A. H. and A. Cox (1997). "Suspected nutritional deficiency causing anaemia in llamas (Lama glama)." Veterinary record 140(6): 153-154.

A case of poor condition and recumbency in a 14-month-old female llama and a case of poor condition and ataxia in a 23-month-old male llama are described. Both animals were anaemic and had low plasma copper levels. Both animals recovered after an increased intake of feed with a higher copper level and treatment with copper injections and an oral mineral solution. Two other young llamas also had low plasma copper levels. The problem was probably due to a nutritional, particularly copper, deficiency and the animals recovered as their copper levels increased.

Anello, M., et al. (2016). "Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina." Genetica 144(1): 85-97.

The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) was indiscriminately hunted for more than 400 years and, by the end of 1960s, it was seriously endangered. At that time, a captive breeding program was initiated in Argentina by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) with the aim of preserving the species. Nowadays, vicuñas are managed in captivity and in the wild to obtain their valuable fiber. The current genetic status of Argentinean vicuña populations is virtually unknown. Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers, we assessed levels of genetic diversity of vicuña populations managed in the wild and compared it with a captive population from INTA. Furthermore, we examined levels of genetic structure and evidence for historical bottlenecks. Overall, all populations revealed high genetic variability with no signs of inbreeding. Levels of genetic diversity between captive and wild populations were not significantly different, although the captive population showed the lowest estimates of allelic richness, number of mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplotype diversity. Significant genetic differentiation at microsatellite markers was found between free-living populations from Jujuy and Catamarca provinces. Moreover, microsatellite data also revealed genetic structure within the Catamarca management area. Genetic signatures of past bottlenecks were detected in wild populations by the Garza Williamson test. Results from this study are discussed in relation to the conservation and management of the species. AN - 26842726

Anna, M. V. and R. R. Aurelia (2005). "Characteristics of selected parameters of hair from llamas (Lama glama) kept at Warsaw Zoo." Annals of Warsaw Agricultural University, Animal Science(No.43): 35-39.

The main characteristics of hair fibre from llamas kept in Warsaw Zoo were analysed. Two fractions were observed: thin inner (down) and thicker outer (medullated). Thin hair from the down fraction accounted for 93.96% of the samples examined. The thickness of the hair from the down fraction and thick medullated fraction was 23.35 and 70.70 µm, respectively. The difference in diameter allowed easy hair separation. The length of both fractions was 13.40 cm for down and 19.50 cm for medullated.

Antkowiak, M. (1999). Malnutrition and hypothermia in a neonatal llama.

Apichela, S., et al. (2009). "In vivo and in vitro sperm interaction with oviductal epithelial cells of llama." Reproduction in domestic animals 44(6): 943-951.

Sperm reservoirs in South American Camelids would be crucial for successful fertilization. Since ovulation occurs approximately 36 h after mating, the maintenance of the sperm viability in the oviduct waiting for the ovum is a critical reproductive event. Our study aimed at determining whether the isthmus or the utero tubal junction (UTJ) could function as a sperm reservoir in llama by means of in vivo and in vitro experiments. For the in vivo experiments, the oviducts of adult females with a dominant follicle bigger than 7 mm were examined for the presence of sperm at 6, 18, 24, 28 and 35 h after mating. The results using scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed ultrastructural differences between isthmus and UTJ with respect to (1) predominance of secretory cells in the UTJ and ciliated cells in the isthmus epithelium and (2) cytoplasmic bulbous projection of the secretory cells in the UTJ. Sperm adhered by a mucus-like substance were seen only in the UTJ at 6, 18, 24 and 28 h post-mating. Lack of sperm adhered to oviductal mucosa was observed around ovulation (35 h). In vitro experiments demonstrated higher ability of UTJ epithelial cell explants with respect to isthmus explants to bind sperm in a co-cultured system. The anatomical features and the presence of a sperm bonding agent in the UTJ together with the in vitro differential binding of sperm to UTJ explants strongly suggest that both may be feasible mechanisms that facilitate sperm storage in this oviductal region in llama.

Apichela, S. A. (2011). "Sperm reservoir in the llama oviduct and advances in the study of the proteolytic systems involved." Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal 19(3/4): 55-57.

In South American Camelids, ovulation occurs about 36 hours after mating. A sperm reservoir is formed in the of llama oviduct by sperm adhesion the mucosa, during until at least 28 hours after mating. Contribute to this process the anatomical design of the UUT, the characteristics of epithelial cell surface and a mechanism of recognition of oviductal carbohydrates, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine, by the sperm. This mechanism would be also favored by seminal plasma components. 35 hours after mating, when ovulation is imminent, no sperm were seen attached to the oviduct, thus proposing a possible involvement of the oviduct in their release. We postulate that the oviduct would secrete enzymes capable of liquefying the seminal plasma to release sperm from the sperm reservoir.

Apichela, S. A., et al. (2013). Llama oviductal sperm reservoirs: involvement of bulbourethral glands. Berlin, Germany, Blackwell Science.

Apichela, S. A., et al. (2014). "Llama oviductal sperm reservoirs: involvement of bulbourethral glands." Andrologia 46(3): 290-295.

The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of llama seminal plasma in the formation of oviductal sperm reservoirs. Female llamas with follicles in the mature phase were mated with a bulbourethral glands-removed male. Females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males were used as control. Oviducts were obtained by surgery 24 h after mating. The uterotubal junction and isthmus were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and mucopolysaccharides were identified by Alcian blue staining. To know the proteins probably involved in sperm reservoir formation, SDS-PAGE of seminal plasma (8% and 18% resolving gel) was made. Spermatozoa only adhered to the oviductal mucosa surface of uterotubal junction of females mated with nonbulbourethral glands-removed males confirming that seminal plasma and, in particular, bulbourethral secretions are related with the oviductal sperm reservoir formation. Histological sections showed sperm in the lumen, immersed in substance, positive for acid mucopolysaccharides. Alcian blue staining of seminal plasma proteins SDS-PAGE showed a band of high molecular weight containing mucopolysaccharides, only present in nonbulbourethral glands-removed males. Bulbourethral glands would secrete at least eight different proteins that most likely participate in the process of sperm storage in the oviduct.

Apichela, S. A., et al. (2010). "Lectin binding patterns and carbohydrate mediation of sperm binding to llama oviductal cells in vitro." Animal Reproduction Science 118(2/4): 344-353.

Sperm binding to oviductal epithelium would be involved in sperm reservoir formation in the utero tubal junction (UTJ). Although in other mammals sperm-oviduct interaction has been proved to be mediated by carbohydrate-recognition mechanisms, the factors implicated in the sperm adhesion to oviductal epithelium of llama are still unknown. In order to assess the role of carbohydrates present in the mucosa surface, we examined the distribution of glycoconjugates in the llama oviduct by confocal lectin-histochemistry. Mannosyl, glucosyl, N-acetylglucosaminyl, galactosyl, N-acetylgalactosaminyl and sialic acid residues were detected in the oviductal mucose glycocalyx. By incubation of UTJ oviductal explants with LCA, DBA, UEA-1 or PNA lectin previous to co-culture with sperm, we observed a significant decrease in sperm binding only with LCA lectin. In the mucosa surface there were numerous d-glucosyl and d-manosyl residues, which were spotted by this lectin. Probably, this fact promotes the whole covering of the oviduct luminal surface by the sugar-lectin complex, preventing sperm access and adhesion of further residues. However, sperm incubation with mannose or glucose does not significantly prevent binding, which means that glucose and mannose would not be involved in a specific sperm-oviduct interaction. On the other hand, we observed a high reduction in sperm binding to UTJ explants with N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose (p&lt;0.001). Coincidentally, binding sites for N-acetylgalactosamine-PAA-FITC conjugate were observed on the whole surface of the sperm, supporting the concept that llama sperm have lectin-like molecules in their surface, as is the case in other mammals. Probably, these lectin-like molecules, by means of N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose recognition, could link the sperm to the oviductal mucosa with the purpose of forming storing sites in the UTJ. Our results support the idea that more than one carbohydrate could participate in sperm reservoir formation in the llama UTJ oviductal segment.

APPLEBY, E. C. and K. W. HEAD (1954). "A case of suspected Johne's disease in a llama (L. glama)." J Comp Pathol 64(1): 52-53.

Araya, A. V., et al. (2000). "Evaluation of insulin resistance in two kinds of South American camelids: llamas and alpacas." Comparative Medicine 50(5): 490-494.

Arias, N. and B. Velapatiño (2015). "Cortisol as a reliable indicator of stress in alpacas and llamas." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 26(1): 1-8.

Research papers on the measurement of cortisol and its metabolites in alpacas and llamas were reviewed. Plasma, serum, saliva cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolites concentrations increase after stress events. The interpretation of these results should be complemented with additional physiological signs and behavioral observations.

Arias, N., et al. (2016). "Cytokines expression in alpacas and llamas exposed to cold stress." Small Ruminant Research 141: 135-140.

Cytokine expression could play an important role in camelids exposed to cold stress and subsequent pneumonia associated infections, therefore inducing a broad array of inflammatory mediators. To understand the host innate immune response in camelids exposed to cold weather, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα mRNA expression were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method using Syber Green PCR master mix in peripheral blood from lung of alpacas and llamas during the cold season in Perú. Results demonstrated that all studied cytokines but IL-1α had greater level of expression, and that IL-1β expression was significant greater in camelids exposed to cold weather and living at high altitude compared to alpacas living in mild temperatures and at sea level. Cytokines expression was minimal in the group of alpacas living at sea level. All lung tissue samples from the camelids exposed to low temperatures and living at high altitude were associated with a degree of pneumonia by histopathological examination. Exposure of Pasteurella multocida to healthy alpaca monocytes showed greater IL-1β cytokine expression among the cytokines studied here. These cytokines might participate in the immune and inflammatory responses against adverse weather conditions and during the pulmonary defense mechanisms against pathogens infection in alpacas and llamas. These findings provide important information for the development of a preventable treatment programs and appropriate conditions for welfare in camelids.

Arias, P., et al. (1992). "Comparative histological study of the reproductive system of the female llama (Lama guanicoe glama)." Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 21(4): 314-323.

Aristeguieta, J. (1948). Poema de la llama y del clavel, etc. Caracas, Tipografi\0301a Garrido.

Arndt, C. A. (1988). Llama use on public lands.

Arthur, D. G. (1991). "Diseases of llamas and alpacas." Surveillance (Wellington) 18(2): 21-23.

Atencia, M. a. V. (1988). De la llama en que arde. Madrid, Visor.

Atlee, B. A. (1990). The histology of normal llama skin and mucous membranes. Davis, Calif.

Atlee, B. A., et al. (1997). "The histology of normal llama skin." Veterinary Dermatology 8(3): 165-176.

Skin biopsy specimens taken from 30 different body sites of healthy llamas were examined histologically. Adnexal structures similar to those of most other domestic mammals included epitrichial sweat glands, sebaceous glands and arrector pili muscles. Unique features of normal llama skin included a very thick dermis with marked differences between superficial and deep dermis, prominent cutaneous vascular plexuses, unidentified cells with eosinophilic granules within the adventitia of the vascular plexuses, both simple and compound hair follicles, 'metatarsal glands', 'interdigital glands', footpad glands and the absence of eyelid tarsal glands.

Aubin, M. L., et al. (2001). "Analysis of aqueous humor obtained from normal eyes of llamas and alpacas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 62(7): 1060-1062.

To evaluate composition of aqueous humour obtained from normal eyes of llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos), Aqueous humour obtained from 10 male llamas and 10 male alpacas was used. All animals had normal eyes, as determined by ocular examination. Aqueous humour samples were obtained via paracentesis of the anterior chamber of animals that were heavily sedated. Chemical analysis included measurement of concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, phosphorus, and glucose as well as osmolality and pH. With the exception of potassium concentrations, values for aqueous humour composition did not differ significantly between llamas and alpacas. Mean ± SD values for llamas and alpacas, respectively, were: sodium, 154.7±2.1 and 152.7±2.1 mEq/L; potassium, 5.3±0.4 and 4.6±0.4 mEq/L; magnesium, 1.8±0.1 and 1.7±0.1 mg/dl; chloride, 130.0±1.6 and 127.0±3.3 mEq/L; bicarbonate, 19.2±1.5 and 20.2±2.3 mEq/L; phosphorous, 2.7±0.3 and 2.5±0.4 mg/dl; glucose, 80.3±3.9 and 80.8±7.3 mg/dl; total protein, 29.0±8.6 and 31.5±10.1 md/dl; and osmolality, 305.8±11.8 and 306.2±4.9 mOsm. The pH ranged from 7.5 to 8.0 for both species. Potassium concentrations were significantly higher in llamas than alpacas. Except for potassium, composition of aqueous humour did not differ significantly between llamas and alpacas. Aqueous humour composition of llamas and alpacas is similar to that of other species that have been examined.

Ayala, C. (2001). Physical characteristics of wool from young llamas. Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 186-188.

Ayala, C., et al. (2001). Increase in live weight and length of fleece in llamas from the Patacamaya experimental station, Bolivia. Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 189-192.

Azwai, S. M., et al. (2007). "Morphological characteristics of blood cells in clinically normal adult llamas (Lama glama)." Veterinarski Arhiv 77(1): 69-79.

Morphological characteristics, including the number, differentiation and features of blood cells were determined in 10 male and 10 female clinically normal adult llamas. Haematological parameters included erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, erythrocyte indices, reticulocyte count, platelet count, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count. It appeared that the llama haemogram was characterized by the presence of numerous but small erythrocytes, high total leukocyte count and a high number of mainly immature eosinophils. Unique cellular morphological characteristics commonly observed in May-Grunwald-Giemsa stained blood smears were folded erythrocytes, Cabot's rings, hypersegmented neutrophil nuclei, granular lymphocytes and immature eosinophils.

Baer, L. v. and C. Hellemann (1999). "Cryopreservation of llama (Lama glama) semen." Reproduction in domestic animals 34(2): 95-96.

In a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, split ejaculates were diluted in Tris and EDTA extenders, with and without the addition of Equex STM (a surfactant), and were frozen 2 or 10 cm above liquid nitrogen. Sperm motility was significantly higher with the Tris than with the EDTA extender, but acrosome integrity did not differ significantly between the 2 extenders. Surfactant and freezing rate did not significantly affect either trait.

Baer, L. v. and C. Hellemann (2001). Collection, evaluation and cryopreservation of llama (L. glama) semen. Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 193-198.

Baer, L. v. and C. Hellemannn (1998). "Semen characteristics in the llama (Lama glama)." Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 30(2): 171-176.

A total of 72 ejaculates were collected from 11 male llamas. The characteristics of 26 ejaculates were assessed, after rejection of 31 due to azoospermia or akinospermia and 15 due to the inability to perform all tests. Volume of semen recorded was 3.5±2.6 ml, pH 8.6±0.3, sperm concentration 84.7±88.8 × 103/mm3, normal spermatozoa 32.5±22.3%, free heads 6.4±4.4%, abnormal heads 6.5±6.1%, abnormal midpieces 39.8±21.2%, bent tails 8.8±7.9%, curled tails 5.3±4.3%, motility of undiluted semen 25.5% and motility of diluted semen 32.6%. Using the non-parametric Spearman test, there was a significant correlation between normal sperm and motility of both diluted and undiluted semen. Since the animals sampled had normal fertility the high percentage of abnormal sperm was not thought to be important.

Baird, A. N., et al. (1996). "Comparison of two techniques for castration of llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208(2): 261-262.

10 adult llamas were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups containing 5 llamas each. One group of llamas was castrated via a prescrotal technique, with primary closure of the skin incision. The other group was castrated using a more conventional technique, with 5-cm scrotal incisions made directly over each testis. These incisions were allowed to heal by second intention. All procedures were completed within the period provided by routine injectable anaesthetics. There were no complications during surgery or anaesthesia. Llamas undergoing prescrotal castration tended to have less swelling, and all incisions healed by first intention. Llamas with scrotal incisions had more swelling and signs of incisional discomfort. It is concluded that both techniques are safe and effective. Prescrotal castration is more aesthetically acceptable to some clients and allows less intensive management after surgery in areas where fly control may be difficult.

Bakker, M. L., et al. (1996). "Urinary and plasma purine derivatives in fed and fasted llamas (Lama glama and L. guanicoe)." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 113(2): 367-374.

The changes in urinary and plasma purine derivatives in response to fasting and level of feeding in llamas were examined. In one experiment, 4 llamas were gradually deprived of feed over 3 days and then fasted for 6 days. Daily urinary excretion of purine derivatives decreased with feed intake and levelled on the last 3 days of fasting at 177 ± 26 µmol/kg W0.75. Allantoin and uric acid comprised 71% and 15% of total purine derivatives, respectively, in both fed and fasted states, but hypoxanthine plus xanthine increased from 9% to 36%. Plasma concentration of allantoin declined with feed intake reduction, but those of uric acid (217 µmol/litre) and hypoxanthine plus xanthine (27 µmol/litre) remained relatively unchanged. concentration of uric acid was higher than that of allantoin, probably due to a high reabsorption of uric acid in renal tubules, which was measured as over 90%. In a second experiment, the 4 llamas were fed at 860 and 1740 g dry matter/day in a crossover design. Urinary total purine derivatives excretion responded to feed intake (10.4 vs. 14.4 mmol/day), although the differences were not significance. Compared with some ruminant species, it appears that the llama resembles sheep regarding the concentration of urinary purine derivatives but is unique in maintaining a high concentration of uric acid in plasma, which could be part of the llama's adaptation to the environment.

Ballesteros Gallardo, A. n. (1974). No sabe la muerte que se llama muerte. Algeciras, Tipografi\0301a Algeciren\0303a.

Banchero, N. and R. F. Grover (1972). "Effect of different levels of simulated altitude on O2 transport in llama and sheep." American Journal of Physiology 222(No.5): 1239-1245.

Banchero, N., et al. (1971). "Oxygen transport in the llama (Lama glama)." Respiration Physiology 13(No.1): 102-115.

Bangari, D. S. and G. W. Stevenson (2007). "Carcinoma in a mixed mammary tumor in a llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 19(4): 450-453.

A 13-year-old female llama was presented to the referring veterinarian for swelling and firmness of the right rear mammary gland, for a duration of 2 months, which had been unresponsive to antibiotics. A formalin-fixed wedge biopsy specimen from the affected quarter was submitted to Purdue University Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for histopathology. Histopathologic examination revealed tubulopapillary acinar or solid nest-like clusters of neoplastic epithelial cells surrounded by whorls and sheets of proliferative myoepithelial cells. Histologic criteria for malignancy observed in neoplastic epithelial cells included marked cellular and nuclear atypia, high mitotic index, and numerous bizarre mitoses. The presence of osseous metaplasia in the proliferative mesenchymal component justified classification as a mixed tumor. Positive immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic epithelial cells with anticytokeratin antibody, and proliferative spindloid cells with antiviemtin and antismooth muscle actin antibodies supported the histopathologic diagnosis. The llama was in good health after about 1 year of initial presentation, and metastasis to regional lymph nodes was not reported. Mammary neoplasia is rare in camelids. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a carcinoma in a mixed mammary tumor in a llama.

Barberá, R., et al. (1990). "Evaluation of method of estimating cadmium and lead in vegetables by flame atomic absorption spectrometry." Anales de Bromatologia 42(2): 345-352.

A method of estimating cadmium and lead in foods of vegetable origin is described. Organic matter is destroyed by repeated attack with concentrated nitric acid and Cd and Pb are estimated by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after liquid/liquid extraction using a l-pyrrolidine dithiocarboxylic acid ammonium chloride/4-methyl-2-pentanone system. There was no a matrix interference at a probability level of 95%. Limits of detection were 34.67 and 5.65 and limits of quantification 158.42 and 21.72 ng/g for Pb and Cd, respectively. Accuracy was 102.85 and 93.13%. Precision was 9.44% and 3.76% C.V.

Barbieri, E. S., et al. (2014). "Serological survey of antibodies against viral diseases of public health interest in llamas (Lama glama) from Jujuy province, Argentina." Revista Argentina de microbiologia 46(1): 53-57.

Llama population from Argentina is mainly concentrated in the Andean Puna, Jujuy. Llamas represent an important economic resource for the Andean communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against viral antigens associated to viral diseases of economic impact (neonatal diarrhea, reproductive and respiratory syndromes). A total of 349 serum samples from adult llamas were analyzed. The obtained antibody prevalence was 100% for Rotavirus A and 70% for Bovine parainfluenza virus 3. In contrast, no reactors were detected to Bovine herpesvirus 1, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, Human influenza A virus (H1N1) and Equine influenza virus (H3N8). These results confirm the wide circulation of rotavirus and parainfluenza virus in Argentinean llamas and suggest that susceptibility to infection with bovine herpesvirus, pestivirus and influenza A viruses is low. This serologic survey provides novel information regarding the epidemiology of viral diseases affecting llamas from the Argentinean Andean Puna.

Bare, C. S. (1994). Love a llama. New York, Cobblehill Books.

Photographs and simple text introduce the physical characteristics, habits, and natural environment of the llama. AN - 617055

Barea, A. (1951). La forja de un rebelde. Buenos Aires, Editorial Losada.

Barea, A., et al. (2001). The forging of a rebel. London, Granta.

Barea, A. and I. Barea (1946). The clash. London, Fontana.

Barea, A. and I. Barea (1958). La forja de un rebelde ... Tercera edicio\0301n. Buenos Aires, Editorial Losada.

Barea, A. M. a. and I. S.-F. Barea (1984). The clash : the forging of a rebel. London, Fontana.

Barea, A.-M. a. and I. Barea (1972). The forging of a rebel. London, Davis-Poynter.

Barker, W. H., et al. (2015). "Dorsal laminectomy for treatment of cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy in an alpaca." J Am Vet Med Assoc 246(10): 1122-1128.

An 11-year-old male breeding alpaca was evaluated for a 2-day history of lowered head carriage and lethargy.|On initial examination, the alpaca had signs of lethargy and lowered carriage of the head and neck, but no specific neurologic deficits. Medical management improved the clinical signs, but 8 months later, the alpaca developed acute, progressive general proprioceptive ataxia affecting all 4 limbs and was referred for further evaluation and treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging and CT identified disruption of the normal osseous architecture of C7 and T1. Medical management was attempted, but because of a lack of improvement, the patient underwent surgery 14 months after initial examination.|A dorsal laminectomy of C7 and T1 via a dorsal midline approach was performed, and the spinous processes of both vertebrae were removed prior to removal of the overlying lamina. Free dorsal expansion of the spinal cord was ensured by resection of the ligamentum flavum. Six months after surgery, the alpaca had returned to successful breeding with 7 hembra bred in the first year after surgery, producing 6 crias, and 4 crias in the second year. The patient was eventually euthanized 28 months after surgery because of neurologic deterioration but was still ambulatory at that time.|A good outcome with adequate alleviation of clinical signs and breeding soundness for > 2 years following dorsal laminectomy was achieved in this camelid patient. The surgical approach was similar to that in other species and was associated with mild postoperative morbidity. Veterinarians treating camelids should be aware of the initial clinical signs and treatment options for cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy. In acute cases, the signs of reduced cervical mobility and pain on manipulation should prompt investigation including appropriate diagnostic imaging. Timely surgical intervention should be considered in patients that respond poorly to medical treatment to avoid irreversible spinal cord injury and optimize outcome. AN - 25932939

Barlow, A. M., et al. (1999). "Bovine tuberculosis in llama (Lama glama) in the UK." Veterinary record 145(22): 639-640.

The diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis in a small pet/showing herd of llamas, is reported. The affected herd comprised 5 animals of which 3 were home-bred crias. Beef cattle on neighbouring land had confirmed TB in early 1998. An 8-year old male llama with a chronic respiratory problem died in October 1998. A PM examination was not carried out but tuberculosis was retrospectively considered as a possible cause of death after the subsequent isolation of M. bovis from another animal in the herd. An aged female llama died suddenly in January 1999 without abnormal respiratory signs. PM examination revealed 'cluster of grapes' lesions scattered over the parietal pleura, lungs and pericardial sac. M. bovis was isolated from lungs and lymph nodes. Another female llama from the herd which had been sold to another premises, died on the same day and was examined PM. M. bovis was isolated from lung and lymph node lesions. The M. bovis isolated were demonstrated to be the same spoligotype as that isolated from cattle and badgers in the surrounding area. It is concluded that TB should be a differential diagnosis for llamas in cases of illthrift with or without obvious respiratory signs.

Barnett, J. E. F., et al. (2008). "Parasite-induced leucomyelopathy in llamas (Lama glama)." Veterinary record 163(17): 516-517.

The clinical and pathological signs of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis-induced leucomyelopathy in a 4-year-old and a 6-month-old llama in the UK in October and November 2005 are described.

Barone, D. and F. Guarda (2014). "Immunology of camel, alpaca and llama." Summa, Animali da Reddito 9(2): 42-46.

This article discusses the immune system, immune response, antibody formation, disease resistance and immunity of camels, alpacas and llamas against various microbial and viral diseases. The application of nanobody in human medicine as a potential anticancer therapy; and the antiviral and hypoglycaemic properties of various camel milk proteins are highlighted.

Barr, B. S., et al. (2001). "Successful treatment of pericarditis in a pregnant llama." Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 11(4): 287-291.

Objective: To describe the diagnosis and treatment of a pregnant llama with pericarditis. Summary: A 2-year-old female llama presented for lethargy of several days' duration. Pertinent physical examination findings included tachycardia, muffled heart sounds, tachypnea, and lethargy. Electrocardiography revealed tachycardia, a second-degree AV block and electrical alternans. Echocardiography confirmed the presence of pericardial effusion and cardiac compromise. Thoracic sonogram revealed pleural effusion. Treatment included intravenous fluids, systemic antimicrobials, systemic anti-inflammatories, thoracocentesis and eventual pericardiocentesis with daily drainage and lavage. No etiological agent was identified. The llama responded well to therapy and a 3.5-month and 2-year follow-up revealed no cardiac problems. New information provided: This is the first case report of pericarditis in a llama with treatment and a favorable outcome.

Barreta, J. (2012). Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in Bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the South American camelids. Oxford, Blackwell Science.

Barreto de Bonnemaison, L. (1993). Jose\0301 Rafael Pocaterra y "La Llama de una vela" de Gasto\0301n Bachelard, Valencia.

Barreto, R. (2008). "Blurred Boundaries: Julieta Campos's Theory and Practice in "Tiene los cabellos rojizos y se llama Sabina"." Letras Femeninas 34(2): 31-44 ST - Blurred Boundaries: Julieta Campos's Theory and Practice in "Tiene los cabellos rojizos y se llama Sabina".

Barriga Gomes, K. R. (2000). Quiero verte ; Hay algo más allá ; Esta llama ; Vuela ; Yo te perdonaré ; Por mà : voz y piano. Madrid, Unión musical ediciones ; Bury St. Edmunds : exclusive distributors, Music Sales, 2002.

Barrington, G. M., et al. (1993). "Standing castration of the llama using butorphanol tartrate and local anesthesia." Equine Practice 15(5): 35-39.

The procedure for performing standing castration in llamas using butorphanol tartrate (Torbugesic) is described and illustrated by photographs. This method avoids complications associated with lateral recumbency and provided sufficient analgesia with minimal or no observable discomfort in the animal.

Barrington, G. M. and S. M. Parish (1995). "Tick paralysis in two llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 207(4): 476-477.

An 18-month-old male llama (Lama) and a 7-month-old female llama were examined because of weakness, lethargy, and recumbency. Both had signs of ascending motor paralysis with little or no afferent sensory loss. Tick paralysis was diagnosed on the basis of complete clinical recovery following removal of a single, attached and engorged female tick (Dermacentor andersoni) from each llama. The male llama recovered within a few hours after tick removal, but the female took several days to recover. Serum creatinine kinase activity was high in both llamas, possibly as a result of direct effects of toxin on muscles and nerves.

Barrington, G. M., et al. (1997). "Chronic weight loss in an immunodeficient adult llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 211(3): 294-298.

Baskin, J. and R. Thomas (2016). A review of Camelops (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Camelidae), a giant llama from the Middle and Late Pleistocene (Irvingtonian and Rancholabrean) of North America. London, Taylor & Francis.

Bastres, M. C., et al. (1989). "Electrocardiogram studies in llamas." Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 37(2): 85-95.

Electrocardiograms (ECG) of 3 captive llamas (Lama glama) were recorded by a telemeter at a farm in Japan. The pattern of the ECGs was similar to the ruminant pattern in the AB (caudal to the forelimb and on the base of the neck) lead position. QRS and T-waves were discordant in polarity except in one llama, where the polarity of the T wave changed according to the heart rate. In the quiet state, the heart rate varied between 60-80/min depending on the nervousness of the llama. After running and after being held, the heart rate increased to more than 100/min. During the recordings there were some variations of the heart rate which could be due to respiratory arrhythmia. Second-degree AV block and supraventricular premature complexes were also found in two llamas.

Baud, L. G., et al. (2016). "Ring expansion approach to medium-sized lactams and analysis of their medicinal lead-like properties." Chemistry.

Medium-sized rings are widely considered to be under-represented in biological screening libraries for lead identification in medicinal chemistry. To help address this, a library of medium-sized lactams has been generated using a simple, scalable and versatile ring expansion protocol. Analysis of the library using open access computational tool LLAMA suggests that these lactams and their derivatives have highly promising physicochemical and 3D spatial properties and thus have much potential in drug discovery. AN - 27935197

Baum, K. and E. Sharpnack (1992). Llama lletters. Sydney South, NSW 2000, Post Graduate Committee in Veterinary Science, Suite 93 Lincoln House, 280 Pitt Street: vi + 125 pp.

Two authors with experience of llamas in USA provide basic information on their management, breeding and principal diseases (neurological disorders, Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infestation, anaemia, heat stress, ulcers and muscular diseases).

Baum, K. H. (1994). "Neurologic diseases of llamas." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 383-390.

Baumgärtner, W., et al. (1985). "Parelaphostrongylosis in llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 187(11): 1243-1245.

Two llamas from a herd of 15 which shared pastures with white-tailed deer in southeast Ohio, USA, developed posterior ataxia and weakness. Haematological abnormalities were not found. After 3 weeks the llamas were killed. In the cervical portion of the spinal cord of one of the llamas a complete, tightly coiled nematode was found, and fragments of another were found in the thoracic portion. The nematode was identified as an immature female Parelaphostrongylus tenuis. Microscopically, both llamas had the most severe CNS lesions in the cervicothoracic region of the spinal cord. In the 2nd llama the cranial portion of the thoracic spinal cord had several cross sections of a tightly coiled larval P. tenuis. Antemortem diagnoses of cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis were based on findings of eosinophilic meningitis and paraplegia, and histories of pastures shared with white-tailed deer.

Bayley, E. (1983). Alguien llama. Buenos Aires, Argonauta.

Beard, L. J. C. (2000). "NAVIGATING THE METAFICTIONAL TEXT: JULIETA CAMPOS' "TIENE LOS CABELLOS ROJIZOS Y SE LLAMA SABINA"." Hispan&#xf3;fila(129): 45-58.

Beattie, L. (1998). Making the most of your llama. Kalama, WA, Kopacetic inK.

Bechert, U. S. and B. B. Smith (1996). "Serum macro and micro element concentrations in the llama." Veterinary Clinical Nutrition 3(4): 119-127.

Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry was used to establish normal serum concentrations of macro- and trace elements in llamas with a view to developing the technique as a practical diagnostic tool. Ten male and 5 female llamas, ranging in age from 3 to 7 years, and maintained on mixed grass pastures for the duration of the study, were used. Blood samples were collected at the end of the dry season (September) and again at the end of the wet season (May) from 10 llamas. Samples for complete blood counts were collected in 2-ml tubes containing sodium-EDTA, and serum samples for ICP-AES analyses were collected in non-siliconized, microtubes. Serum values for calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, sulphur, iron, zinc, copper, silicon, boron, arsenic, tin and strontium are presented. Variations in seasonal serum element concentrations between males and females are also given along with seasonal variations in pasture element levels; this enabled correlations between forage and serum element levels to be examined. Such correlation data would be the most practical and logical starting point for determining the cause of a mineral imbalance in an individual animal.

Beck, W. (2014). "Treatment of Sarcoptes mange in Llamas and Alpacas." Tierärztliche Umschau 69(5): 185-190.

An outbreak of sarcoptic mange was investigated in a herd of llamas and alpacas in the Black Forrest (Baden-Wuerttemberg). The diagnosis was made by clinical picture and detection of mites in skin and ear scrapings. At the beginning numeruous of Sarcoptes mites were found in the scraping samples. The llamas and alpacas were treated subcutaneously with 0,2 mg/kg bdw. moxidectin (Cydectin® 1% inj., Zoetis) every 3 weeks (2 ml per llama, 1,5 ml per alpaca). Because of the slow recovery of the South American Camelids it was necessary to repeat the treatment eight times. On days 0, 42, 84, 126, and 168, all animals were examined clinically, and epidermal debris were collected from both auricular areas and other body regions for microscopic examination. The alpacas recovered rapidly and mite counts declined steadily. Lamas showed a slower remission of mite counts and clinical condition. For complete healing of crusting skin reactions, and pruritus 6 months of treatment were necessary. Therapy of sarcoptic mange in South American Camelids with macrocyclic lactons usually takes a long duration of time.

Bedenice, D., et al. (2002). "Diaphragmatic paralysis due to phrenic nerve degeneration in a llama." Journal of veterinary internal medicine 16(5): 603-606.

Bedenice, D. and C. Whitehead (2016). "A systematic approach to the neurological examination of llamas and alpacas." Livestock 21(5): 308-313.

The clinical presentation of neurologic disorders in camelids varies widely depending on the underlying cause and localisation of the disease. Metabolic, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal conditions may also present with neurological signs and must thus be differentiated from those of true peripheral or central nervous system origin, through careful evaluation of history, clinical examination and diagnostic testing. Mentation and behaviour of camelids is generally evaluated from a distance, with subsequent assessment of cranial nerve function, gait, posture and postural reactions, spinal reflexes and muscle tone. Gait assessment often focuses on the differentiation between lower motor neuron weakness (LMN paresis) and general proprioceptive ataxia (with associated upper motor neuron weakness), in order to better localise spinal cord disorders. In this context, tail pull examinations may further aid in discerning upper versus lower motor neuron weakness. A thorough systematic neurological examination is thus paramount to achieve the following goals: determine the presence or absence of neurologic signs; localisation of the lesion (neuro-anatomic diagnosis); determine the etiology of a neurological condition.

Bedford, S. J., et al. (1996). "Peritonitis associated with passage of the placenta into the abdominal cavity in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 209(11): 1914-1916.

Behar, G., et al. (2009). "Llama single-domain antibodies directed against nonconventional epitopes of tumor-associated carcinoembryonic antigen absent from nonspecific cross-reacting antigen." FEBS Journal 276(14): 4305-4317.

Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs), which occur naturally in camelids, are endowed with many characteristics that make them attractive candidates as building blocks to create new antibody-related therapeutic molecules. In this study, we isolated from an immunized llama several high-affinity sdAbs directed against human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a heavily glycosylated tumor-associated molecule expressed in a variety of cancers. These llama sdAbs bind a different epitope from those defined by current murine mAbs, as shown by binding competition experiments using immunofluorescence and surface plasmon resonance. Flow cytometry analysis shows that they bind strongly to CEA-positive tumor cells but show no cross-reaction toward nonspecific cross-reacting antigen, a highly CEA-related molecule expressed on human granulocytes. When injected into mice xenografted with a human CEA-positive tumor, up to 2% of the injected dose of one of these sdAbs was found in the tumor, despite rapid clearance of this 15 kDa protein, demonstrating its high potential as a targeting moiety. The single-domain nature of these new anti-CEA IgG fragments should facilitate the design of new molecules for immunotherapy or diagnosis of CEA-positive tumors.

Beier, E. (1999). Oral pharmacokinetic and clinical efficacy profiles of fenbendazole in Llamas, South American Camelids.

Beier, E., III, et al. (2000). "Clinical efficacy of fenbendazole against gastrointestinal parasites in llamas." Small Ruminant Research 36(1): 17-23.

12 healthy, young adult llamas of both sexes naturally infested with Nematodirus, Strongyloides, Trichuris and Capillaria were randomly divided into 2 groups. One group received a single oral dose of fenbendazole paste at 5 mg/kg. The second group received a comparable dose of water as a placebo. Faecal samples were obtained per rectum from each animal before administration of either the drug or placebo treatment and weekly thereafter. These samples were analysed for total faecal egg burden using a modified Wisconsin sugar flotation technique. The fenbendazole treated group had significant reductions in total faecal egg counts of 95%, 84%, 89% and 76%, respectively, for each week of the four-week sampling period. Nematodirus, Strongyloides and Trichuris all had significant reductions in egg counts during the study period. All animals were observed twice daily during the experiment. All animals remained healthy and showed no adverse effects related to treatment. It is concluded that fenbendazole is a safe and an effective anthelmintic for the treatment of naturally occurring gastrointestinal parasite infestations of Nematodirus, Strongyloides and Trichuris in llamas.

Beier, E., III, et al. (2000). "Oral pharmacokinetics of fenbendazole in llamas, South American Camelids." Small Ruminant Research 37(3): 209-214.

Llamas are increasingly popular in the United States, as a source of fibre, livestock guard, and pack animals. Gastrointestinal parasites have been identified as a major health problem in all classes of livestock including llamas. Currently, there are no approved anthelmintics available for use in llamas. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of a single, oral administration of fenbendazole paste at a minimum target dose of 5 mg/kg, with an upper limit of &lt;10 mg/kg, was evaluated in llamas. Plasma fenbendazole concentration time profiles were best described by a single compartment model. After oral administration of fenbendazole, Tmax and Cpmax were 28.39±12.80 h, and 0.28±0.17 µg/ml, respectively. The T1/2α and T1/2β were 16.25±11.67 and 36.00±25.00 h, respectively. The apparent volume of distribution (Vd) and the area under the curve (AUC) were 11.28±4.66 l/kg, and 22.52±8.67 µg h/ml, respectively. The results of this preliminary study indicate that when the paste formulation of fenbendazole is administered orally to llamas, its rate of absorption appears to be very similar to that of other ruminants including sheep, goats, and cattle as indicated by the time required to reach peak plasma concentrations. It was also found that the rate of elimination of fenbendazole was prolonged in llamas as compared to sheep, goats, and cattle.

Belknap, E. B. (1994). "Medical problems of llamas." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 291-307.

Belknap, E. B. and R. W. Dunstan (1990). "Congenital ichthyosis in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 197(6): 764-767.

Belknap, E. B., et al. (1994). "Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in two llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 204(11): 1805-1808.

Belknap, E. B., et al. (1990). "Double cervices in two llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 197(8): 1049-1053.

Double cervices were diagnosed in 2 female llamas that were infertile. Diagnosis was made by vaginoscopy. One case was confirmed as didelphia (double uterus), with 2 uterine bodies and 2 cervices.

Belmar Badillo (1994). HistologÃÂa del aparato genital tubular de hembra llama <Lama glama>. Chillán, Universidad de Concepción.

Los camélidos Sudamericanos, con su especie Llama Lama glama, ha sido poco estudiada reproductivamente. Para lograr comprender el funcionamiento reproductivo de estas especies, se recolectaron muestras del aparato genital tubular de la hembra, para estudios histológicos de microscopÃÂa óptica y microscopÃÂa electrónica de barrido. En este estudio se observó que el aparato geneital tubular de la llama presenta en su recorrido un epitelio cilÃÂndrico a cúbico simple, excepto a nivel vaginal que presenta un epitelio estratificado cilÃÂndrico, variando según la etapa del ciclo reproductivo. Es posible encontrar en el epitelio distintos tipos de células que van a participar en el proceso reproductivo cumpliendo una función especÃÂfica.

Beltra, F. (2011). Donde nadie me llama : poesi\0301a 1980-2010. Madrid, Hiperio\0301n.

Bennett, J., et al. (1998). "Surgical correction of an acquired vaginal stricture in a llama, using a carbon-dioxide laser." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212(9): 1436-1437.

Bennett, M. M. and N. L. Richards (2015). "Camelid wellness." Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 18(2): 255-280.

Wellness management and environmental enrichment of New World camelids is multifaceted and should include everything from how they are fed and housed to how they are interacted with and handled. Camelid feeding regimens should be based on sound nutritional concepts, designed for specific animal groups, and begin with an appropriate forage base. Provide housing, shelter, substrate, and feeders designed for the needs and behaviors of camelids. Herd management should include regularly obtaining weights and body condition scores. Handling and training should be of a positive nature, in keeping with the natural history and temperament of the animal. AN - 25902272

Bezek, D. and R. D. Walker (1997). "Additional cause of mastitis in a llama [Streptococcus zooepidemicus]." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210(6): 748.

Bianchi, C. P., et al. (2015). "Oestrogen and Progesterone Receptors and COX-2 Expression in Endometrial Biopsy Samples During Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy in Llamas (Lama glama)." Reprod Domest Anim 50(6): 980-988.

Endometrial expression of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) was evaluated in non-pregnant and pregnant llamas during the period when luteolysis/maternal recognition of pregnancy is expected to occur. Females (n = 28) were divided into two groups: non-pregnant llamas were induced to ovulate with a Buserelin injection, and endometrial biopsies were obtained on day 8 (n = 5) or 12 (n = 5) post-induction of ovulation. Animals of the pregnant group (n = 18) were mated with a fertile male. Pregnancy was confirmed by the visualization of the embryo collected by transcervical flushing in 5 of 9 animals on day 8 post-mating and by progesterone profile on day 12 post-mating in 4 of 9 animals, when endometrial biopsies were obtained. An immunohistochemical technique was used to evaluate receptors population and COX-2 expression. Pregnant llamas showed a higher percentage of positive cells and stronger intensity for ERα than for non-pregnant llamas in stroma on day 8 and in the luminal epithelium on day 12 post-induction of ovulation, while a deep decrease in endometrial PR population was reported in pregnant llamas on that day in luminal and glandular epithelia and stroma. In the luminal epithelium, COX-2 expression was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant animals. Briefly, the increase of ERα in pregnant llamas gives further support to the hypothesis that oestrogens are involved in the mechanism of maternal recognition of pregnancy. Endometrial PR decrease in pregnant llamas might be a necessary event to allow the expression of proteins involved in conceptus attachment, a mechanism widely accepted in other species. Moreover, embryo seems to attenuate maternal PGF(2α) secretion during early pregnancy by decreasing the endometrial expression of COX-2 in the luminal epithelium of pregnant llamas. AN - 26446171

Bianchi, C. P., et al. (2015). "Oestrogen and progesterone receptors and COX-2 expression in endometrial biopsy samples during maternal recognition of pregnancy in llamas (Lama glama)." Reproduction in domestic animals 50(6): 980-988.

Endometrial expression of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) was evaluated in non-pregnant and pregnant llamas during the period when luteolysis/maternal recognition of pregnancy is expected to occur. Females (n=28) were divided into two groups: non-pregnant llamas were induced to ovulate with a Buserelin injection, and endometrial biopsies were obtained on day 8 (n=5) or 12 (n=5) post-induction of ovulation. Animals of the pregnant group (n=18) were mated with a fertile male. Pregnancy was confirmed by the visualization of the embryo collected by transcervical flushing in 5 of 9 animals on day 8 post-mating and by progesterone profile on day 12 post-mating in 4 of 9 animals, when endometrial biopsies were obtained. An immunohistochemical technique was used to evaluate receptors population and COX-2 expression. Pregnant llamas showed a higher percentage of positive cells and stronger intensity for ERα than for non-pregnant llamas in stroma on day 8 and in the luminal epithelium on day 12 post-induction of ovulation, while a deep decrease in endometrial PR population was reported in pregnant llamas on that day in luminal and glandular epithelia and stroma. In the luminal epithelium, COX-2 expression was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant animals. Briefly, the increase of ERα in pregnant llamas gives further support to the hypothesis that oestrogens are involved in the mechanism of maternal recognition of pregnancy. Endometrial PR decrease in pregnant llamas might be a necessary event to allow the expression of proteins involved in conceptus attachment, a mechanism widely accepted in other species. Moreover, embryo seems to attenuate maternal PGF2α secretion during early pregnancy by decreasing the endometrial expression of COX-2 in the luminal epithelium of pregnant llamas.

Bianchi, C. P., et al. (2007). "Uterine estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor during the follicular and luteal phase in llamas." Animal Reproduction Science 99(1/2): 117-126.

Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) were characterized in different endometrial cell types as luminal and glandular epithelium and stroma during the follicular (FP) and the luteal phase (LP) in llamas. Animals were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography for the determination of the presence of an ovulatory follicle and ovulation was immediately induced by a GnRH injection (Day 0). Endometrial samples were obtained by transcervical biopsies from the left uterine horn on Day 0 (FP) and 9 days after the GnRH injection (Day 9, LP). Blood samples were collected on these days for estradiol 17β and progesterone determination by RIA. An immunohistochemical technique was used to visualize ERα and PR immunostaining which was then analyzed by two independent observers. Total positive area and average staining for ERα were affected by the phase of the ovarian activity: in the three cell types there was more positive area and intense staining during the FP than during the LP. Similar findings were observed for PR, more positive stained areas were found during the FP than during the LP in the epithelia. In addition, the three cell types had more intense staining during the FP than during the LP. An effect of the cell type for ERα and PR was observed; epithelia (luminal and glandular) had more positive stained areas and greater intensity than stromal cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that in llamas, like in other ruminants, estradiol has a stimulatory effect while progesterone downregulates the ERα and PR and that the receptor is cell type specific.

Bianchi, C. P., et al. (2010). "Endometrial population of oestrogen receptors alpha and beta and progesterone receptors A and B during the different phases of the follicular wave of llamas (Lama glama)." Reproduction in domestic animals 45(5): 872-880.

The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of oestrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ as well as both progesterone receptors isoforms progesterone receptor (PR) A and PRB in the luminal and glandular epithelia and stroma of the endometrium during the different phases of the follicular wave in llamas. Six llamas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography, and a transcervical biopsy was obtained when a follicle at the growing, plateau and regressing phase was recorded. Blood samples were collected at the time of biopsy for hormone determinations. An immunohistochemical technique was used to study receptor populations. Total positive area was evaluated in the different cell types by Image Analysis. Mean diameter measurements of the largest follicle were 6.9, 8.5 and 5.1 mm (p&lt;0.001) and mean plasma oestradiol-17β concentrations were 27.9±3.26; 30.0±2.79 and 24.0±1.78 pmol/l (p=0.32) during the growing, plateau and regressing phases, respectively. Immunostaining of ERα was higher in the luminal epithelium during the plateau and regressing phases (p&lt;0.05) than during the growing phase. More positive cells to ERβ were observed in the glandular epithelium of the growing and plateau phases (p&lt;0.05) than during the regressing phase. A higher percentage of cells positive to PRB was recorded in the luminal and glandular epithelia during the plateau phase (p&lt;0.05), while the PRA immunostaining was similar among phases. In brief, this study showed an increased population of ERα and PRB in the luminal epithelium, and only of PRB in the glandular epithelium at the time when an ovulatory follicle is present. The physiological importance of these changes in llamas remains to be elucidated.

Bildfell, R. J., et al. (2002). "Cryptococcosis in a llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 14(4): 337-339.

Bird, K. E., et al. (2004). "Keratinizing ameloblastoma in a 9-month-old llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 16(1): 89-92.

A 9-month-old male llama (Lama glama) was presented because of a rapidly growing mass on the right side of the face. Radiographs revealed a marked expansion of the right caudal face region with bone lysis involving the maxilla and the nasal, lacrimal, zygomatic, and palatine bones. Cytologically, the mass consisted of atypical round to polygonal cells with round nuclei and basophilic cytoplasms that formed acini and rows. Histologically, the mass consisted of anastomosing cords and sheets of neoplastic odontogenic epithelial cells embedded in a loose fibrovascular connective tissue. Single layers of peripheral, polarized, palisading, columnar epithelial cells were seen at the edges of some cords. Within the centers of the cords, epithelial cells showed rapid progression to keratin production. The histologic diagnosis was keratinizing ameloblastoma. Ameloblastomas are neoplasms of odontogenic epithelium that tend to be locally aggressive and can cause substantial destruction of bony structures. Because ameloblastomas do not tend to metastasize, they can be successfully treated by complete surgical excision, performed before extensive bony destruction occurs. Ameloblastoma, although expected to be rare, should be on the list of differential diagnoses for facial swelling in llamas.

Bishop, J. K. and L. G. Rickard (1987). "Faecal survey of llamas (Lama glama) in Oregon: incidental recovery of Nematodirus battus." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 191(12): 1579-1581.

Faecal samples were collected from various llama herds in Oregon, USA, and subjected to a flotation/centrifugation technique using saturated NaCl solution to recover nematode eggs. Trichostrongyle eggs were most prevalent (67%) and were recovered from both adults and crias (llamas ≤ 1 year old). Nematodirus spp. was the next most prevalent (23%) followed by Strongyloides spp. (9%), Capillaria spp. (8%) and Trichuris spp. (5%). Twice as many crias were infected with Nematodirus spp. as were adults. Since llamas harbour helminths common to both sheep and cattle, their role in the epizootiology of helminth infections is discussed.

Black-Schultz, L. L., et al. (1993). "Diaphragmatic hernia in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202(3): 410-412.

Blanco Viera, J., et al. (1995). "Epidemiology of foot and mouth disease in the llama (Lama glama)." Veterinaria Argentina 12(119): 620-627.

A total of 460 samples of serum and oesophago-pharyngeal fluid were taken from llamas of different ages and sexes, kept on pasture with cattle and sheep, from 9 farms in the provinces of Jujuy (4 farms), La Pampa (1), Córdoba (2) and Buenos Aires (2). Virus could not be detected in any of the samples, neither could seroneutralizing or virus-infection associated antigen (VIAA) antibodies to virus types A, O or C. Samples obtained from 30 sheep were also negative. Of the 120 cattle in contact with the llamas, 38 were positive for VIAA antibodies and 103 for seroneutralizing antibodies. All 60 bovine oesophago-pharyngeal samples tested were negative for virus. It is concluded that these results confirm the low susceptibility of llamas to foot and mouth disease and their lack of importance in its epidemiology.

Blykers, A., et al. (2015). "PET Imaging of Macrophage Mannose Receptor-Expressing Macrophages in Tumor Stroma Using 18F-Radiolabeled Camelid Single-Domain Antibody Fragments." J Nucl Med 56(8): 1265-1271.

Tumor-associated macrophages constitute a major component of the stroma of solid tumors, encompassing distinct subpopulations with different characteristics and functions. We aimed to identify M2-oriented tumor-supporting macrophages within the tumor microenvironment as indicators of cancer progression and prognosis, using PET imaging. This can be realized by designing (18)F-labeled camelid single-domain antibody fragments (sdAbs) specifically targeting the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), which has been identified as an important biomarker on this cell population.|Cross-reactive anti-MMR sdAbs were generated after immunization of an alpaca with the extracellular domains of both human and mouse MMR. The lead binder was chosen on the basis of comparisons of binding affinity and in vivo pharmacokinetics. The PET tracer (18)F-fluorobenzoate (FB)-anti-MMR sdAb was developed using the prosthetic group N-succinimidyl-4-(18)F-fluorobenzoate ((18)F-SFB), and its biodistribution, tumor-targeting potential, and specificity in terms of macrophage and MMR targeting were evaluated in mouse tumor models.|Four sdAbs were selected after affinity screening, but only 2 were found to be cross-reactive for human and mouse MMR. The lead anti-MMR 3.49 sdAb, bearing an affinity of 12 and 1.8 nM for mouse and human MMR, respectively, was chosen for its favorable in vivo biodistribution profile and tumor-targeting capacity. (18)F-FB-anti-MMR 3.49 sdAb was synthesized with a 5%-10% radiochemical yield using an automated and optimized protocol. In vivo biodistribution analyses showed fast clearance via the kidneys and retention in MMR-expressing organs and tumor. The kidney retention of the fluorinated sdAb was 20-fold lower than a (99m)Tc-labeled counterpart. Compared with MMR- and C-C chemokine receptor 2-deficient mice, significantly higher uptake was observed in tumors grown in wild-type mice, demonstrating the specificity of the (18)F tracer for MMR and macrophages, respectively.|Anti-MMR 3.49 was denoted as the lead cross-reactive MMR-targeting sdAb. (18)F radiosynthesis was optimized, providing an optimal probe for PET imaging of the tumor-promoting macrophage subpopulation in the tumor stroma. AN - 26069306

Boileau, M. J., et al. (2003). "Colocolic intussusception in a 12-year-old llama." Journal of veterinary internal medicine 17(6): 937-939.

Bolland, J. and I. Streich (2006). My llama for a dromedary. Glasgow, G.F.M. Productions.

Bolton, M. (2007). "Counting llamas and accounting for people: livestock, land and citizens in southern Bolivia." Sociological Review 55(1): 5-21.

This paper examines the struggles that surround livestock enumeration in highland Bolivia. Based on historical and ethnographic data, colonial officials counted llamas for purposes of taxation, while present-day government agencies and NGOs enumerate animals to attract money from aid agencies and promote entrepreneurial activity. In both instances, livestock enumeration serves not just to count animals but to render accountable their owners. It is argued that such enumerative procedures carried out by experts do not simply record a reality, but by rendering herders accountable, seek to produce particular kinds of people within particular economic realities. Far from being a culturally neutral practice, the enumeration of llamas can constitute an act of symbolic violence that seeks to erase specific relationships between herders and animals and to prioritise the individual over the communal. In conclusion, in both colonial and contemporary cases, Andean people seek to produce themselves in ways that contest those in which others would produce them.

Boon, J. A., et al. (1994). "Llama cardiology." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 353-370.

Borkowski, R., et al. (2007). "Adaptations of Subpalpebral Lavage Systems Used for Llamas (Lama glama) and a Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 38(3): 453-459.

Subpalpebral lavage systems (SPLSs) were adapted for use in zoo llamas (Lama glama) and a wild harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) during therapy for severe ulcerative keratitis or corneal perforation. One llama presented with a melting corneal ulcer caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which necessitated frequent application of a topical ophthalmic antibiotic. The lavage system was used routinely during the day and was connected to a balloon infusion system at night to allow for continuous medication administration. The ulcer healed soon after therapy was extended to include overnight treatment with the infusion system. A SPLS system was also combined with a balloon infusor during postoperative treatment of a second llama that had sustained a corneal perforation. Both llamas tolerated the infusor/lavage systems well and regained vision. One llama had minor conjunctival irritation from the SPLS that resolved quickly without treatment. Bilateral SPLS were placed in a wild harbor seal for treatment of severe ulcerative keratitis associated with Candida albicans infection. The seal tolerated the lavage systems well throughout 14 wk of their use in an aquatic environment with other seals. Partial detachment of the lavage systems from the skin of the seal occurred a few times during treatment and was easily corrected. Severe keratitis resolved with administration of antimicrobials through the lavage systems, and the seal was returned to the wild. The use of SPLSs alone or in combination with balloon infusion systems warrants consideration for exotic, wild, and aquatic animals that cannot tolerate repetitive manual applications of topical ophthalmic medication.

Borkowski, R., et al. (2007). "Adaptations of subpalpebral lavage systems used for llamas (Lama glama) and a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 38(3): 453-459.

Subpalpebral lavage systems (SPLSs) were adapted for use in zoo llamas (Lama glama) and a wild harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) during therapy for severe ulcerative keratitis or corneal perforation. One llama presented with a melting corneal ulcer caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which necessitated frequent application of a topical ophthalmic antibiotic. The lavage system was used routinely during the day and was connected to a balloon infusion system at night to allow for continuous medication administration. The ulcer healed soon after therapy was extended to include overnight treatment with the infusion system. A SPLS system was also combined with a balloon infusor during postoperative treatment of a second llama that had sustained a corneal perforation. Both llamas tolerated the infusor/lavage systems well and regained vision. One llama had minor conjunctival irritation from the SPLS that resolved quickly without treatment. Bilateral SPLS were placed in a wild harbor seal for treatment of severe ulcerative keratitis associated with Candida albicans infection. The seal tolerated the lavage systems well throughout 14 wk of their use in an aquatic environment with other seals. Partial detachment of the lavage systems from the skin of the seal occurred a few times during treatment and was easily corrected. Severe keratitis resolved with administration of antimicrobials through the lavage systems, and the seal was returned to the wild. The use of SPLSs alone or in combination with balloon infusion systems warrants consideration for exotic, wild, and aquatic animals that cannot tolerate repetitive manual applications of topical ophthalmic medication.

Bornstein, S. and K. d. Verdier (2010). "Some important ectoparasites of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Camelid Science 3: 49-61.

The most important ectoparasites infesting/infecting alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama) are reviewed. The clinical manifestation and the diagnosis of the different parasitic infections/infestations of Sarcoptes scabiei, Chorioptes sp., Psoroptes sp., Damalinia (Bovicola) breviceps and Microthoracius spp. are described as well as therapies against them. Demonstrating S. scabiei and Chorioptes sp. with available diagnostic methods are challengingly often due to the relatively small numbers of mites that may elicit clinical disease. In Chorioptes sp. infestations it has been shown that alpacas are often subclinically infested. Predilection places are between the toes and in the axillae. The variable response to modern acaricidal treatments emphazises the need of more evidence based studies. The lack of lanolin in the fibres of South American camelids may explain the poor response to topical applications of modern insecticidal/acaricidal products used on other animals. Pharmacokinetic studies of such substances are limited. Few products are licenced although several products that are used and are available for other animals are used off-label. Applying a combination of systemic and topical treatments may produce optimal results. The need to apply treatments against the mange mites more frequently and with higher dosages of some of the acaricidal substances than recommended for other livestock is indicated. Lice infestations are often easier to deal with. Systemic treatment should be applied against sucking lice and topical against the biting lice. All animals in affected herds should be treated at the same time and stringent biosecurity measures following treatment is recommended to avoid re-infections/infestations.

Bosch, A. s. (1970). El mago y la llama. Novela, etc. Barcelona, Editorial Planeta.

Bourke, D., et al. (1990). "Successful pregnancy following non-surgical embryo transfer in llamas." Veterinary record 127(23): 580.

The establishment of pregnancies in two llamas using non-surgical embryo recovery and transfer techniques is reported. The following procedure was used for embryo recovery from the llamas, eight days after mating. A two-way balloon cuff catheter was manipulated through the cervical canal per vaginam and the cuff inflated just anterior to the internal os of the cervix. Using a three-way tap, proprietary ovum culture media was introduced in small aliquots and once uterine expansion was achieved, medium was allowed to drain back into collecting vessels. This was repeated until a total of 500 ml of medium had been used. The recovered medium was filtered using a 75 µm embryo filter and the remaining supernatant was decanted into embryo dishes and examined under a stereomicroscope. Both recipients were confirmed pregnant by transrectal ultrasound scanning. Embryonic vesicles were identified on day 25 (ovulation=day 0; embryo transfer=day 7). The embryo proper and heart beat were detected on day 32. Although two embryos had been transferred to one of the recipients, only one conceptus was subsequently identified by ultrasound scanning. Both recipients were monitored by regular ultrasound scanning and at the time of writing were 153 days pregnant. Gestational length in llamas is approximately 340 to 355 days.

Bourke, D. A., et al. (1991). "Successful pregnancy following non-surgical embryo transfer in llamas." Veterinary record 128(3): 68.

This is a corrected version of the letter originally published in Veterinary Record (1990) 127 (23) 580.

Bourke, D. A., et al. (1992). "Ultrasonography as an aid to controlled breeding in the llama (Lama glama)." Veterinary record 130(19): 424-428.

An ultrasonic linear array scanner with a transrectal probe was used to observe ovarian and uterine changes associated with the reproductive cycle in llamas. 'Waves' of follicular development and regression occurred in unstimulated females during which the dominant follicle reached a maximum size of 9 to 13 mm; both ovaries were equally active. Ovulation was induced by mating in 80% of cases, and when mating was accompanied by the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin the ovulation rate increased to 90% and the time to ovulation decreased from 2 to 3 days to 1 to 2 days. Some spontaneous ovulations occurred. Corpora lutea reached a maximum size of 12 mm (non-pregnant) or 14 mm (pregnant) after 7 or 16 days, respectively. The lifespan of the corpus luteum was approximately 11 days in non-pregnant llamas and the regression time was advanced by the administration of prostaglandin or embryo recovery. Pregnancy could be diagnosed as early as 19 days after mating.

Bourke, D. A., et al. (1992). Superovulation and embryo transfer in the llama. Newmarket, R & W Publications: 183-185.

Superovulation was induced in llamas by treatment with 1000 IU horse chorionic gonadotropin during a luteal phase created by stimulating ovulation by treatment with HCG or a GnRH analogue, or by treating with an intravaginal progesterone pessary or a subcutaneous progestogen implant. Embryos were recovered non-surgically 6-9 days after ovulation. The numbers of follicles, corpora lutea and embryos recovered were 0-13, 0-11 and 0-6 resp. Recipients for embryos were synchronized with donors using GnRH alone (group 1, n = 7) or a subcutaneous progestogen implant followed by GnRH (group 2, n = 4). Three group-1 recipients became pregnant: 2 produced live calves and the 3rd was still pregnant at the end of the experiment. None of the group-2 recipients became pregnant.

Bourke, D. A., et al. (1995). "Superovulatory responses to eCG in llamas (Lama glama)." Theriogenology 44(2): 255-268.

19 ♀ llamas (group A) were given 8 µg of GnRH analogue on day 0 of the experiment, 1000 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin on day 7, and 250 µg PGF2α on day 9. 17 ♀ llamas (group B) were given a progestogen implant (3 mg norgestomet, left in place from day 0 to day 7) and 1000 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin on day 5. When at least 65% of follicles (observed ultrasonically) in groups A and B had matured during days 5-11 after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin, the ♀♀ were given 8 µg GnRH, and were mated once, or twice within a 24-h interval. Embryos were recovered 6-9 days after ovulation. More follicles and corpora lutea were induced in group B than in group A, but the mean number of embryos recovered per ♀ was similar in the 2 groups (1.3 vs. 1.6). The percentage of ♀♀ yielding multiple embryos was 35 and 32 in groups A and B respectively. The embryo recovery rate was 39 and 37% in the 2 groups respectively, but was significantly higher for 2 than for 1 mating (72 vs. 22%). 80% of llamas had a precocious corpus luteum and elevated plasma progesterone concentration when multiple follicles reached maturity.

Bozorgmanesh, R., et al. (2016). "Atrial Fibrillation in Eight New World Camelids." J Vet Intern Med 30(1): 335-338.

There is limited information on the incidence of clinical signs, concurrent illness and treatment options for atrial fibrillation (AF) in New World Camelids (NWC).|Describe clinical signs and outcome of AF in NWC.|Eight New World Camelids admitted with AF.|A retrospective observational study of camelids diagnosed with AF based on characteristic findings on electrocardiogram (ECG).|All animals had an irregularly irregular heart rhythm detected on physical examination and 4 cases had obtunded mentation on admission. Three camelids were diagnosed with AF secondary to oleander intoxication, 3 animals had underlying cardiovascular disease, 1 was diagnosed with lone AF and 1 had AF diagnosed on examination for a urethral obstruction. Five of eight animals survived to discharge and nonsurvivors consisted of animals which died or were euthanized as a result of cardiovascular disease (2/8) or extra-cardiac disease unrelated to the AF (1/8).|Atrial fibrillation occurs in NWC in association with cardiovascular disease, extra-cardiac disease or as lone AF. Amiodarone and transthoracic cardioversion were attempted in one llama with lone AF, but were unsuccessful. Atrial fibrillation was recorded in 0.1% of admissions. AN - 26647783

Bradley, D. G., et al. (2006). Genetic Analysis of the Origins of Domestic South American Camelids. Documenting Domestication. M. A. Zeder, University of California Press: 329-341.

<p>Ancestors of the family Camelidae originated in North America during the Eocene, 40&#x2013;45 MYA, with the division between Lamini and Camelini (the tribes of New and Old World camelids, respectively) dating to 11 MYA (Webb 1974; Harrison 1979). Their subsequent migration to South America and Asia occurred 3 MYA (Webb 1974), with representatives of the extant New World genera<em>Lama</em>and<em>Vicugna</em>appearing 2 MYA (Hoffstetter 1986) in South America.</p><p>Two branches of the Lamini evolved from the ancestral North American<em>Pliauchenia</em>(11&#x2013;9 MYA). The first exclusively North American branch contains<em>Alforjas</em>(10&#x2013;4.5 MYA) and<em>Camelops</em>(4.5&#x2013;</p>

Braga L, W. (1993). "Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in abscesses of adult alpacas and llamas." Revista de Investigaciones Pecuarias 6(2): 128-131.

Abscesses were observed in 57 of 2638 alpacas and 2 of 243 llamas. 22 of the affected alpacas and the 2 llamas were killed and PM examinations carried out. C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from abscesses of both llamas and 10 of the alpacas. Other microorganisms isolated from the alpacas were Staphylococcus aureus (7 cases), yeasts (6) and Streptococcus sp. (1). Abscesses were observed at the following sites: lymph nodes (29), mammary glands (13), liver (2) and lungs (1).

Brahm, E., et al. (1973). [Poisoning of llamas, alpacas, goats and wolves by Ericaceae at Dortmund zoo]. Berlin, Akademie-Verlag.: 125-130.

Brakel, A. (1994). "MI LLAMA ES." Chiric&#xfa; 7(2): 59-59.

Braunitzer, G., et al. (1977). "Sequence of alpha chains of the haemoglobins of swine and llama. (Aspects of respiration at high altitude.)." Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie 358(3): 409-412.

Braunitzer, G., et al. (1977). "Regulation of respiration at high altitude and its molecular interpretation: sequence of beta chains of haemoglobins of swine and llama." Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie 358(7): 921-925.

Braunitzer, G., et al. (1978). "Haemoglobins. XXII. Phosphate-protein interaction and respiration in llama, human fetus, and horse." Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie 359(5): 547-558.

Bravo, P. W. (1994). "Reproductive endocrinology of llamas and alpacas." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 265-279.

This account of reproduction in llamas and alpacas describes copulation, ♀ sexual behaviour, pregnancy, parturition and puberty, and their hormonal basis.

Bravo, P. W., et al. (2000). "The effect of enzymes on semen viscosity in llamas and alpacas." Small Ruminant Research 38(1): 91-95.

The effect of 4 enzymes: collagenase, fibrinolysin, hyalurodinase, and trypsin were recorded on the viscosity, motility, percent live spermatozoa and acrosome integrity of llama and alpaca semen. Semen samples were collected using a modified artificial vagina for each of the 5 llamas and 5 alpacas. A 25% solution of the enzyme at a concentration of 1 mg/ml was added to the ejaculate. Analysis of variance was used to determine differences in eliminating viscosity and alterations in motility, percent live spermatozoa and the acrosomal integrity at 0 (time of semen collection), 2 and 5 min. In llama and alpaca semen, collagenase eliminated viscosity in 100 and 99% of the samples, respectively, fibrinolysin in 89 and 59%; hyalurodinase in 88 and 36%; and trypsin in 55 and 68% of the samples (p&lt;0.05). In the llama sperm, motility decreased (p&lt;0.05) with the addition of fibrinolysin (28%), trypsin (13%), hyalurodinase (12%), and collagenase (4%). In alpaca semen, the enzymes used had no effect on sperm motility. Percent live spermatozoa variably decreased after the addition of fibrinolysin, hyalurodinase and trypsin. There was no significant difference in the acrosome integrity in llama and alpaca samples following the addition of the enzymes. Overall, collagenase had little or no influence in decreasing motility, percent live spermatozoa and acrosome integrity, whereas, it was effective in eliminating semen viscosity.

Bravo, P. W., et al. (1994). "The postpartum llama: fertility after parturition." Biology of Reproduction 51(6): 1084-1087.

56 llamas were mated 10, 20 or 30 days post partum. Half of the ♀♀ were mated once, the remainder mating twice within 24 h. Ovarian activity was monitored by ultrasonography and by determination of urinary oestrone sulphate and pregnanediol glucuronide concentrations. At copulation, all ♀♀ had ovulatory-size follicles. The proportion of ♀♀ ovulating after mating did not differ among postpartum mating intervals. Ovarian follicles were significantly larger at 30 than at 20 or 10 days, but there were no associated differences in oestrone concentration. The CR for ♀♀ mated at 10 days post partum (6 out of 10 animals) was significantly less than for ♀♀ mated at 20 days (13 out of 15) and 30 days (16 out of 18). Diameter of the uterine horn was significantly greater at 10 than at 20 or 30 days post partum.

Bravo, P. W., et al. (1990). "Endocrine responses in the llama to copulation." Theriogenology 33(4): 891-899.

Changes in plasma concentration of LH, oestradiol-17β and progesterone were measured in 9 adult ♀ llamas following a single copulation. (av. duration = 18 min). Blood was sampled through an indwelling jugular cannula at 15-min intervals for up to 24 h following copulation and then once daily for up to 10 days. An increase in LH concentration was observed 15 min after the onset of copulation, with the peak of the preovulatory surge at 2 h and a return to basal concentration by 7 h after copulation. The timing of the LH surge indicated that copulation induced ovulation. Oestradiol-17β concentration did not change for 18 h after copulation, but decreased between 18 h and 48 h (12.0±1.41 vs. 5.5±0.52 pg/ml). Progesterone did not increase until 3 days after copulation, with a further increase between 3 and 10 days.

Bravo, P. W., et al. (1990). "Ovarian follicular dynamics in the llama." Biology of Reproduction 43(4): 579-585.

Ovarian follicular dynamics were studied in adult llamas by ultrasonography, rectal palpation and the determination of oestradiol-17β and oestrogen conjugate concentrations in blood plasma and urine. Plasma FSH and LH concentrations were also determined. Progesterone concentration in plasma was used to determine the presence of a corpus luteum. Follicular development (from a diameter of 3 mm) averaged 4.8 days and the duration of the mature follicle (8-12 mm) 5.0 days; regression of the follicle occurred over about 4 days. The development of a subsequent dominant follicle usually began within 2-3 days after the onset of regression of the dominant follicle. While several follicles were present at the time of the demise of the dominant follicle, only 1 follicle continued to develop. The interval between ovarian follicle waves averaged 11.1 days. The dominant follicle alternated between ovaries in 81% of the cycles. The occurrence of dominant follicles was evenly distributed between ovaries. While plasma oestradiol and oestrogen conjugate concentrations were positively associated (P&lt;0.05) with follicular activity, urinary oestrogen conjugate concentration reflected follicular size (P&lt;0.001). Daily FSH concentrations in plasma were not correlated with follicular activity. LH concentrations in plasma were low in all animals throughout the study, indicating that oestrogen from developing follicles does not induce the release of LH. Progesterone values were low, indicating the absence of spontaneous ovulation.

Bravo, P. W., et al. (1997). "Immunoglobulin G concentrations in periparturient llamas, alpacas and their crias." Small Ruminant Research 26(1/2): 145-149.

Concentrations of IgG were determined in periparturient animals (15 llamas, 15 alpacas) and their 30 crias (up to 60 days of age). Mammary secretion was collected before and after parturition. Serum samples from pregnant animals and their crias were collected by jugular venipuncture. Concentrations of IgG were determined by radial immunodiffusion test. Concentrations of IgG in sera of periparturient llamas (mean 3098.2 mg/dl) were not different from alpacas (3126.1 mg/dl) throughout the study period. Mean concentrations of IgG in mammary secretions were 23 698.8 mg/dl before parturition, 19 261.9 mg/dl on the day of parturition, and 9174.3 mg/dl, 5656.1 mg/dl, 2896.1 mg/dl, 2103.5 mg/dl, 1385.1 mg/dl and 633.7 mg/dl, at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days after parturition, respectively. Mean concentrations of IgG in sera of crias were 0 mg/dl, 2342.9 mg/dl, 2329.2 mg/dl, 3201.2 mg/dl, 2738.1 mg/dl and 2638.8 mg/dl at time of birth, 12 h, 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after birth. There was no difference in mean IgG concentrations between species, llama (2370.6 mg/dl) and alpaca crias (2347.1 mg/dl), and no difference in general mean values between male (2342.3 mg/dl) and female (2352.2 mg/dl) crias. Concentrations of IgG in sera of pregnant females remained constant throughout the study period; however, changes did occur after parturition in mammary secretions. Llama and alpaca crias were born agammaglobulinaemic with IgG concentrations increasing rapidly after suckling.

Bravo, P. W., et al. (1995). "Resumption of ovarian follicular activity and uterine involution in the postpartum llama." Theriogenology 44(6): 783-791.

39 multiparous llamas were monitored for 30 days post partum by ultrasonography and measurement of urinary oestrone sulphate concentration. Follicles of ovulatory size (7 mm in diameter) were present by days 4-14 post partum, and follicle growth was detected from day 4 post partum. Follicle size was smaller during the 1st wave of follicle growth than during the 2nd and 3rd waves. There were correlations of 0.64-0.83 between follicle size and oestrone concentration. There were significant differences between the right (previously non-gravid) and left (previously gravid) uterine horns during the first 17 days post partum, in respect of length and diameter. Uterine involution was completed by day 21 post partum in 63% of ♀♀.

Bravo, P. W., et al. (1991). "Urinary steroids in the periparturient and postpartum periods through early pregnancy in llamas." Theriogenology 36(2): 267-278.

Urinary steroids (oestrone sulphate and pregnanediol glucuronide) were determined in 5 llamas daily from 20 days before to 30 days after parturition, including the first 20 days of pregnancy. Oestrone sulphate concentrations were elevated during the last 20 days of gestation, and began to decline 12 h before parturition. Pregnanediol concentration followed a pattern similar to that of oestrone sulphate except that the levels began to decrease 5 days before parturition. Oestrone sulphate and pregnanediol levels reached basal concentrations 24 h after parturition. The first significant elevation of oestrone sulphate, indicative of initial follicle development, was observed 5 days after parturition. Pregnanediol concentrations were low during the postpartum period until 4-5 days after mating. The values rose steadily following copulation-induced ovulation (which occurred at about 2 wk after parturition); the levels then continued to increase during the first 15 days of pregnancy.

Bravo, P. W., et al. (1992). "Pituitary response to repeated copulation and/or gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration in llamas and alpacas." Biology of Reproduction 47(5): 884-888.

80 adult ♀♀ (41 llamas and 39 alpacas with ovulatory follicles) were allowed to copulate (1 or 2 copulations at a 6- or 24-h interval), treated with 1 mg GnRH (1 or 2 treatments at a 6- or 24-h interval), or allowed to copulate and treated with GnRH (copulation followed by GnRH treatment, or GnRH followed by copulation at 6- or 24-h intervals). A group of 4 llamas and 4 alpacas served as untreated controls. The 1st copulation or treatment with GnRH provoked LH release sufficient to cause ovulation in most of the ♀♀ (89% of alpacas and 92% of llamas); urinary pregnanediol glucuronide level, used to verify ovulation, was significantly increased 48 h after copulation and/or GnRH treatment. A 2nd copulation or GnRH treatment provoked no LH response, and plasma LH level remained similar to that in untreated controls and in non-ovulating ♀♀.

Bravo, P. W., et al. (1993). "Ovarian and endocrine patterns associated with reproductive abnormalities in llamas and alpacas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 202(2): 268-272.

Ovarian activity was characterized in llamas and alpacas with hypoplastic ovaries, cystic follicles, or ovulatory failure. Ovarian follicular activity was determined by transrectal ultrasonography and urinary oestrone sulfate analysis; pituitary response was determined by measurement of plasma concn of luteinizing hormone. Llamas and alpacas with hypoplastic ovaries had follicles ≤6 mm (minimal ovulatory size, 7 mm). Cystic follicles, defined as &gt;12 mm, were maintained for a mean of 9 days. Follicular activity in the ovary contralateral to the cystic follicle tended to be suppressed while the cystic follicle was present. Ovarian response to copulation in females with cystic follicles varied according to the stage of the cystic follicle. Animals with ovulatory failure did not release adequate luteinizing hormone after copulation, even though they had mature and normal follicles (8 to 12 mm). It was concluded that the cystic follicle syndrome appears to be temporary, whereas the syndromes involving hypoplastic ovaries and ovulatory failure may permanently affect fertility.

Bravo, P. W., et al. (1996). "Hormonal indicators of pregnancy in llamas and alpacas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 208(12): 2027-2030.

Estrone sulphate concentrations in serum and in urine, and progesterone and relaxin concentrations in serum were measured in 19 pregnant camelids (8 llamas and 11 alpacas). Estrone sulphate concentrations peaked 21 days after breeding and during the last month of pregnancy. Relaxin concentrations increased at 3 months of gestation to &gt;20 ng/ml, decreased at 5 months to 5 ng/ml, then increased from 8 months of pregnancy until parturition. Progesterone concentrations were detectable 4 days after breeding and were maintained &gt;2 ng/ml throughout pregnancy. The first increase in estrone sulphate concentration over basal values may indicate early interaction between mother and embryo, whereas the second increase may reflect fetal viability. Use of estrone sulphate concentration to diagnose pregnancy in llamas and alpacas in highly dependent on time of sampling. Relaxin concentration in serum is a superior indicator of pregnancy after the second month in the llama and alpaca because its existence is suggestive of interaction between mother and fetus, and concentrations are greater than basal values for a long period of pregnancy. Progesterone is not a direct product of the embryo or fetus and only indirectly confirms a diagnosis of pregnancy.

Bravo, P. W. and J. Sumar (1991). "Evaluation of intra-abdominal vasectomy in llamas and alpacas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 199(9): 1164-1169.

A method of intra-abdominal vasectomy (deferentectomy), using a laparoscopic technique in llamas and alpacas, was evaluated. Food was withheld from 14 animals for 24 h before sedation and laparoscopy. The ductus deferens was located close to the bladder, and a 2- to 3-cm section of ductus deferens was resected with the aid of pair of hook scissors. The procedure was completed in 5 to 8 min, and animals did not show any adverse effects. 45 days after vasectomy, animals were used for detecting sexually receptive females or inducing ovulation during reproductive physiological studies. The procedure did not impair libido and had no effect on male sexual behaviour. It is concluded that the technique is simpler, safer, and faster than the traditional external approach.

Bravo, P. W., et al. (1995). "Dose response to equine chorionic gonadotropin and subsequent ovulation in llamas." Small Ruminant Research 18(2): 157-163.

45 non-lactating llamas, with an average body weight of 102 kg, were given an intramuscular injection of 0 (control), 100, 500, 1000 or 2000 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). When at least 2 ovulatory-sized follicles (≥7mm) were observed, ovulation was induced by a single intramuscular injection of 750 IU HCG or a single mating to an intact male. Ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian activity during the ovarian cycle, urinary oestrone sulphate during the follicular phase and pregnanediol during the luteal phase. No difference existed in the number of follicles present at day 7 after treatment in the llamas receiving 0 and 100 IU eCG (1.0 and 1.1, respectively), but an increased number of follicles was seen in llamas receiving 500, 1000 and 2000 IU eCG (4.7, 4.6 and 6.4, respectively). Llamas with multiple follicles had higher concentrations of urinary oestrone sulphate than those with single follicles (101 vs. 29.7 ng/mg creatinine). Cystic follicles occurred in 2 llamas receiving 500 IU, 2 receiving 100 IU and 9 receiving 2000 IU eCG. Corpora lutea were seen in 59.9 and 78.8% of llamas induced into oestrus by a single mating or HCG, respectively; the mean number of corpora lutea was 3.4 and 5.4, respectively. Seven days after mating and HCG injection the concentrations of pregnanediol were 9.3 and 7.7 ng/mg creatine, respectively.

Brightman, A. H., et al. (1981). "Keratoconjunctivitis in a llama." Veterinary Medicine & Small Animal Clinician 76(12): 1776-1777.

Brogliatti, G. M., et al. (1996). "Ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicle aspiration and oocyte collection in llamas (Lama glama)." Theriogenology 45(1): 249.

Ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicle aspiration for oocyte collection has been described as a noninvasive and repeatable procedure for oocyte collection in several species but has not been described for any member of the Family Camelidae. A study was designed to determine the feasibility of an ultrasound-guided transvaginal approach for oocyte collection in llamas. Ten non-pregnant, adult female llamas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography with a 7.5 MHz linear-array transducer to determine the number and diameter of follicles available for aspiration. Caudal epidural anaesthesia was induced with 2 ml of 2% lidocaine and the perineum was washed. The same 7.5 MHz linear-array transducer was washed and fastened to a long probe handle and inserted intravaginally. The free hand was placed into the rectum to manipulate the ovaries in position against the vaginal wall over the face of the transducer. A 20-gauge, 55 cm long, single-lumen needle was advanced through the vaginal fornix and into an identified follicle ( 3 mm in diameter). Follicular contents were aspirated, using a regulated vacuum pump (140 mm Hg, flow-rate 30 ml/min.), into a 50 ml glass tube containing 5 ml of phosphate buffered saline. Fluid was filtered (75 «mu»m mesh) and oocytes were located using a stereomicroscope. A total of 48 follicles were aspirated and 31 oocytes were collected (collection rate, 64%). Oocytes were morphologically assessed under 120 × magnification at the time of collection; 12 oocytes were surrounded by multiple layers of compacted granulosa cells with uniformly compact and dark ooplasm, 4 were surrounded by the corona radiata layer with unevenly distributed ooplasm, 4 oocytes were denuded with uniformly compact and dark ooplasm, and 7 oocytes were denuded with variable degrees of ooplasm degeneration. All oocytes were fixed for later ultrastructural evaluation. Twenty-four hours after the follicle aspiration procedure, the ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasonography and intrafollicular haematomas were detected in 3 llamas (9 of 48 follicles aspirated).

Brogliatti, G. M., et al. (2000). "Transvaginal collection and ultrastructure of llama (Lama glama) oocytes." Theriogenology 54(8): 1269-1279.

Ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicle aspiration has been described as a noninvasive and repeatable procedure for oocyte collection in several species, but its use has not been described for any of the members of the family Camelidae. A study was designed to determine the feasibility of an ultrasound-guided transvaginal approach for oocyte collection in llamas. 15 non-pregnant, adult female llamas (10 non-stimulated and 5 superstimulated) were examined by transrectal ultrasonography with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer to determine the number and diameter of follicles available for aspiration. After caudal epidural anesthesia was induced, the 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer was fastened to a long rigid handle and inserted intravaginally. The free hand was placed into the rectum to manipulate the ovaries, one at a time, in position against the vaginal wall over the face of the transducer. A 20-gauge, 55-cm-long, single-lumen needle was advanced through the vaginal fornix and into follicles ≥3mm in diameter. Follicular contents were aspirated using a regulated vacuum pump (flow rate=33 mL/min; ∼150 mm Hg) into a tube containing 3 mL of phosphate buffered saline and 0.2% bovine serum albumin. Fluid was filtered (75 µm mesh), and oocytes were located and morphologically evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Overall, 134 follicles were aspirated and 76 oocytes were collected (collection rate=57%). 32 oocytes (42%) were surrounded by multiple layers of compacted granulosa cells and had homogenous dark ooplasm; 13 oocytes (17%) were surrounded by the corona radiata layer only and had heavily granulated ooplasm; 9 oocytes (12%) were denuded and had homogenous dark ooplasm; and 22 oocytes (29%) were denuded and displayed signs of ooplasm degeneration. The ultrastructure of llama oocytes was similar to that of cattle except for conspicuous accumulation of large lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. 24 hours after follicle aspiration, the ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasonography and intrafollicular haematomas were detected in 3 llamas (9 of 48 follicles aspirated). Results demonstrate the potential utility of a transvaginal ultrasound-guided technique for oocyte collection and in vitro embryo production in llamas. Oocytes of llamas bear an ultrustructural resemblance to those of cattle, but are distinguished by a predominance of cytoplasmic lipid.

Brolin-Schlanger, L. (2003). "Prevalence of external parasites in alpacas and llamas in Andean Ecuador." Minor Field Studies - International Office, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences(No.258): 24 pp.

The objectives of this study were to determine the species and prevalence of external parasites infecting some llama and alpaca in Andean Ecuador. The income from lamoid fibre production is important for local farmers and a heavy parasitic burden may decrease the quality of the wool. In total, 82 animals (44 llamas and 38 alpacas) from five different farms were included in the study. A close examination of the wool and skin was performed on each animal. Samples of ectoparasites were brought to the laboratory at Instituto Agropecuario Superior Andino (IASA), Quito and morphologically examined under the light microscope. Skin scrapings were performed on animals with signs of severe dermatitis. Blood samples were taken from all animals and sera were prepared and stored at -20°C until tested with an indirect ELISA. The indirect ELISA detecting antibodies against Sarcoptes scabiei in dromedary camels was carried out at the Department of Parasitology at the National Veterinary Institute in Uppsala, Sweden. Biting lice (Damalinia breviceps) were found in 51 animals (62.2%) and sucking lice (Michrothoracius cameli) were isolated in 5 animals (6.1%). No S. scabiei mites were found. The ELISA, that detects antibodies to S. scabiei in infected dromedary camels has not been evaluated as to whether it cross-reacts with S. scabiei infected alpacas and llamas. However, the results of the ELISA indicate that antibodies to S. scabiei were present amongst sampled animals. Too few of animals were included in this study to enable any general conclusions to be made.

Bromage, G. (2006). Llamas and alpacas: a guide to management. Marlborough, Crowood Press.

This book serves as a guide to those who own llamas and alpacas or considering to own these animals. It is comprised of 13 chapters. The housing, fencing, routine husbandry procedures, welfare, behaviour and training of these animals are covered. The assessment of the animal, shearing, fleece evaluation and marketing are examined. The breeding, birth, care of newborn animals and common diseases are discussed.

Brooks, K., et al. (2015). "Biological Roles of Hydroxysteroid (11-Beta) Dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1), HSD11B2, and Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1) in Sheep Conceptus Elongation." Biol Reprod 93(2): 38.

In sheep, the elongating conceptus synthesizes and secretes interferon tau (IFNT) as well as prostaglandins (PGs) and cortisol. The enzymes, hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) and HSD11B2 interconvert cortisone and cortisol. In sheep, HSD11B1 is expressed and active in the conceptus trophectoderm as well as in the endometrial luminal epithelia; in contrast, HSD11B2 expression is most abundant in conceptus trophectoderm. Cortisol is a biologically active glucocorticoid and ligand for the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1 or GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2 or MR). Expression of MR is not detectable in either the ovine endometrium or conceptus during early pregnancy. In tissues that do not express MR, HSD11B2 protects cells from the growth-inhibiting and/or proapoptotic effects of cortisol, particularly during embryonic development. In study one, an in utero loss-of-function analysis of HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 was conducted in the conceptus trophectoderm using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) that inhibit mRNA translation. Elongating, filamentous conceptuses were recovered on Day 14 from ewes infused with control morpholino or HSD11B2 MAO. In contrast, HSD11B1 MAO resulted in severely growth-retarded conceptuses or conceptus fragments with apoptotic trophectoderm. In study two, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing was used to determine the role of GR in conceptus elongation and development. Elongating, filamentous-type conceptuses (12-14 cm in length) were recovered from ewes gestating control embryos (n = 7/7) and gestating GR-edited embryos (n = 6/7). These results support the idea that the effects of HSD11B1-derived cortisol on conceptus elongation are indirectly mediated by the endometrium and are not directly mediated through GR in the trophectoderm. AN - 26085523

Brown, C. J. (1994). "Castration of llamas." Veterinary record 134(25): 659-660.

Two adult males weighing about 150 kg each were sedated with a combination of butorphanol, injected first at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg followed immediately by, xylazine at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg. Lateral recumbency was achieved within a minute of injection, respiration was even and muscle relaxation good. The upper hind leg was hobbled forward. Local anaesthetic was injected into the skin over the testicles and directly into the organ. The skin was incised to expose the testicles and a closed castration performed using colt emasculators and tying off with catgut. The wounds were left unsutured. No parenteral antibiotics or tetanus antiserum were used. Recovery was uneventful. Care is needed to cannulate the jugular vein and not the carotid artery and also not to identify the sigmoid flexure in the penis as a testicle.

Brown, R. J. and J. Hardman (1973). "Hydrocephalus in a newborn llama." Journal of Wildlife Diseases 9(No.2): 146-147.

Brown, T. T., Jr., et al. (1978). "Cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis in llamas." Journal of Wildlife Diseases 14(4): 441-444.

Four of 11 llamas (Lama guanicoe) from a ranch near Houston, Texas, USA, developed clinical signs of a neurological disease. Tissues from 2 of the 4 llamas were submitted for microscopic examination. Lesions in the central nervous system of both appeared to have been caused by a migrating parasite. An adult nematode having morphological features of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis was found in the brain of one llama. The findings suggest that the neurological disease in the llamas were caused by P. tenuis. [AS]

Bunch, T. D., et al. (1985). "Chromosome banding pattern homologies and NORs for the Bactrian camel, guanaco and llama." Journal of Heredity 76(2): 115-118.

The bactrian camel, guanaco and llama were all shown to have a diploid chromosome number of 74 and a karyotype consisting of 3 pairs of submetacentric and 33 pairs of acrocentric autosomes, a large submetacentric X and a very small acrocentric Y. There were no differences in either G- or C-band patterns among these 3 species. The small arms of acrocentric chromosomes were C-band positive, and interstitial C-bands were associated with the centromere of the submetacentric chromosomes. The camel had 5 pairs of nucleolar organising chromosomes, and the guanaco and llama exhibited 6. The identical patterns in chromosome linear differentiation for these Camelidae suggests that their karyotype has been highly stable for millions of years.

Bürgel, H., et al. (2001). Cryopreservation of llama (Lama glama) spermatozoa with an egg-yolk-free extender. Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 90-93.

This study reports on the use of an egg-yolk-free extender (Biociphos plus) for the cryopreservation of llama spermatozoa for artificial insemination. Biociphos plus was easy to prepare, had a long keeping quality, but the post-thaw results were very poor. Therefore, further extenders should be tested for cryopreservation of llama semen.

Burger, P. A. (2016). "The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics." Trop Anim Health Prod 48(5 LA - eng): 905-913.

Old World camels have come into the focus as sustainable livestock species, unique in their morphological and physiological characteristics and capable of providing vital products even under extreme environmental conditions. The evolutionary history of dromedary and Bactrian camels traces back to the middle Eocene (around 40 million years ago, mya), when the ancestors of Camelus emerged on the North American continent. While the genetic status of the two domestic species has long been established, the wild two-humped camel has only recently been recognized as a separate species, Camelus ferus, based on molecular genetic data. The demographic history established from genome drafts of Old World camels shows the independent development of the three species over the last 100,000 years with severe bottlenecks occurring during the last glacial period and in the recent past. Ongoing studies involve the immune system, relevant production traits, and the global population structure and domestication of Old World camels. Based on the now available whole genome drafts, specific metabolic pathways have been described shedding new light on the camels' ability to adapt to desert environments. These new data will also be at the origin for genome-wide association studies to link economically relevant phenotypes to genotypes and to conserve the diverse genetic resources in Old World camelids. AN - 27048619

Burke, R. L. (1990). The llama figurine in Andean prehistory : analysis of llama figurines from the Callejon de Huaylas, Peru.

Burkhardt, J. E., et al. (1993). "Septicemic Enterococcus infection in an adult llama." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 5(1): 106-109.

Burkholder, T. H., et al. (2004). "Plasma Evaluation for Ivermectin in Llamas (Lama glama) after Standard Subcutaneous Dosing." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35(3): 395-396.

Plasma levels of the parasiticide ivermectin were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography in five llamas (Lama glama) after single 200 &#x3bc;g/kg s.c. injections. Ivermectin levels were undetectable in plasma samples drawn up to 4 wk after injection, suggesting that the dosage used was insufficient to reach therapeutic concentrations in this species.

Burkholder, T. H., et al. (2004). "Plasma evaluation for ivermectin in llamas (Lama glama) after standard subcutaneous dosing." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 35(3): 395-396.

Plasma levels of the parasiticide ivermectin were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography in five llamas (Lama glama) after single 200 µg/kg s.c. injections. Ivermectin levels were undetectable in plasma samples drawn up to 4 wk after injection, suggesting that the dosage used was insufficient to reach therapeutic concentrations in this species.

Bustamante, A. V., et al. (2003). "Isolation and characterization of 10 polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellite markers for llama and guanaco." Molecular Ecology Notes 3(1): 68-69.

We isolated and characterized five polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellite markers from llama (Lama glama) and five from guanaco (Lama guanicoe). All loci were assayed on wild llamas and guanacos from Argentina, as all of the primers were able to amplify in both species.

Bustamante, A. V., et al. (2002). "Genetic variability of guanaco and llama populations in Argentina." Small Ruminant Research 44(2): 97-101.

This paper investigates the genetic diversity of one llama (Lama glama) and two guanaco (L. guanicoe) populations in Argentina by the analysis of six dinucleotide microsatellite loci markers derived from llamas [date not given]. Population parameters of the used markers such as allele size and distribution, mean heterozygosity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and population genetic distances were calculated, as well as polymorphic information content (PIC) and exclusion probability (EP). The camelid populations showed high mean heterozygosities and gene diversity values, with little differences between them, in concordance with the observed non-deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Among the total alleles, the analysis showed 25 (45%) private alleles in guanaco and 16 (36%) in llamas. The results indicated that the investigated populations have high genetic variability and would be suitable as genetic stocks for conservation and sustainable utilization programmes.

Bustamante, A. V., et al. (1999). "Analysis of genetic variation in llama (Lama glama) by RAPD markers." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 6(2): 271-273.

Genetic diversity of one llama population from Argentina was analysed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Forty RAPD primers were assayed, 6 being polymorphic, and the informativeness for each one was calculated as similarity index. The use of these RAPD markers to identify individuals and test genetic diversity among llama populations, is advocated.

Butt, M. T., et al. (1991). "Encephalitic listeriosis in two adult llamas (Lama glama): clinical presentations, lesions and immunofluorescence of Listeria monocytogenes in brainstem lesions." Cornell Veterinarian 81(3): 251-258.

Encephalitic listeriosis was diagnosed in 2 adult llamas. Both had a multifocal suppurative encephalitis with mixed lymphocytic and neutrophilic perivascular infiltrates. Listeria monocytogenes was cultured from the brain stem of 1 llama using cold enrichment techniques; the other llama was culture negative. Formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded sections of brainstem lesions from both affected animals were labelled with a fluorescein-conjugated, anti-L. monocytogenes antibody. Using this technique, intralesional L. monocytogenes were identified in both llamas.

Byers, S. R., et al. (2009). "Comparison of endotracheal intubation techniques in llamas." Canadian Veterinary Journal 50(7): 745-749.

This study evaluated a retrograde orotracheal intubation technique and compared it to the traditional normograde intubation technique used in llamas. Oral anatomical features, which can impair visualization of the epiglottis and laryngeal structures, and the production of excessive salivary secretions make it difficult to establish an airway under emergency conditions. Normograde intubation involves placing a stylet through the mouth into the trachea and advancing the endotracheal tube over the stylet into the trachea. For retrograde intubation, a nested trochar with cannula is placed into the cervical trachea and a stylet is advanced through the cannula and out the mouth. The endotracheal tube is advanced over the stylet back into the trachea. Our evaluation of both techniques found no statistical difference in time to place the stylet or endotracheal tube; however, fewer attempts were needed to place the tube using the retrograde technique. We found the retrograde technique to be a viable option for intubating llamas.

Byers, S. R., et al. (2007). "A fungal granuloma of the frontal sinus in a llama." The Canadian Veterinary Journal 48(9): 939-941.

A 12-year-old, castrated male llama (Lama glama) presented with a 12-cm diameter cranial mass. Computed tomography and postmortem examination revealed that the mass invaded the calvarium and compressed the rostral part of the brain. Light microscopic examination confirmed a fungal granuloma.

Byers, S. R., et al. (2007). "A fungal granuloma of the frontal sinus in a llama." Canadian Veterinary Journal 48(9): 939-941.

A 12-year-old, castrated male llama (Lama glama) presented with a 12-cm diameter cranial mass. Computed tomography and postmortem examination revealed that the mass invaded the calvarium and compressed the rostral part of the brain. Light microscopic examination confirmed a fungal granuloma.

Ca\rdenas Amador, G. (1992). Llama de todos los poros. [Honduras], Argos.

Cabrera, R., et al. (2000). "Permanent fistulation and cannulation of compartment 1 (rumen) of the llama (Lama glama)." Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 32(1): 131-138.

To carry out nutritional evaluation of potentially useful feedstuffs and related rumen metabolic studies in llamas, permanent fistulations of the rumen were done. Four adult female llamas with a mean weight of 100 kg were fistulated using the surgical technique described by Cabrera et al. (1980, 1997). They were kept without feed for 72 h, atropinized and anaesthetized with ketamine i.m. 10 mg/kg body weight. Lidocaine (2%) was used for local blockage. A piece of skin 10 cm in diameter of the left upper lumbar fossa was removed and the subjacent muscular layers were separated by blunt dissection. The peritoneum was opened and the rumen wall was sutured to the edge of the skin using "U" stitches, maintaining the peritoneum between the two layers. Finally, the part of rumen wall limited by suture was cut away and all the surgical zone was disinfected with Quemispray®. The resulting opening was closed immediately with a natural rubber cannula. Antibiotics (i.m.) were used for 5 days and sutures were removed on day 7 after surgery. All llamas, except one, withstood quite well the surgical procedure and adapted well to the cannula. At present, the animals have completed 24 months after surgery without mayor problems. Some of the cannulas showed a minor leak, which is frequent in these procedures.

Cafrune, M. M., et al. (2001). "First report of Lamanema chavezi (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) in llamas (Lama glama) from Argentina." Veterinary Parasitology 97(2): 165-168.

Lamanema chavezi is a characteristic helminth of llamas and alpacas in Peru and Chile. However, its overall geographic range has not been well defined. This report documents the presence of L. chavezi in llamas from Argentina.

Calhoun, W. (2008). The Llama sutra : getting wild in the wild kingdom. London, Michael O' Mara Books.

Calpe, S., et al. (2016). "Comparison of newly developed anti-bone morphogenetic protein 4 llama-derived antibodies with commercially available BMP4 inhibitors." MAbs 8(4 LA - eng): 678-688.

Due to improved understanding of the role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in an increasing number of diseases, the development of selective inhibitors of BMP4 is an attractive therapeutic option. The currently available BMP4 inhibitors are not suitable as therapeutics because of their low specificity and low effectiveness. Here, we compared newly generated anti-BMP4 llama-derived antibodies (VHHs) with 3 different types of commercially available BMP4 inhibitors, natural antagonists, small molecule BMPR inhibitors and conventional anti-BMP4 monoclonal antibodies. We found that the anti-BMP4 VHHs were as effective as the natural antagonist or small molecule inhibitors, but had higher specificity. We also showed that commercial anti-BMP4 antibodies were inferior in terms of both specificity and effectiveness. These findings might result from the fact that the VHHs C4C4 and C8C8 target a small region within the BMPR1 epitope of BMP4, whereas the commercial antibodies target other areas of the BMP4 molecule. Our results show that the newly developed anti-BMP4 VHHs are promising antibodies with better specificity and effectivity for inhibition of BMP4, making them an attractive tool for research and for therapeutic applications. AN - 26967714

Calpe, S., et al. (2015). "Effective Inhibition of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Function by Highly Specific Llama-Derived Antibodies." Mol Cancer Ther 14(11): 2527-2540.

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) have important but distinct roles in tissue homeostasis and disease, including carcinogenesis and tumor progression. A large number of BMP inhibitors are available to study BMP function; however, as most of these antagonists are promiscuous, evaluating specific effects of individual BMPs is not feasible. Because the oncogenic role of the different BMPs varies for each neoplasm, highly selective BMP inhibitors are required. Here, we describe the generation of three types of llama-derived heavy chain variable domains (VHH) that selectively bind to either BMP4, to BMP2 and 4, or to BMP2, 4, 5, and 6. These generated VHHs have high affinity to their targets and are able to inhibit BMP signaling. Epitope binning and docking modeling have shed light into the basis for their BMP specificity. As opposed to the wide structural reach of natural inhibitors, these small molecules target the grooves and pockets of BMPs involved in receptor binding. In organoid experiments, specific inhibition of BMP4 does not affect the activation of normal stem cells. Furthermore, in vitro inhibition of cancer-derived BMP4 noncanonical signals results in an increase of chemosensitivity in a colorectal cancer cell line. Therefore, because of their high specificity and low off-target effects, these VHHs could represent a therapeutic alternative for BMP4(+) malignancies. AN - 26351325

Cambre, R. C. (1984). Congenital anomalies in a zoo llama herd: 110-111.

Camenzind, D. (2005). "Accumulation of actinomycosis in a llama herd in Switzerland." SAT, Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 147(8): 351-356.

The symptoms of actinomycosis (caused by Actinomyces bovis) in several llamas in a herd raised in Switzerland and its management are presented. Haematological and chemical blood examinations were conducted in 5 llamas, which showed low calcium and partially low iron and copper levels. Various reasons which influence bone metabolism and lead to a higher susceptibility of bone infection are also discussed.

Campbell, A. J., et al. (2015). "Double ovulation and occurrence of twinning in alpacas (Vicugna pacos)." Theriogenology 84(3): 421-424.

Twin births are rare in alpacas despite the high incidence of double ovulation and are undesirable because they contribute to early and late pregnancy loss, abortion, and birth of nonviable neonates. The objective of the present study was to determine the incidence and outcome of twin pregnancy in double-ovulating alpacas by retrospective and prospective analysis. Data from double-ovulating females (N = 41) presented for pregnancy diagnosis were analyzed to determine pregnancy status at three stages after mating (14-16, 25-30, and 45-53 days). In a prospective study, adult reproductively sound alpacas (n = 21) were examined by ultrasonography to determine the incidence of multiple ovulations. A subset of those alpacas (n = 10) were euthanized either at 9 days (n = 5) or 14 days (n = 5) after a single mating and administration of GnRH to determine presence and number of embryos. A total of 31 cycles were included in the study to determine the incidence of multiple ovulations. In the retrospective study, twin pregnancies were identified between 25 and 30 days in 47.1% of double-ovulating females. There were more twins from bilateral ovulations (62.5%) than from unilateral ovulations (37.5%). Twin pregnancies were either reduced to a singleton (62.5%) or lost completely (37.5%). One set of twins remained viable until Day 52. In the prospective study, double ovulation occurred in 18.8% of the cycles. Two embryos were collected from two of the four double-ovulating females. In conclusion, twin conception is not rare in alpacas. A high rate of spontaneous reduction of twin pregnancies occurs before Day 45. However, a significant proportion of twin pregnancy may result in loss of both embryos. Determination of the number of ovulations (CL) at the time of early pregnancy diagnosis (14-16 days) should be an integral part of any pregnancy evaluation. AN - 25963129

Campo, M. R. d., et al. (1994). "In vitro fertilization and development of llama (Lama glama) oocytes using epididymal spermatozoa and oviductal cell co-culture." Theriogenology 41(6): 1219-1229.

1324 cumulus oocyte complexes were recovered from ovaries collected from slaughtered llamas, and 972 oocytes were cultured in 50-µl drops of medium 199 supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated bull serum and hormones for 30 h. After maturation, the oocytes were allocated to 4 groups in a 2 × 2 factorial design: cumulus-enclosed oocytes + 2 µg/ml heparin; cumulus-enclosed oocytes + 5 µg/ml heparin; denuded oocytes + 2 µg/ml heparin; cumulus-denuded oocytes + 5 µg/ml heparin. Epididymides were also collected at slaughter and fresh spermatozoa were obtained by mincing the cauda epididymidis. A total of 721 oocytes from the 4 groups were inseminated with 2-3 × 106 epididymal spermatozoa per ml in a 50-µl drop of FERT-TALP medium. 18 h after insemination, 234 oocytes were placed in medium 199 containing llama oviductal epithelial cells (LLOEC) for 9 days. All cultures were done at 38.5°C under 5% CO2 in air with high humidity. Of 192 oocytes examined, 56 (29.2%) were penetrated by spermatozoa and 57.1% (32 of 56) of the penetrated oocytes had a ♂ and a ♀ pronucleus. Fertilization rate did not differ among groups. However, the frequency of oocytes showing normal fertilization tended to be higher in cumulus-denuded (67.7%, 21 of 31) than in cumulus-enclosed oocytes (44.0%, 11 of 25), independent of heparin concentration (P&lt;0.06). For all treatments combined, the percentage of embryos developing from 2 cells to blastocysts was 31.2% (75 of 234). There was no difference in embryo development among groups. Of the 234 inseminated oocytes cultured with LLOEC for 9 days, 15.8% developed to 2-16 cells, 5.6% to morulae, 6.0% to early/expanded blastocysts and 4.7% to hatching/hatched blastocysts.

Campo, M. R. d., et al. (1995). "Morphology and location of attached follicular cumulus-oocyte complexes in horses, cattle and llamas." Theriogenology 43(3): 533-542.

Morphology and location of attachment of the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) were studied in slaughterhouse ovaries in horses (49 follicles, 9-44 mm in diameter), cattle (68 follicles, 6-18 mm) and llamas (38 follicles, 3-14 mm). The expected point of ovulation was marked, using the ovulation fossa in mares and the centre of the projecting follicle surface in cattle and llamas. A follicle was dissected from an ovary, and tissue was removed from the follicle until the COC became visible by transillumination. However, most llama follicles protruded prominently from the ovary surface so that dissection was not required to locate the COC. The COC was more readily recognized from the external follicle surface in mares and llamas than in cattle, primarily because of a dark oocyte. In horses compact COCs projected into the antrum and they were smooth and dome-shaped. The COC in cattle were also dome-shaped, but were more irregular and a few contained prominent processes. The mean diameter of the isolated follicle was calculated from 3 planes. Except in llamas, the follicles were spherical so that the 3 dimensions were identical. The angle between a straight line connecting the expected ovulation site and the opposite pole and a straight line from the ovulation site to the COC was defined as the COC-location angle. This angle was chosen because it is unaltered by size of a sphere (45° for a COC at the equator). The mean COC-location angle differed (P&lt;0.01) among horses (39.9±3.3), cattle (50.0±2.5) and llamas (64.8±2.1). In mares, the COCs were located all round follicle hemispheres without a bias towards a particular point, but in cattle and llamas the COCs were located with greater frequency (P&lt;0.05) in the hemisphere containing the expected ovulation site (cattle, 65%; llamas, 91%).

Campos, J. (1974). Tiene los cabellos rojizos y se llama Sabina. Me\0301xico, Joaqui\0301n Mortiz.

Campos, J. (1978). Tiene los cabellos rojizos y se llama Sabina. Me\0301xico, Joaqui\0301n Mortiz.

Canaza-Cayo, A. W., et al. (2015). "Modelling of growth curves and estimation of genetic parameters for growth curve parameters in Peruvian young llamas (Lama glama)." Small Ruminant Research 130: 81-89.

The objectives of this study were to describe the growth of young llamas by the application of four non-linear functions (Gompertz, Logistic, Von Bertalanffy and Brody), evaluate the importance of fixed (environmental) effects (sex, type of llama, month and year of birth) on growth curve parameters and finally estimate the genetic parameters for growth curve parameters (A: asymptotic body weight and k: specific growth rate). A total of 35,691 monthly body weight records from birth up to 16 months of age from 2675 young llamas, collected from 1998 to 2008 in the Quimsachata Experimental Station of the Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria (INIA) in Peru were used. Growth curve parameters were estimated by non-linear procedures while genetic parameters were estimated by application of a bivariate animal model and the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. All non-linear functions closely fitted actual body weight measurements, while the Gompertz function provided the best fit in describing the growth data of young llamas. All environmental effects significantly influenced the asymptotic weight (A), while the specific growth rate (k) was only affected by the month and year of birth. Heritability estimates for parameters A and k were 0.10 and 0.01, respectively. Genetic correlation between A and k was high and negative (-0.82), indicating that a rapid decrease in growth rate after inflection point is associated with higher mature weight. Despite the low heritability estimates obtained herein, slight genetic gain(s) were observed in the current study suggesting that a selection program to change the slope of the growth curve of llamas may be feasible.

Cancino, A. K., et al. (2011). "Control of ovarian follicular dynamics in early postpartum llama (Lama glama)." Archivos de Zootecnia 60(232(1)): 1009-1020.

The effect of treatment with medroxi-progesterone acetate (MPA, intravaginal sponge) combined with or without injection of estradiol benzoate (EB) on the patterns of follicular regression, follicular wave emergence and ovulation rate in early postpartum and non-lactating llamas was evaluated. This work was carried out at the Experimental Station of Altitude INTA Abra Pampa (3484 m above sea level). A total of 48 adult females were categorized as lactating (n=24; 30±4 d postpartum, mean±SD) or non-lactating (n=24). Each one was distributed according to the follicular phase (FP=growing, static or regressing) of dominant follicle (DF1) determined by daily ovarian ultrasonography from 3 days before treatment. At day 0, intravaginal sponge (150 mg MPA) was inserted to all llamas for 8 days plus 5 mg MPA (im). Half of the females randomly received 2 mg of EB (im). The ovarian response was monitored daily by ultrasonography from day 0 to day 14. At day 12, females having a new dominant follicle ≥6 mm (DF2) were treated with GnRH (8 µg, im) to induce ovulation. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma estradiol-17β (from day 0 to day 8) and progesterone (day 14) concentrations to confirm ovulation. Factorial design 2×2×3 (lactational status, treatment with or without EB and follicular phases) was used. There was lactational status by FP interaction on the regression patterns of DF1 attributed to greater duration in non-lactating females (6.0 days) than for lactating females (3.5 days) in the follicular static phase. The day (mean±SEM) of follicular wave emergence was different (p&lt;0.05) between treatments (with EB=day 6.5±0.6 vs. without EB=day 4.5±0.5). At day 12, the DF2 diameter (mean±SEM) was affected (p&lt;0.05) by the treatment (with EB=6.4±0.3 mm vs. without EB=8.2±0.3 mm) and the lactational status (non-lactating=8.0±0.4 mm vs. lactating=6.6±0.3 mm). The total ovulation rate (females with ovulation/treated females) in EB-treated females (45.8%) was lower (p&lt;0.05) than non-treated females (82.6%). In conclusion, the MPA treatment (intravaginal plus intramuscular) combined with injection of EB approximately delayed in two days the emergence of a new follicular wave. Therefore, follicular diameter at day 12 and the ovulation rate were lower than no EB treatment. Lactation was associated with depressed follicular development, however, it did not affect the ovulation rate.

Candia A, M., et al. (1986). "Haematological study on llamas in the I region of Chile." IDESIA 10: 35-37.

Cano Z, L., et al. (2012). "Phenotypic characterization and mitocondrial DNA analysis of Marcapomacocha llamas, Peru." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 23(3): 388-398.

The k'ara llama population of Marcapomacocha district, Yauli province, department of Junín, Peru is known for the preponderance of ancestral coloration in the herds. In order to document the apparently unique characteristics of these animals, phenotypic and DNA analyses were carried out on 50 llamas (5 male and 45 female aged 1 to &gt;4 years) from the region. The coat coloration pattern of the animals was uniform, with tones varying from yellow brown to dark red brown, similar to that of the ancestral Peruvian guanaco (Lama guanicoe cacsilensis), while the chest, abdomen and inner surface of the legs are white with a grey-black head and white outlining of the lips, eyes and ears. Biometric analysis of 30 adults (4 years of age and greater) yielded the following results: withers height 123.2±12.2 cm; rump height 119.5±8.5 cm; chest width 36.5±2.7 cm; chest girth 136.4±5.5 cm; ear length 19.6±2.7, upper and lower neck circumferences 42.8±2.7 and 63.9±4.7 cm respectively. Body length averaged 118.5±5.3 cm and body weight was 152.5±12.3 kg. Based on a survey of the literature, the Marcapomacocha llamas are taller, longer and heavier than k'ara llamas from other regions of Peru. Analysis of a diagnostic segment of the cytochrome b gene revealed that all 50 llamas had the ancestral guanaco haplotype, possibly indicating that no hybridization with alpacas has occurred.

Cantisani, A., et al. (1990). "Direct identification and characterization of llama (Lama glama L.) whey proteins by microsequencing after Western blotting." Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods 21(3): 227-236.

Llama whey proteins were separated by PAGE and denaturing SDS-PAGE, and electroblotted on Immobilon poly(vinylidene) difluoride membranes (Western blotting), followed by immunostaining. N-terminal sequence analysis revealed 3 different forms of glycosylated α-lactalbumin and a protein with a high degree of homology with a camel whey protein of unknown function. The electrophoretic band corresponding to serum albumin was also identified.

Card, C. S. (1992). "Report of the Committee on infectious disease of cattle, bison and llama." Proceedings of the United States Animal Health Association 96: 61-70.

Major topics discussed were abortion in cows caused by Neospora, transmissibility of sheep scrapie to cattle, tuberculosis in llamas, and viral diseases of llamas and alpacas. There were about 50 000 llamas and 3000 alpacas in North America. Results are given of a survey of health problems, which covered about 19% of these populations in 22 states.

Card, C. S. (1993). "Report of the committee on infectious disease of cattle, bison and llama." Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 97: 171-185.

Serological testing of 460 llamas on 9 farms, in 5 of which foot and mouth disease had occurred in cattle, revealed no evidence of infection in the llamas, which proved to be highly resistant to experimental infection. Recommendations were made for diagnosis and treatment of diseases of llamas, and maintenance of health. A large herd of Bison bison in Montana harboured 6 species of coccidia (Eimeria bovis, E. auburnensis, E. canadensis, E. brasiliensis, E. ellipsoidalis, and E. zuernii) and also Nematodirus helvetianus. This is the first report of E. ellipsoidalis, and E. zuernii in Bison bison. Negative findings of a survey for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the USA were presented.

Cardeti, G., et al. (2011). Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis: 1513-1515.

Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. CPXV-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a CPXV isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to CPXV-MonKre08/1–2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in Germany. AN - 21801638

Cardin, G. J. M. (1980). Analisis de las muestras del NBS SRM 1633 for absorcion atomica y fotometria de Llama. [S.l.], Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados.

Cardozo, A. (1979). Bibliography of South American llamas. La Paz, Policrom.: 53pp.

This bibliography brings together major production aspects of vicunas, alpacas and llamas, stressing wool production and their effect on the peasant economics of South American countries.

Carmean, B. R., et al. (1992). "Maintenance energy requirement of llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 53(9): 1696-1698.

Five castrated male llamas about 94 kg were fed on a 50% oat hay-50% pelleted concentrate diet metabolizable energy 2.43 Mcal/kg of diet DM at about 1.6% of body weight. An 8-day total collection digestion trial was used to estimate faecal and urine energy losses. Heat production and methane production were estimated via indirect respiration calorimetry measurements on each llama fed at the same intake as in the digestion trial and subsequently on days 3 and 4 of a period of starvation. Faecal, urine, and methane energy losses of the llamas fed on near-maintenance intake were 32.5, 3.5, and 7.1% of gross energy intake, respectively. The postabsorptive metabolic rate, (non-fed (fasting) heat production) was 59.3 kcal/kg-0.75. Using a linear relation between post-absorptive and maintenance energy requirement and efficiency of energy use below maintenance of 0.702, metabolizable energy requirement at maintenance was estimated to be 84.5 kcal/kg0.75.

Carmen Aguilar, J. (1999). Supplementation of alfalfa hay and ensilage to increase live weight in male Ancuta Llamas.

The present research work was done at the Agricultural Experimental Center in Codoriri, located 49 km from the city of Oruro and 12 km from the city of Caracollo. It belongs to the Faculty of Agriculture at the Technical University of Oruro. The study was 90 days long from October 15, 1997 to January 13, 1998. The main objective was to determine live weight gain through alfafa hay and ensilage supplement. The collection of food supplies was done during the month of March and April, preparing the ensilage at the same time. The hay was grounded at a later time. Thirty male ancuta llamas were used in the study. Ten were used for alfalfa hay supplementation, ten for ensilage supplementation, and 10 were used as controls without supplementation. The supplementation rations were offered after the animals grazed, for which 3 corrals were used. A random block design was used with three treatments, each one consisting of 10 repetitions, two of which are supplemental and one is a control. The data was analyzed through variance analysis according to a SAS program. The following statistics were taken: monthly live weight, weight of offered food, weight of refused food, body weight, meat yield, weight of cut parts. According tot he variance analysis done on the statistical analysis, there were highly significant differences between treatments in live weight increases. TA obtained an average increase of 12.5 kn, TB increased 11.5 kg, and finally TC increased 8.35 kg. The highest consumption was recorded for the TA supplement of 847 g/llama/day, followed by TB with 731 g/llama/day. These numbers are averages obtained from the entire study. With respect to body yield, we obtained the following results: TA 54.78%, TB 53.76% and TC 51.14%. From the economic analysis we learn that the TA (ensilage) treatment had the best total cost benefit/llama of 26.48 Bs. Followed by TB (hay) with 31.76 Bs/llama, thus justifying the supplementation. The TA was the most beneficial in terms of body weight gain, but economically has the least benefit.

Carnero S, S., et al. (2011). "Embryo transfer ipsilateral and contralateral to the position of the corpus luteum and embryo survival in Llamas." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 22(2): 114-120.

The study was carried out to evaluate the effect the embryo transfer to the uterine horn ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of the corpus luteum (CL) and the size of CL on the embryo survival in llamas. It was used 43 recipient adult females randomly assigned to 4 groups: G1 (n=10): CL in right ovary and ipsilateral embryo transfer, G2 (n=10): CL in right ovary and contralateral transfer, G3 (n=15): CL in left ovary and ipsilateral transfer, and G4 (n=8): CL in left ovary and contralateral transfer. Ten llamas were used as embryo donors. They were synchronized with LH (1 ml) on Day 0 (D0), superovulated with 1000 UI eCG on D3, luteolysis was induced with PGF2? on D7, and mated on D8. Recipients were treated on D7 with LH to get synchrony with the donors. On D14 embryos were collected, evaluated and transferred. The results showed that 60 (G1) and 75% (G3) recipients conceived when embryo transfer was right and left ipsilateral respectively, while only 30 (G2) and 25% (G4) conceived when embryo transfer was right and left contralateral respectively. However, statistical difference was only observed between G3 with G2 and G4 (p&lt;0.05). These results indicate that pregnancy rate is higher in llamas when the embryo transfer was done in to the uterine horn ipsilateral to the CL in the left ovary.

Carpenter, E. M., et al. (2000). "Laparoscopic ovariectomy and ovariohysterectomy in llamas and alpacas." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Equine Practice 16(2): 363-375.

Carrasco Notario, G. (2001). El corazo\0301n en la llama : ensayos de historia agustiniana. Santiago de Chile, Cervantes & Cia.

Carretero, M. I. (2011). "Evaluation of llama sperm chromatin preserved using different methods of conservation." Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal 19(1/2): 23-26.

South American camelids are internationally valued for their high quality fibre and their low cholesterol content meat. Thus, applying biotechnology in genetically superior animals would allow populations to be improved. Alternative methods of semen preservation such as desiccation and dehydration, which are easy to prepare and store and have a low cost, have been used in other species. These techniques have been used in our laboratory to preserve llama semen and two methods that evaluate sperm chromatin alterations have been developed: the Toluidin Blue stain and the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion technique. Additionally we have studied the effect different preservation processes have on llama sperm chromatin. We have observed an increase in chromatin decondensation in cooled semen when compared to the raw semen sample. When deep freezing semen, we have assayed two different cryoprotectors: glycerol (G) and dimethylformamide (DMF), both in a concentration of 7%; and two different stabilization temperatures: room temperature and 5°C. We observed that semen that was stabilized at 5°C and all freezing protocols showed a significantly higher number of sperm with chromatin condensation alterations, except semen frozen in Lactose-Egg yolk-Glicerol (LY-G) and stabilized at room temperature, which was not significantly different from raw semen. The processes of desiccation and dehydration do not alter chromatin condensation in semen preserved for a short time (up to 21 days). Nevertheless, increases in decondensation and a high level of sperm chromatin fragmentation were observed in desiccated and dehydrated samples when they were preserved for 2 and 4 months. The work carried out allowed evaluation of the effect different conservation methods have on the DNA of llama spermatozoa.

Carretero, M. I., et al. (2015). "Evaluation of the acrosomal status in Lama glama sperm incubated with acrosome reaction inducers." Anim Reprod Sci 160: 1-11.

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of different acrosome reaction (AR) inducers on viability and acrosomal status in llama spermatozoa, by using the FITC-PNA/PI technique and evaluate if there is a positive correlation between the FITC-PNA/PI and the Coomassie blue (CB) staining techniques. After incubating twenty ejaculates in 0.1% collagenase the centrifuged pellets were resuspended in TALP-BSA medium. An aliquot was sonicated to remove the acrosomal content (positive control). The rest of the sample was incubated for 3h at 38 °C with 5% CO2 and 100% humidity.|Three aliquots were further incubated 1h with one of the following AR inducers: calcium ionophore, ionomycin or progesterone.|One without inducers and the other, incubated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle of the inducing agents). Acrosomes were evaluated at time 0 and after 4h incubation. Calcium ionophore was the most potent agent for inducing the AR (67.2 ± 14.4% live+dead AR sperm) (P < 0.05). These samples showed no motility and viability was very low (0-30%). Both ionomycin and progesterone presented significantly higher (P < 0.05) percentages of total AR sperm than the controls, but had similar percentages of dead reacted sperm to the controls. A positive correlation was observed between the intact acrosome FITC-PNA/PI pattern (live+dead sperm) and the acrosome-present CB pattern (r = 0.64; P = 0.000) in all the evaluated samples.|the FITC-PNA/PI technique simultaneously evaluates viability and acrosomal status in llama spermatozoa and calcium ionophore could be used as a control of AR. AN - 26164525

Carretero, M. I., et al. (2016). "Comparison of two cooling protocols for llama semen: with and without collagenase and seminal plasma in the medium." Andrologia.

Seminal plasma (SP) of South American Camelids could interfere with the interaction of spermatozoa with the extenders; therefore it becomes necessary to improve semen management using enzymatic treatment. Our objective was to compare two cooling protocols for llama semen. Twelve ejaculates were incubated in 0.1% collagenase and then were divided into two aliquots. One was extended in lactose and egg yolk (LEY) (Protocol A: collagenase and SP present). The other aliquot was centrifuged, and the pellet was resuspended in LEY (Protocol B: collagenase and SP absent). Both samples were maintained at 5°C during 24 hr. Routine and DNA evaluations were carried out in raw and cooled semen. Both cooling protocols maintained sperm viability, membrane function and DNA fragmentation, with Protocol A showing a significantly lowered total and progressive motility (p < .05) and Protocol B showing a significant increase in chromatin decondensation (p < .05). Protocol A avoids centrifugation, reducing processing times and making application in the field simpler. However, as neither protocol showed a significant superiority over the other, studies should be carried out in vivo to evaluate the effect on pregnancy rates of the presence of collagenase and SP in semen samples prior to either cooling or freeze-thawing. AN - 27561901

Carretero, M. I., et al. (2010). "Embryo production in superstimulated llamas pre-treated to inhibit follicular growth." Small Ruminant Research 88(1): 32-37.

Llamas are monotocous and the length of their gestation period varies between 342 and 350 days. Thus the average number of offspring any female can produce throughout her reproductive life is very limited to spread a desired genome. The multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) technique allows an alternative to this limitation and reduces the generation interval. The objective of this study was to evaluate embryo recovery in superstimulated llamas which had previously been hormone-treated to inhibit follicular growth. A total of 50 female llamas were monitored daily via rectal palpation and ultrasound and divided according to their ovarian follicular growth into four phases. The females in each phase were then randomly divided into two groups: A (n=20) received a single dose of 1 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB) on the first day of the treatment+100 mg of progesterone (P4) i.m. for 5 days with 5 animals per phase and B (n=20) received 1 mg EB at onset+150 mg P4 i.m. for a period of 5 days with 5 animals per phase. Group C (n=10) or control did not receive any prior hormonal treatment and the females were in follicular phase I. All groups were monitored daily and, in the presence of ovarian follicles smaller than the dominant size at the end of treatment, all were superstimulated with 1000 IU eCG. For plasma progesterone concentration recording, daily blood samples were collected from days -1 to 5 in the treated females in Group A and B. No significant differences were observed regarding the inhibition of follicle growth and in the plasma progesterone concentrations between Group A and B. The ovarian response to superstimulation was 56.2%, 71.4% and 90%, with the average number of dominant follicles produced per female being 4.4±0.9; 4.8±0.7 and 4.6±0.6 in Groups A, B and C, respectively. The embryo recovery rate was 77.7%; 90% and 66.7% and the average number of embryos recovered per female was 2.9±0.9; 2.6±0.9 and 2.4±0.8 for Groups A, B and C, respectively. In Groups A and B, the static follicular phase (III) seemed to be ideal for initiating the assisted reproductive technique of MOET. Although prior administration of P4+EB seems to have no effect on the number of females that responded to the superstimulation treatments, the number of embryos recovered showed a tendency to be higher when ovarian follicle growth inhibition was performed beforehand.

Carrillo Natteri, M. (1988). Amor esa inmensa llama. Lima, Capuli.

Carroll, G. L., et al. (2001). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of butorphanol in llamas after intravenous and intramuscular administration." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 219(9): 1263-1267.

The objective of this study is to evaluate disposition of butorphanol after IV and IM administration, effects on physiologic variables, and analgesic efficacy after IM administration in llamas. Six healthy adult male llamas was given Butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb] of body weight) which was administered IM first and IV 1 month later. Blood samples were collected intermittently for 24 hours after administration. Plasma butorphanol versus time curves were subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis. Two months later, butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg) was administered IM, and physiologic variables and analgesia were assessed. Extrapolated peak plasma concentrations after IV and IM administration were 94.8±53.1 and 34.3±11.6 ng/ml, respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state after IV administration was 0.822±0.329 L/kg per minute and systemic clearance was 0.050±0.014 L/kg per minute. Slope of the elimination phase was significantly different, and elimination half-life was significantly shorter after IV (15.9±9.1 minutes) versus IM (66.8±13.5 minutes) administration. Bioavailability was 110±49% after IM administration. Heart rate decreased and rectal temperature increased. Somatic analgesia was increased for various periods. Two llamas became transiently sedated, and 2 became transiently excited after butorphanol administration. Although IV administration of butorphanol results in a short half-life that may limit its analgesic usefulness, the elimination half-life of butorphanol administered IM is likely to be clinically useful. The relationship among plasma butorphanol concentration, time, and analgesia differed with the somatic analgesia model; clinically useful analgesia may occur at lower plasma concentrations than those reported here.

Cartwright, M. E., et al. (1987). "Vaccination-related anthrax in three llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 191(6): 715-716.

Anthrax vaccine was administered to a herd of 20 llamas following an outbreak of anthrax in cattle on a neighbouring farm. Three 3-month-old llamas became ill (2 of which died) 3 days after inoculation with anthrax spore vaccine, clostridial bacterin toxoid and tetanus toxoid vaccines. Ivermectin was injected at the same time as the vaccines. PM examination of young animals that died revealed abundant Bacillus anthracis in lymph nodes and subcutaneous tissue. It is concluded that the Sterne strain vaccine of B. anthracis can cause fatal disease in young llamas. Concurrent administration of ivermectin may have enhanced the infectivity of the vaccine.

Castillo Marti\nez, P. and T. S. S. W. S. S. More (2009). El camino espiritual de Toma\0301s Moro. Madrid, San Pablo.

Castro, A. N. C., et al. (2009). "Conformation and anatomical relations of the liver of llama (Lama glama)." Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 38(2): 108-111.

Morphological studies of the liver of the llama are structural supportive to the clinical practice, surgery and specific diagnostic techniques. The aims of this study were first to determine the location of the organ and the direction of its major axis to project it to the abdominal wall, identifying visible and palpable bony references. Secondly, to characterize and determine anatomical relations of the surfaces, borders and angles of the llama liver, as well as, of its lobulation. Twenty adult llamas of both sexes and two foetuses of 6.5- and 7-month-old were used. Llama liver is a post-diaphragmatic organ located in the cranial abdominal region, in the right hypochondrium, in relationship with the last six ribs. Dorsally, it can exceeds the last (twelfth) rib. Its major axis presents a cranio-ventral bent. Its shape is irregularly triangular. It presents two surfaces (parietal and visceral), three borders (cranial, caudal and ventral) and three angles (dorsal, cranial and caudal).

Cavalcanti, S. M. C. and F. F. Knowlton (1998). "Evaluation of physical and behavioral traits of llamas associated with aggressiveness toward sheep-threatening canids." Applied Animal Behaviour Science 61(2): 143-158.

Aggressiveness of llamas (Lama glama) toward dogs was evaluated. Physical and behavioural traits were identified in individual llamas. 20 llamas were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (5 animals per group). Focal group sampling techniques were used to rank individual llamas according to frequencies with which they displayed alertness, leadership, dominant, aggressive and threatening behaviours as well as postures indicating dominance or subordination. The behaviour of individual llamas with sheep was then examined. Finally, interactions among llamas, sheep and a surrogate predator (Border Collie dog) were recorded. Leadership, alertness and weight of llamas were correlated with aggressiveness displayed toward the dog. It is concluded that these traits are easily recognized and can be used by producers to select llamas as livestock guardians.

Cavero Carrasco, J. R. (1990). Incesto en los Andes : las "llamas demoníacas" como castigo sobrenatural. Ayacucho, Perú, Concytec.

Cavilla, M. V., et al. (2010). "Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama)." Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 52(13): (11 February 2010).

Background: Llamas (Lama glama) are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2) and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB) and oestradiol cypionate (ECP). Methods: Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n=6) or ECP (ECP group, n=6). Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a repeated measures (within-SS) design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD) was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean±S.E.M. Results: Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5) than in ECP group (day 9). Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions: The i.m. injection of a single dose of both oestradiol esters resulted in plasma E2 concentrations exceeding physiological values for a variable period. Moreover, the plasma E2 profiles observed depended on the derivative of oestradiol administered. This basic information becomes relevant at defining treatment protocols including oestrogens in llamas.

Cavilla, M. V., et al. (2016). "Hormonal changes and follicular activity after treatment with intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices in llamas." Reproduction in domestic animals 51(6): 930-939.

Plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations and follicular activity after administration of different P4 doses were evaluated in 33 adult female llamas treated with intravaginal devices. In Study 1, a group of llamas (n=10) was treated with an intravaginal device (IVD) containing 160 (n=5) or 780 mg of P4 (n=5). Based on the results from the first study, in Study 2, females with follicles at different stages of development were treated with the IVD containing 780 mg of P4 (n=21) or remain untreated (control; n=12) to evaluate the effect of P4 on follicular activity. In Study 1, the IVD containing 160 mg of P4 induced follicular turnover in 60% of females while the remaining 40% of llamas developed persistent follicles. Thus, this device controlled follicular activity in llamas, although it promotes the persistence of follicles present at start of treatment. Conversely, in both studies, the IVD containing 780 mg of P4 suppressed follicular development and hasten the emergence of a new follicular wave in all females regardless of the follicular phase at insertion. Additionally, in Study 2, this device effectively concentrated the appearance of follicles with ovulatory diameter at a definite time after treatment in comparison with control animals. In conclusion, treatment with an IVD containing 780 mg of P4 would be considered for the control of follicular activity in llamas as it ensures the presence of a young follicle with ovulatory diameter by day 6 after the end of treatment in all females.

Cebra, C. (2007). Diarrhea in llama and alpaca crias. Stillwater, American Association of Bovine Practitioners: 170-173.

Neonatal and juvenile diarrhea are common complaints among owners of cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and goats. Microbial causes are usually blamed, although in some cases nutritional or other considerations come in to play. The most commonly identified pathogens are viruses and protozoa. These are relatively self-limiting, and clinical signs are more related to fluid and electrolyte loss than anything else. For ruminants and pigs especially, various products have been developed which specifically address water, base and salt loss. Various antibody and vaccine preparations are available to directly combat the causative organisms, but with the exception of Eimeria, antimicrobial treatment is usually not considered necessary.

Cebra, C. (2007). Internal parasites in llamas and alpacas: importance and detection methods. Gainesville, The North American Veterinary Conference: 251-252.

Cebra, C. (2007). Uterine torsion in llamas and alpacas. Stillwater, American Association of Bovine Practitioners: 174-175.

Uterine torsion is a recognized cause of dystocia in large animals. Relative frequency and severity vary between species, but both dam and offspring can be saved and torsion corrected if the condition is diagnosed in a timely fashion. Uterine torsion is recognized as a cause of colic and dystocia in llamas and alpacas, but is usually regarded as less common than malpresentations involving the long neck and limbs of crias. In fact, uterine torsion may be responsible for some of those malpresentations.

Cebra, C., et al. (2014). Llama and Alpaca Care: Medicine, Surgery, Reproduction, Nutrition, and Herd Health, Elsevier Health Sciences.

Cebra, C. K. (2000). "Hyperglycemia, hypernatremia, and hyperosmolarity in 6 neonatal llamas and alpacas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217(11): 1701-1704.

Cebra, C. K., et al. (2006). "Microanatomic features of pancreatic islets and immunolocalization of glucose transporters in tissues of llamas and alpacas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 67(3): 524-528.

Objective - To describe the microanatomic features of pancreatic islets and the immunohistochemical distribution of glucose transporter (GLUT) molecules in the pancreas and other tissues of New World camelids. Animals - 7 healthy adult New World camelids, 2 neonatal camelids with developmental skeletal abnormalities, and 2 BALB/c mice. Procedure - Samples of pancreas, liver, skeletal muscle, mammary gland, brain, and adipose tissue were collected postmortem from camelids and mice. Pancreatic tissue sections from camelids were assessed microscopically. Sections of all tissues from camelids and mice (positive control specimens) were examined after staining with antibodies against GLUT-1, -2, -3, and -4 molecules. Results - In camelids, pancreatic islets were prominent and lacked connective tissue capsules. Numerous individual endocrine-type cells were visible distant from the islets. Findings in neonatal and adult tissues were similar; however, the former appeared to have more non-islet-associated endocrine cells. Via immunostaining, GLUT-2 molecules were detected on pancreatic endocrine cells and hepatocytes in camelids, GLUT-1 molecules were detected on the capillary endothelium of the CNS, GLUT-3 molecules were detected throughout the gray matter, and GLUT-4 molecules were not detected in any camelid tissues. Staining characteristics of neonatal and adult tissues were similar. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - In New World camelids, microanatomic features of pancreatic islets are similar to those of other mammals. Data suggest that the poor glucose clearance and poor insulin response to hyperglycemia in adult camelids cannot be attributed to a lack of islet cells or lack of GLUT molecules on the outer membrane of those cells.

Cebra, C. K., et al. (2000). "Pathogenesis of Streptococcus zooepidemicus infection after intratracheal inoculation in llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 61(12): 1525-1529.

To test whether generalized S. zooepidemicus infection could be induced by intratracheal inoculation in llamas and to characterize this infection, 6 test llamas received 1 of 3 dosages of S. zooepidemicus by intratracheal injection, whereas 3 control llamas received sterile culture medium. Physical examination variables and results of clinicopathologic analyses of blood, peritoneal fluid, and tracheal wash fluid were compared in test llamas between, before, and during the development of bacteremia and with control llamas. Bacteriologic culture was performed on all collected body fluids and tissue specimens that were collected at necropsy. Tissue specimens that were collected at necropsy were examined histologically. Infection induced fever, anorexia, and signs of depression. Five of 6 infected llamas developed specific signs of inflammation in the thorax or abdomen, bacteremia, neutrophilic leukocytosis with toxic changes and high band neutrophil cell counts, hyperfibrinogenemia, and high peritoneal fluid WBC counts and protein concentrations. On development of bacteremia, llamas had significant decreases in serum iron (from 118±25 to 6±4 µg/ml) and increases in serum glucose (from 131±5 to 253±48 mg/dl) concentrations. S. zooepidemicus spreads rapidly to other body compartments after intratracheal inoculation in llamas. Fever, anorexia, and signs of depression are the most consistent clinical signs, although other signs are possible. Clinicopathologic analysis of body fluids yields evidence of inflammation. Infection by S. zooepidemicus can be proven by bacteriologic culture of body fluids before death or of tissue specimens after death.

Cebra, C. K., et al. (2003). "Potential pathogens in faeces from unweaned llamas and alpacas with diarrhoea." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223(12): 1806-1808.

Objective - To identify potential pathogens in feces from llama and alpaca crias with diarrhea. Design - Prospective observational study. Animals - 45 unweaned crias with diarrhea. Procedure - Fecal samples were evaluated for Eimeria spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., enteric viruses, and Salmonella spp. A questionnaire yielded information concerning herd management and presence of other affected camelids. Results - 28 crias were ≤31 days old, 11 were 32 to 62 days old, and 6 were 63 to 210 days old. Potential pathogens were isolated from feces from 32 of the 45 crias. A total of 39 potential pathogens were obtained, including coronavirus (n=19 crias; 42%), Giardia spp. (8; 18%), Eimeria spp. (6; 13%), Cryptosporidium spp. (4; 9%), rotavirus (1; 2%), and nematode ova (1; 2%). Salmonella spp. were not isolated. Most crias from which potential pathogens were isolated were identified during outbreaks of diarrhea involving other camelids, although only coronavirus was isolated from crias identified during outbreaks involving adult camelids. Coronavirus was detected throughout the year, whereas protozoa were most commonly isolated during the fall and winter. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Results suggest that a variety of potential pathogens may be isolated from young crias with diarrhea. Many crias shed coronavirus, which may also have been affecting older camelids. Protozoa were isolated most often during wetter months, suggesting that crias born during these months may have greater exposure to protozoal pathogens.

Cebra, C. K. and B. V. Stang (2008). "Comparison of methods to detect gastrointestinal parasites in llamas and alpacas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 232(5): 733-741.

Objective - To compare relative sensitivity and overall yields of various methods of fecal examination for gastrointestinal parasites in llamas and alpacas. Design - Prospective study. Sample Population - Fecal samples from 42 alpacas and 62 llamas. Procedures - Fecal samples were analyzed via direct smear, a modified McMaster technique with sucrose solution or saturated saline (approx 36% NaCl) solution, and a centrifugation-flotation procedure. McMaster flotation chambers were examined 15 and 60 minutes after loading. Centrifugation-flotation samples were examined after 10 and 60 minutes of flotation. The proportions of samples with positive results and concentrations of parasites were compared among methods. Results - The centrifugation-flotation technique yielded more positive results than other methods for all parasites except small coccidia. Longer flotation time increased the proportion of positive results and parasite concentrations for all parasites except Nematodirus spp. Longer time in the McMaster chamber made little difference. By use of the modified McMaster technique, sucrose solution yielded more positive results for Trichuris spp., Eimeria macusaniensis, and strongyles, whereas saline solution yielded more positive results for Nematodirus spp. and small coccidia. The saline solution McMaster test yielded more positive results for small coccidia than did most other methods, and the sucrose McMaster technique yielded more positive results for Trichuris spp. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - The centrifugation-flotation technique appeared to offer clear advantages in detecting infection with E. macusaniensis, Trichuris spp., Nematodirus spp., and capillarids. The saline McMaster technique appeared to offer an advantage in detecting small coccidia.

Cebra, C. K. and S. J. Tornquist (2004). "Assessment of the effects of epinephrine and insulin on plasma and serum biochemical variables in llamas and alpacas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 65(12): 1692-1696.

Objective - To describe the metabolic effects of epinephrine administration in New World camelids and investigate whether these effects are influenced by administration of insulin. Animals - 6 llamas and 8 alpacas (all adult castrated males). Procedure - Prior to each experiment, food was withheld from camelids for 8 hours. On each of 2 consecutive days, alpacas were administered epinephrine (10 mg/kg, IM; time 0); alpacas were randomly assigned to receive regular insulin (0.2 U/kg, IV) immediately after epinephrine administration on one of those days. In llamas, the experiment was performed once after administration of epinephrine only. At 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 minutes after treatment, blood samples were collected and several serum or plasma biochemical variables were assessed; in addition, plasma samples from llamas were assessed for insulin concentrations. Data were compared between days (alpacas only) and between time points. Results - Administration of epinephrine induced mobilization of glucose, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate. A small increase in endogenous insulin concentration was detected in epinephrine-treated llamas, compared with baseline values. Overall, insulin administration decreased, negated, or delayed the epinephrine-associated increases in serum or plasma concentrations of circulating energy substrates, except that it augmented the epinephrine-associated increase in concentration of triglycerides. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Epinephrine appeared to mobilize energy substrates in camelids and hence may be involved in the pathogenesis of disorders of glucose and fat metabolism. Insulin appeared to antagonize most of these effects, and its administration may have therapeutic value in camelids.

Cebra, C. K. and S. J. Tornquist (2005). "Evaluation of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in llama crias." American Journal of Veterinary Research 66(6): 1013-1017.

Objective - To investigate glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in llama crias. Animals - 7 llamas (age range, 14 to 30 days). Procedure - On each of 2 sequential days, crias were administered glucose (0.5 g/kg) via rapid IV injection. On 1 day (randomly determined for each cria), regular insulin (0.2 U/kg) or 0.9% NaCl solution (0.002 mL/kg) was administered IV 15 minutes after glucose administration. Blood samples were collected before (baseline) and at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after glucose administration for determination of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations; fractional turnover rates and plasma half-life of glucose were calculated. The data were compared over time and between days (ie, between glucose treatments with and without insulin administration). Results - A peak plasma glucose concentration of 342±47 mg/dL was detected at 5 minutes after glucose administration and llamas cleared glucose from plasma within 60 minutes; at 15 minutes, plasma insulin concentration attained a peak value of 33±13 µU/mL (ie, triple the baseline value). During the 15- to 45-minute interval, fractional turnover rate of glucose was 1.10±0.24%/min and plasma half-life was 65.7±13.4 minutes. Insulin significantly increased glucose turnover and resulted in hypoglycemia within 75 minutes of administration. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Healthy immature llamas have glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity superior to that of adults. However, whether sick crias retain the pancreatic sufficiency and tissue responsiveness that are likely responsible for the rapid glucose clearance in healthy individuals is not known.

Cebra, C. K., et al. (2003). "Bile acids in gastric fluids from llamas and alpacas with and without ulcers." Journal of veterinary internal medicine 17(4): 567-570.

To investigate the relationship between duodenogastric reflux and ulceration, gastric fluid was collected from the 1st (n=26) and 3rd (n=45) gastric compartments of llamas and alpacas during postmortem examination. Gastric fluids were analyzed for the presence of bile acids. Additionally, the 3rd compartment was examined grossly for the presence of erosions or ulcers, and the intestines were examined for evidence of fluid distention. Detectable bile acids were found in the 3rd compartment fluid of 1 of 28 camelids without ulcers, 7 of 14 camelids with ulcers, and 3 of 3 camelids with intestinal distention. Third compartment bile content was significantly higher in camelids with ulcers (median=2.9 µmol/L) or intestinal distention (median=371.5 µmol/L) than those with neither (median=0 µmol/L). Bile acids were detected in the 1st gastric compartment in only 2 camelids. These findings suggest a reflux of duodenal contents, including bile acids, into the 3rd compartment in camelids with ulcers, similar to what is seen in camelids with poor intestinal emptying. Whether bile reflux was the cause of the ulcers or occurred after or concurrent to their development remains unknown.

Cebra, C. K., et al. (2004). "Assessment of the effects of feed restriction and amino acid supplementation on glucose tolerance in llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 65(7): 996-1001.

Objective - To assess the effects of prolonged feed deprivation on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and lipid homeostasis in llamas. Animals - 9 adult female llamas. Procedure - On each of 2 consecutive days, food was withheld from the llamas for 8 hours. Blood samples were collected before and 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after IV injection of dextrose (0.5 g/kg) for determination of plasma insulin and serum glucose, triglyceride, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Between experimental periods, the llamas received supplemental amino acids IV (185 mg/kg in solution). The llamas were then fed a limited diet (grass hay, 0.25% of body weight daily) for 23 days, after which the experimental procedures were repeated. Results - Feed restriction decreased glucose tolerance and had slight effects on insulin secretion in llamas. Basal lipid fractions were higher after feed restriction, but dextrose administration resulted in similar reductions in serum lipid concentrations with and without feed restriction. Insulin secretion was decreased on the second day of each study period, which lessened reduction of serum lipid concentrations but did not affect glucose tolerance. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Despite having a comparatively competent pancreatic response, feed-restricted llamas assimilated dextrose via an IV bolus more slowly than did llamas on full rations. However, repeated administration of dextrose reduced insulin secretion and could promote hyperglycemia and fat mobilization. These findings suggested that veterinarians should use alternative methods of supplying energy to camelids with long-term reduced feed intake or consider administering agents to improve the assimilation of glucose.

Cebra, C. K., et al. (2004). "Assessment of the metabolic effects of hydrocortisone on llamas before and after feed restriction." American Journal of Veterinary Research 65(7): 1002-1005.

Objective - To evaluate the effects of administration of hydrocortisone on plasma concentration of insulin and serum concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) in llamas before and after feed restriction. Animals - 9 adult female llamas. Procedure - Feed was withheld from llamas for 8 hours. Blood samples were collected before (0 minutes) and 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes after IV injection of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (1 mg/kg) for determination of plasma insulin concentration and serum concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and NEFAs. The llamas were then fed a limited diet (grass hay, 0.25% of body weight daily) for 21 days, after which the experimental procedures were repeated. Results - Compared with llamas that were not feed-restricted, llamas after feed restriction had significantly higher plasma insulin concentration and serum concentrations of triglycerides and NEFAs. Feed-restricted llamas after hydrocortisone injection had a significantly smaller increase in serum glucose concentration, a decrease (rather than an increase) in serum concentration of NEFAs, and no change in blood concentrations of insulin or triglycerides. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Short-acting glucocorticoid hormones did not appear to increase blood lipid concentrations in healthy llamas, regardless of ongoing fat mobilization. Thus, these hormones appear unlikely to be major direct contributors to diseases such as hepatic lipidosis or hyperlipemia. Although administration of hydrocortisone reduced serum concentration of fatty acids in feed-restricted llamas, its use has not been evaluated in sick camelids and cannot be considered therapeutically useful.

Cebra, C. K., et al. (2008). "Collection and analysis of peritoneal fluid from healthy llamas and alpacas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 232(9): 1357-1361.

Objective - To describe a technique for abdominocentesis in camelids and report peritoneal fluid biochemical and cytologic findings from healthy llamas and alpacas. Design - Prospective study. Animals - 17 adult llamas and 5 adult alpacas. Procedures - Right paracostal abdominocentesis was performed. Peritoneal fluid was collected by gravity flow into tubes containing potassium-EDTA for cell count and cytologic evaluation and lithium heparin for biochemical analysis. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture into heparinized tubes at the same time. Cytologic components were quantified. Fluid pH and concentrations of total carbon dioxide, sodium, potassium, chloride, lactate, and glucose were compared between peritoneal fluid and venous blood. Results - All but 3 camelids had peritoneal fluid cell counts of &lt;3,000 nucleated cells/µL, with &lt;2,000 neutrophils/µL and &lt;1,040 large mononuclear cells/µL. All but 1 had peritoneal fluid protein concentrations of ≤2.5 g/dL. Peritoneal fluid of camelids generally contained slightly less glucose, lactate, and sodium and roughly equal concentrations of potassium and chloride as venous blood. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Peritoneal fluid was collected safely from healthy camelids. Compared with blood, peritoneal fluid usually had a low cell count and protein concentration, but some individuals had higher values. Electrolyte concentrations resembled those found in blood. High cell counts and protein concentrations found in peritoneal fluid of some healthy camelids may overlap with values found in diseased camelids, complicating interpretation of peritoneal fluid values.

Cebra, C. K., et al. (2001). "Glucose tolerance testing in llamas and alpacas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 62(5): 682-686.

Five adult female llamas and 5 adult gelded alpacas were used to determine blood glucose clearance after IV challenge and its mechanism. After food was withheld for 12 hours, camelids received 0.5 g of glucose/kg of body weight by rapid IV infusion. Serum concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, cortisol and insulin, and plasma concentrations of lactate were determined before and 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min after infusion. Ratios of insulin to glucose and insulin to cortisol were calculated for each time point. Postinfusion glucose concentrations were significantly higher in llamas than alpacas for the first 15 min and remained significantly higher than baseline values in both species for 180 min. Lactate and cortisol concentrations did not change significantly; nonesterified fatty acid concentrations decreased in both species 30 mins after infusion. Baseline insulin concentrations were &lt;6 µU/ml in both species and increased only to 10.1±0.7 µU/ml in llamas. Insulin concentrations did not change significantly in alpacas. Llamas and alpacas clear glucose more slowly than other domestic species after challenge, mainly because of a weak insulin response and slow cellular uptake. This response may impair the assimilation of exogenous glucose as well as make llamas and alpacas prone to diabetes-like disorders when an abundance of endogenous or exogenous glucogenic agents are present.

Cebra, C. K., et al. (2007). "Eimeria macusaniensis infection in 15 llamas and 34 alpacas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 230(1): 94-100.

Case Description - 15 llamas and 34 alpacas between 3 weeks and 18 years old with faecal oocysts or intestinal coccidial stages morphologically consistent with Eimeria macusaniensis were examined. Nineteen of the camelids were admitted dead, and 30 were admitted alive. Camelids admitted alive accounted for 5.5% of all camelid admissions during this period. Clinical Findings - Many severely affected camelids had signs of lethargy, weight loss, decreased appetite, and diarrhoea. Camelids with clinical infection also commonly had evidence of circulatory shock, fat mobilization, and protein loss. Nonsurviving camelids also had evidence of shock, oedema, bile stasis, renal insufficiency, hepatic lipidosis, muscle damage, relative hemoconcentration, and sepsis. Postmortem examination frequently revealed complete, segmental replacement of the mucosa of the distal portion of the jejunum with coccidial meronts and gamonts. For 17 of 42 camelids, results of initial faecal examinations for E. macusaniensis were negative. Treatment and Outcome - Most camelids admitted alive were treated with amprolium hydrochloride, plasma, and various supportive treatments. Fifteen of the 30 treated camelids died or were euthanized. Clinical Relevance - Findings suggest that E. macusaniensis may be an important gastrointestinal tract pathogen in camelids of all ages. Clinical signs were frequently nonspecific and were often evident before results of faecal examinations for the parasite were positive. As with other coccidia, severity of disease was probably related to ingested dose, host immunity, and other factors. The clinical and herd relevance of positive faecal examination results must be determined.

Cebra, C. K., et al. (2002). "Transabdominal ultrasonographic appearance of the gastrointestinal viscera of healthy llamas and alpacas." Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 43(4): 359-366.

The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the gastrointestinal viscera of healthy llamas and alpacas. Six adult llamas, five juvenile llamas, and five adult alpacas were scanned with a 5 MHz linear transducer (USA). The first and third gastric compartments occupied most of the left and right ventral abdomen, respectively. The saccules of the first compartment gave its wall a unique, hyperechoic appearance; whereas, all other viscera appeared as tubular structures. Except for the third gastric compartment, motility was visible in all structures by movement of fluid segments or contraction of the wall. Where it could be measured, wall thickness was between 2 and 4 mm, except that the caudal portion of the third compartment occasionally had a thicker wall. Fluid segments in the intestines were generally short and short lived. This description of normal camelids should aid in the ultrasonographic assessment of camelids suspected to have a gastrointestinal disorder.

Cebra, M. L., et al. (1998). "Atrioventricular Septal Defects in Three Llamas (Lama glama)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 29(2): 225-227.

Two half-sibling neonatal llamas (Lama glama) and one unrelated adult llama were presented with various complaints, including failure to thrive, respiratory distress, and excessive recumbency. The related camelids were born in successive years to the same dam but from unrelated sires. Thoracic auscultation revealed significant systolic and diastolic murmurs on both sides of the chest in all three llamas, and arterial blood gas evaluation revealed hypoxemia in two llamas. Echocardiographic examinations revealed large atrioventricular septal (AVS) defects in all three llamas. Two llamas were euthanized after diagnosis and the third died 4 mo later. Postmortem examination confirmed large AVS defects in all animals. There also was marked cardiomegaly in each animal. The discovery of such a cardiac anomaly in these three camelids suggests that it may be common in this species and may have a genetic basis.

Cebra, M. L., et al. (1998). "Atrioventricular septal defects in three llamas (Lama glama)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 29(2): 225-227.

Cecchi, T., et al. (2004). "Melanins and melanosomes from llama (Lama glama L.)." Pigment Cell Research 17(3): 307-311.

Analysis of melanins and melanosomes in eight hair and skin samples taken of adult pigmented Argentine llamas (Lama glama L.) has been carried out. In each sample, eumelanins, pheomelanins and alkali-soluble melanins were identified. The total amount of melanins and the amount of eumelanins both decreased from black to reddish brown colour, while pheomelanins were found to be present in small quantities in each sample. Eumelanosomes were round and oval-shaped, displaying transverse striations clearly visible at low magnification. Dark brown samples revealed all four melanosomes stages. Stages I and II melanosomes appeared as large, asymmetrical vacuoles containing numerous microvesicles randomly scattered within an amorphous proteinaceous material (vesiculo-globular bodies). Stage III melanosomes had microgranular melanin deposits in the microvesicles and in the matrix. The fully melanized melanosomes (stage IV) were primarily round-shaped, showing an irregular outline and the electron-dense pigment was arranged to form large clusters. In light brown melanocytes, numerous melanosomes at different maturation stages could be found. Premelanosomes appeared ovoid, containing amorphous proteinaceous material and spotty and microgranular deposits. Mature melanosomes were fully melanized, homogeneously electron-dense, ovoid granules.

Cecchi, T., et al. (2007). "Quantitative variation of melanins in llama (Lama glama L.)." Small Ruminant Research 71(1/3): 52-58.

The amount of melanin pigments was investigated in 80 Argentinean llama, representative of seven phenotypes and four different fleece colours, by means of spectrophotometric assays: SpEM (spectrophotometric eumelanin), SpPM (spectrophotometric pheomelanin), SpASM (spectrophotometric alkali soluble melanin), and SpTM (spectrophotometric total melanin). It was found that, although to a different extent, the quantitative variation of these pigments was affected both by phenotypes and fleece colours and, hence, it was possible to identify and to distinguish homogeneous groups on the basis of these two factors. In particular, SpEM revealed the most reliable parameter for a discrimination among these groups. Low concentrations of this pigment characterize red, wild, and red black phenotypes and distinguish them from black and tan and non-agouti black ones, both showing high concentrations; low concentrations also distinguish reddish brown fleece colour from very dark red and black ones.

Celedón, M., et al. (2001). "Survey for antibodies to pestivirus and herpesvirus in sheep, goats, alpacas (Lama pacos), llamas (Lama glama), guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) from Chile." Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 33(2): 165-172.

Microtitration serum virus-neutralization tests were used to determine antibody titres for pestivirus: bovine viral diarrhoea virus (NADL strain) and herpesvirus: bovine herpesvirus 1 (Los Angeles strain) in 321 sheep, 322 goats, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos), 43 llamas (Lama glama), 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) from several regions in Chile. Antibodies to pestivirus were found in 60 (18.7%) sheep, 21 (6.5%) goats, 8 (10.8%) alpacas and 6 (14%) llamas. The guanacos and vicuñas did not have antibodies to pestivirus. Antibodies to herpesvirus were found in 8 (2.5%) sheep and in 62 (19.3%) goats. The alpacas, llamas, guanacos and vicuñas did not have antibodies to herpesvirus. From animals seropositive to pestivirus, the sheep flocks were located in the Metropolitan Region and XII Region of Chile with 7.1 to 82.1% positive serum samples, with titres between 11 to 1024 and 5 (22.7%) positive flocks. The goat flocks were located in the IV Region and the Metropolitan Region with 6.7 to 100% positive serum samples, with titres between 4 to 512 and 3 (13.6%) positive flocks. The alpaca and llama flocks were located in the Metropolitan Region (where they live with other ruminants). 10,8% serum samples from 2 aplaca flocks and 14% serum samples of llamas from 1 flock were positive, with titres between 32 to 2048. From the seropositive animals to herpesvirus, only one sheep flock was positive and it was located in VI Region of Chile with 28.6% positive serum samples, with titres between 2 to 5.6. The goat flocks positive to herpesvirus were located in the IV Region and the Metropolitan Region with 4.2% to 66.7% positive serum samples, with titres between 2 to 45 and 14 (63.6%) positive flocks. The serum samples from guanacos and vicunas were obtained from their natural Regions, guanacos from the IV and XII Regions and vicuñas from the I Region. The findings of our study confirm that pestivirus infections of sheep, goats, alpacas and llamas and herpesvirus infections of sheep and goats occur in Chile.

Ch, et al. (2004). "First Report of Neospora caninum Infection in Adult Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and Llamas (Lama glama)." The Journal of Parasitology 90(4): 864-866.

Neospora caninum is a cyst-forming coccidian that mainly affects bovines, although Neospora infection has also been described in other domestic and wild ruminant species. Serum samples from 78 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and 73 llamas (Lama glama) at a unique dilution of 1:50 tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) were further analyzed serologically by IFAT and Western blot in both ruminant species to avoid cross-reactions with closely related coccidian parasites and to confirm the existence of N. caninum-specific antibodies. IFAT titers ranging between 1:50 and 1:800 were found. When using Western blot, N. caninum tachyzoite-specific immunodominant antigens with apparent molecular weights of 17-18, 34-35, 37, and 60-62 kDa were also recognized, although some sera with 1:50 IFAT titers proved not to have N. caninum-specific antibodies. As expected, higher IFAT titers were associated with higher anti-N. caninum reactivity in Western blot. This report documents for the first time the presence of N. canicum infection in adult alpacas and llmas from Peru.

Chávez, K. M. (1997). Llamas at home, on the range and in the therapist's chair : trends in the llama industry in Montana.

Chalkley, M. D., et al. (2014). "Pituitary null cell Adenoma in a domestic llama (Lama glama)." Journal of comparative pathology 151(1): 51-56.

Pituitary gland neoplasia has been reported rarely in camelids. A 12-year-old neutered male llama (Lama glama) presented with lethargy, inappetence and neurological signs. On physical examination, the llama was mentally dull and exhibited compulsive pacing and circling to the left. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry revealed haemoconcentration, mild hypophosphataemia, hyperglycaemia, hypercreatininaemia and hyperalbuminaemia. Humane destruction was elected due to rapid clinical deterioration and poor prognosis. Post-mortem examination revealed a pituitary macroadenoma and bilateral internal hydrocephalus. Microscopically, the pituitary tumour was composed of neoplastic chromophobic pituitary cells. Ultrastructural studies revealed similar neoplastic cells to those previously described in human null cell adenomas. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly immunoreactive for neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin and chromogranin A), but did not exhibit immunoreactivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, neuronal and all major pituitary hormone markers (adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone), consistent with the diagnosis of a pituitary null cell adenoma. This is the first report of pituitary neoplasia in a llama.

Chandramohan, B., et al. (2015). "The alpaca melanocortin 1 receptor: gene mutations, transcripts, and relative levels of expression in ventral skin biopsies." ScientificWorldJournal 2015: 265751 ST - The alpaca melanocortin 265751 receptor: gene mutations, transcripts, and relative levels of expression in ventral skin biopsies.

The objectives of the present study were to characterize the MC1R gene, its transcripts and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coat color in alpaca. Full length cDNA amplification revealed the presence of two transcripts, named as F1 and F2, differing only in the length of their 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) sequences and presenting a color specific expression. Whereas the F1 transcript was common to white and colored (black and brown) alpaca phenotypes, the shorter F2 transcript was specific to white alpaca. Further sequencing of the MC1R gene in white and colored alpaca identified a total of twelve SNPs; among those nine (four silent mutations (c.126C>A, c.354T>C, c.618G>A, and c.933G>A); five missense mutations (c.82A>G, c.92C>T, c.259A>G, c.376A>G, and c.901C>T)) were observed in coding region and three in the 3'UTR. A 4 bp deletion (c.224 227del) was also identified in the coding region. Molecular segregation analysis uncovered that the combinatory mutations in the MC1R locus could cause eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis in alpaca. Overall, our data refine what is known about the MC1R gene and provides additional information on its role in alpaca pigmentation. AN - 25685836

Chang, C. D., et al. (1993). "Nocardiosis in a llama." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 5(4): 631-634.

A case of Nocardia asteroides infection in a llama is described. The animal was destroyed after developing severe dyspnoea and cyanosis. N. asteroides was isolated from the lungs which were consolidated and congested. Aspergillus sp. was also isolated from the lungs. Prolonged treatment of the animal with broad spectrum antibiotics and glucocorticoids may have increased the susceptibility of the llama to the mycosis.

Chang H, K., et al. (2009). "Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in female llamas of the central highlands of Peru." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 20(2): 306-311.

The objective of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in female llamas of Corpacancha, Cuyo, and Santa Ana production units of the Cooperative Pachacutec, located in the district of Marcapomacocha, Junín. Blood samples (n=249) were collected in January and February 2003 from animals more than one year of age. The immunofluorescence test (IFAT) was used for the detection of antibodies against T. gondii. The seroprevalence was moderate (13.7±4.3%, 34/249). There was a greater risk of infection for llamas over 6 years and for those at Santa Ana and Corpacancha production units.

Charry Lara, F. (1986). Llama de amor viva : Nocturnos y otros suen\0303os, Los adioses, Pensamientos del amante. Bogota\0301, Procultura, Presidencia de la Repu\0301blic.

Chatalic, K. L., et al. (2015). "A Novel ¹¹¹In-Labeled Anti-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Nanobody for Targeted SPECT/CT Imaging of Prostate Cancer." J Nucl Med 56(7): 1094-1099.

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and a promising target for molecular imaging and therapy. Nanobodies (single-domain antibodies, VHH) are the smallest antibody-based fragments possessing ideal molecular imaging properties, such as high target specificity and rapid background clearance. We developed a novel anti-PSMA Nanobody (JVZ-007) for targeted imaging and therapy of PCa. Here, we report on the application of the (111)In-radiolabeled Nanobody for SPECT/CT imaging of PCa.|A Nanobody library was generated by immunization of a llama with 4 human PCa cell lines. Anti-PSMA Nanobodies were captured by biopanning on PSMA-overexpressing cells. JVZ-007 was selected for evaluation as an imaging probe. JVZ-007 was initially produced with a c-myc-hexahistidine (his) tag allowing purification and detection. The c-myc-his tag was subsequently replaced by a single cysteine at the C terminus, allowing site-specific conjugation of chelates for radiolabeling. JVZ-007-c-myc-his was conjugated to 2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (p-SCN-DTPA) via the lysines, whereas JVZ-007-cys was conjugated to maleimide-DTPA via the C-terminal cysteine. PSMA targeting was analyzed in vitro by cell-binding experiments using flow cytometry, autoradiography, and internalization assays with various PCa cell lines and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). The targeting properties of radiolabeled Nanobodies were evaluated in vivo in biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging experiments, using nude mice bearing PSMA-positive PC-310 and PSMA-negative PC-3 tumors.|JVZ-007 was successfully conjugated to DTPA for radiolabeling with (111)In at room temperature. (111)In-JVZ007-c-myc-his and (111)In-JVZ007-cys internalized in LNCaP cells and bound to PSMA-expressing PDXs and, importantly, not to PSMA-negative PDXs and human kidneys. Good tumor targeting and fast blood clearance were observed for (111)In-JVZ-007-c-myc-his and (111)In-JVZ-007-cys. Renal uptake of (111)In-JVZ-007-c-myc-his was initially high but was efficiently reduced by coinjection of gelofusine and lysine. The replacement of the c-myc-his tag by the cysteine contributed to a further reduction of renal uptake without loss of targeting. PC-310 tumors were clearly visualized by SPECT/CT with both tracers, with low renal uptake (<4 percentage injected dose per gram) for (111)In-JVZ-007-cys already at 3 h after injection.|We developed an (111)In-radiolabeled anti-PSMA Nanobody, showing good tumor targeting, low uptake in nontarget tissues, and low renal retention, allowing excellent SPECT/CT imaging of PCa within a few hours after injection. AN - 25977460

Chauvet, A. E., et al. (1996). "Vitamin E deficiency associated with myopathy in a llama." Progress in Veterinary Neurology 7(4): 149-152.

A 16-month-old female llama with progressive necrotizing polymyositis was diagnosed with vitamin E deficiency. The cause of vitamin E deficiency was not identified. Neuromuscular examination as well as plasma vitamin E levels are recommended in cases of exercise intolerance in camelids.

Chaves, M. G., et al. (2002). "Ovarian follicular wave pattern and the effect of exogenous progesterone on follicular activity in non-mated llamas." Animal Reproduction Science 69(1/2): 37-46.

The aim of the present study was to characterize the secretory profiles of estradiol-17β and progesterone in relation to the structural changes observed by ultrasonography during follicular dynamics in non-ovulating llamas and to evaluate the effect of exogenous progesterone on follicular activity in terms of follicle development and hormone production. In experiment one, six adult non-pregnant, non-lactating llamas were examined daily by rectal palpation and transrectal ultrasonography during 70 days. On day 54, intravaginal devices containing 0.33 g of progesterone (CIDR) were inserted and left in the vagina during 16 days. The mean duration of a follicular wave was 22.6±2.5 days. The follicular growth phase (follicles growing from 3 mm to maximum size) averaged 9.2±2.8 days, the mature phase (follicles around maximum size) 5.2±1.4 days and regression phase (follicles with decreasing size) 8.2±2.2 days. Estradiol-17β plasma concentrations exhibited a similar wave pattern (P&lt;0.05). In addition, estradiol-17β peak plasma concentrations (46.9±3.3 pmol/litre) were attained approximately 12 days after the beginning of the growing phase in connection with maximum follicle size (11.8±1.6 mm). After CIDR insertion, a rapid increase in plasma progesterone concentrations was observed, with peak concentrations attained on day 1 after insertion. Thereafter, concentrations decreased gradually. Mean follicle size steadily decreased from the day of CIDR insertion to day 11 post-insertion (10.3±1.6 and 3.3±0.8 mm, respectively). In order to investigate the effect of follicle size at CIDR insertion on the outcome of progesterone treatment, experiment two was designed. Sixteen adult non-pregnant and non-lactating llamas were divided into four groups according to follicle development at the time of CIDR insertion (group I: follicles≤6 mm; group II: follicles between 6 and 9 mm; group III: follicles between 10 and 14 mm and group IV, regressing follicles). In groups II, III and IV, a significant decrease in follicle size was observed after the insertion of the CIDR device. In group I, no further development of dominant follicles was observed until the device was withdrawn. In all cases, the smallest diameter was registered between days 5 and 7 after the beginning of treatment. In conclusion, a detailed characterization of follicular waves using ultrasound and hormone determinations simultaneously in non-ovulating llamas and after the insertion of progesterone releasing devices, is presented.

Chávez-Velásquez, A., et al. (2004). "First report of Neospora caninum infection in adult alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas (Lama glama)." Journal of parasitology 90(4): 864-866.

N. caninum is a cyst-forming coccidian that mainly affects bovines, although Neospora infection has also been described in other domestic and wild ruminant species. Serum samples from 78 alpacas (V. pacos) and 73 llamas (L. glama) at a unique dilution of 1:50 tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) were further analysed serologically by IFAT and western blot in both ruminant species to avoid cross-reactions with closely related coccidian parasites and to confirm the existence of N. caninum-specific antibodies. IFAT titres ranging between 1:50 and 1:800 were found. When using western blot, N. caninum tachyzoite-specific immunodominant antigens with apparent molecular weights of 17-18, 34-35, 37, and 60-62 kDa were also recognized, although some sera with 1:50 IFAT titres proved not to have N. caninum-specific antibodies. As expected, higher IFAT titres were associated with higher anti-N. caninum reactivity in western blot. This report documents for the first time the presence of N. caninum infection in adult alpacas and llamas from Peru.

Chávez-Velásquez, A., et al. (2005). "Toxoplasma gondii infection in adult llamas (Lama glama) and vicunas (Vicugna vicugna) in the Peruvian Andean region." Veterinary Parasitology 130(1/2): 93-97.

The present study was designed to investigate Toxoplasma gondii infection in adult llamas (Lama glama) and vicunas (Vicugna vicugna) in the Peruvian Andean region, for which to date no information has been available. Serum samples from 43 llamas (L. glama) and 200 vicunas were tested by IFAT detecting titres of 1:50 or higher in 55.8% (33.9-70.9%) and 5.5% (2.8-9.6%), respectively. IFAT titres ranged from 1:50 to 1:6400. In order to avoid cross reactions with closely related coccidian parasites and to confirm the existence of T. gondii specific antibodies, IFAT positive sera from both ruminant species were also analysed by western blot. T. gondii specific antigens were recognised by IFAT positive sera, although different IFAT cut-off points could be selected for llamas (1:200) and vicunas (1:50) meaning seroprevalence of 44.2% (29.1-60.1%) and 5.5% (2.8-9.6%), respectively. Based on the frequency and intensity of tachyzoite antigen recognition, at least three immunodominant antigens with apparent molecular weights of 22-24, 30, and 38-40 kDa were detected, together with other minor protein fractions located in the 18-73 kDa range. This study documents for the first time the presence of T. gondii infection and reports the target T. gondii antigens in adult llamas and vicunas in Peru.

Chen, J., et al. (2016). "Nanobody medicated immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein." Talanta 147: 523-530.

Immunoassay for cancer biomarkers plays an important role in cancer prevention and early diagnosis. To the development of immunoassay, the quality and stability of applied antibody is one of the key points to obtain reliability and high sensitivity for immunoassay. The main purpose of this study was to develop a novel immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of cancer biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) based on nanobody against AFP. Two nanobodies which bind to AFP were selected from a phage display nanobody library by biopanning strategy. The prepared nanobodies are clonable, thermally stable and applied in both sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) and immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP. The limit detection of sandwich ELISA setup with optimized nanobodies was 0.48ng mL(-1), and the half of saturation concentration (SC50) value was 6.68±0.56ng mL(-1). These nanobodies were also used to develop an immuno-PCR assay for ultrasensitive detection of AFP, its limit detection values was 0.005ng mL(-1), and the linear range was 0.01-10,000ng mL(-1). These established immunoassays based on nanobodies were highly specific to AFP and with negligible cross reactivity with other tested caner biomarkers. Furthermore, this novel concept of nanobodies mediated immunoassay may provide potential applications in a general method for the ultrasensitive detection of various cancer biomarkers. AN - 26592642

Chen, X., et al. (2015). "Enteractinococcus lamae sp. nov. and Enteractinococcus viverrae sp. nov., isolated from animal faeces." Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 108(6): 1477-1483.

Two novel actinobacteria, designated strains YIM 101617(T) and YIM 101632(T), were isolated from Lama pacos (alpaca) and Viverra zibetha (civet) faeces in Yunnan Wild Animal Park in Yunnan province, southwestern China. Both strains should be placed in genus Enteractinococcus based on phylogenetic analysis. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM 101617(T) exhibits high similarity to Enteractinococcus fodinae DSM 22966(T) (97.70 %) and Enteractinococcus coprophilus YIM 100590(T) (97.45 %), whilst YIM 101632(T) exhibits high similarity to Enteractinococcus coprophilus YIM 100590(T) (97.25 %), and the similarity between YIM 101617(T) and YIM 101632(T) is 95.90 %. However, DNA-DNA hybridization values of the two strains with the type strains in the genus Enteractinococcus were low (<70 %). Most morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the two strains were found to be similar to those of species in the genus Enteractinococcus but also some differences were observed. The DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 101617(T) and YIM 101632(T) were determined to be 55.9 and 56.4 mol%, respectively. Based on these data, the two strains are concluded to represent two different novel species in the genus Enteractinococcus. The names Enteractinococcus lamae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 101617(T)=DSM 27612(T)=CCTCC AB 2013230(T)) and Enteractinococcus viverrae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 101632(T)=KCTC 39552(T)=CCTCC AB 2013280(T)) are proposed, respectively. AN - 26423082

Cheney, J. M. and G. T. Allen (1989). "Parasitism in llamas." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 5(1): 217-225.

The treatment and control of nematodes, cestodes, digeneans, coccidia, Toxoplasma and arthropods (mites, lice, ticks, and Cephenemyia) in llamas (Lama glama) are described.

Christensen, J. M., et al. (2001). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antiulcer agents in llama." Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 24(1): 23-33.

Plasma concentration time curves following intravenous (iv) administration of 1.5 mg/kg of ranitidine (Zantac®), 0.2 mg/kg, 0.4 mg/kg and 0.8 mg/kg of omeprazole (Omeprazole®), respectively, were analysed in 6 llamas. Plasma profiles after iv administration of both drugs showed plasma concentrations declining in a biexponential manner with a rapid distribution phase. Pharmacokinetics parameters after ranitidine administration to 6 llamas showed a mean elimination half-life of 1.53±0.26 h. The mean volume of distribution (Vdss) in llamas was 1.77±0.31 L/kg, and mean body clearance in llamas was 0.778±0.109 L/kg/h. Ranitidine produced only a small transitory (&lt;1 h) decline in acid production when administered iv at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg. Omeprazole showed dose-dependent nonlinear pharmacokinetics. The mean half-life of 0.2 mg/kg (iv) omeprazole was shorter than that of 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg (iv) omeprazole, i.e. 0.61, 0.72 and 1.07 h, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) and mean residence time (MRT) increased with increasing dose, while clearance decreased as dose increased. The decline in acid production following 0.2 mg/kg (iv) omeprazole was highly variable and did not produce a clinically useful suppression of third compartment acid production. In contrast, both 0.4 mg/kg and 0.8 mg/kg omeprazole iv administration significantly reduced third compartment acid production. The reduction in acid production following 0.8 mg/kg omeprazole was not significantly greater than the reduction observed following 0.4 mg/kg dosage. Misoprostol (Cytotec®; 10 µg/kg) was administered iv in an absolute alcohol solution. Two animals collapsed following drug administration. While the side-effects could have been produced by either misoprostol or the alcohol vehicle, the clinical changes were more consistent with an adverse drug reaction. Unfortunately, the limitation of UV detection did not provide the sensitivity needed to quantify the amount of misoprostol in llama plasma, and the pharmacokinetics could not be evaluated.

Christensen, J. M., et al. (1996). "The disposition of five therapeutically important antimicrobial agents in llamas." Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 19(6): 431-438.

The disposition of 5 therapeutic antimicrobial agents was studied in llamas (Lama glama) following i.v. bolus administration. Six llamas were each given ampicillin (12 mg/kg), tobramycin (1 mg/kg), trimethoprim (3 mg/kg), sulfamethoxazole (15 mg/kg), enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg) and ceftiofur (2.2 mg/kg) with a wash out period of at least 3 days between treatments. Plasma concentrations of these antimicrobial agents over 12 h following i.v. bolus dosing were measured by reverse phase HPLC. Disposition of the 5 antimicrobial agents was described by a 2 compartment open model with elimination from the central compartment, and also by non-compartmental methods. From compartmental analysis, the elimination rate constant, half-life, and apparent volume of distribution in the central compartment were determined. Statistical moment theory was used to determine non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters of mean residence time, clearance, and volume of distribution at steady state. Based on the disposition parameters determined, and stated assumptions of likely effective minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) a dose and dosing interval for each of 5 antimicrobial agents were suggested as 6 mg/kg every 12 h for ampicillin; 4 mg/kg once a day or 0.75 mg/kg every 8 h for tobramycin; 3.0 mg/kg/15 mg/kg every 12 h for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; 5 mg/kg every 12 h for enrofloxacin: and 2.2 mg/kg every 12 h for ceftiofur sodium for llamas. Steady-state peak and trough plasma concentrations were also predicted.

Christopher, M. M., et al. (1996). "Comparison of methods for sodium and potassium determination in llama urine." American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(1): 25-30.

Llama urine samples encompassing a wide range of electrolyte concentrations were analysed for sodium and potassium concentrations, using flame emission spectrophotometry (flame photometry), atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), indirect ion-selective electrode potentiometry (ISE), and direct ISE. Urine specimens were obtained from 10 healthy male llamas fitted with urine collection apparatus at defined intervals over a 24-h period. Urine samples were centrifuged, and supernatants were frozen at -70°C until analysis. Analytical procedures were done, using standard laboratory protocols. Means, correlation coefficients, and bias were calculated, and differences were evaluated by ANOVA. There was strong correlation and good agreement among sodium values obtained by flame photometry, AAS, and indirect ISE. Sodium values obtained by use of direct ISE correlated poorly with other methods; urine is not an acceptable specimen for this method. Only AAS and indirect ISE had good correlation for potassium values. Data did not suggest presence of a potassium chelator in llama urine; urine potassium values measured by indirect ISE were significantly higher (by 150 to 200 mmol/litre) than those measured by other methods. Urine electrolyte analysis in llamas resulted in less agreement between methods than is generally found for serum. It is suggested that data collection for patient monitoring or research analysis should be restricted to a single method to avoid differences in results attributable to analytical variance.

Cirlot, J. E. and E. Granell (2005). En la llama : poesía, 1943-1959. Madrid, Ediciones Siruela.

Clauss, M., et al. (2004). "Skin lesions in alpacas and llamas with low zinc and copper status - a preliminary report." Veterinary Journal 167(3): 302-305.

An evaluation of the factors that predispose animals to skin lesions was carried out, with emphasis on the probable effect of Zn or Cu deficiencies. A breeding herd of 13 llamas, 17 huacaya alpacas and 18 suri alpacas from a German farm was fed a diet of ad libitum hay and approximately 0.5 kg of a camelid feed/animal/day. Dry, scaly lesions were observed in 12 animals. After a tentative diagnosis of Zn deficiency, one suri alpaca was given an oral supplementation of 4 g of zinc methionine per day, and its skin lesions improved over a course of 3 weeks. Serum samples were analysed for Cu and Zn. The potential influence of species/breed, gender, fleece colour and serum minerals on the occurrence of skin lesions was evaluated. The average serum Zn and Cu levels were 0.17±0.03 and 0.49±0.08 µg/ml for alpacas and 0.22±0.05 and 0.38±0.16 µg/ml for llamas, respectively. No influence of gender, fleece colour or alpaca breed in circulating mineral levels was evident. Significant differences in the mineral content between llamas and alpaca breeds for both Cu and Zn levels were observed, with the former displaying higher Zn and lower Cu levels. Only the females were affected with skin lesions. A strong relationship between the breed and colour variables was found. Two approaches were performed by including either species/breed or colour as an independent variable. In both approaches, gender had a significant influence, whereas circulating mineral concentration had none. In the approach that included species/breed, no influence of this parameter was observed. In the approach including fleece colour, the colour had a significant influence on the occurrence of skin lesions, with non-white animals being more affected.

Clauss, M., et al. (2004). "Skin lesions in alpacas and llamas with low zinc and copper status–a preliminary report." The Veterinary Journal 167(3): 302-305.

Coates, W. and R. Ayerza (2004). "Comparison of llama fiber obtained from two production regions of Argentina." Journal of arid environments 58(4): 513-524.

The Puna is an arid region running along the Andes mountains, more than 3600 m above sea level. Overgrazing has severely degraded much of this ecosystem, and this has dramatically reduced agricultural production and resulted in poverty for human inhabitants. Llamas are native to the Puna and are well suited to live there. Their grazing habits and digestive system make efficient use of native forages, and their padded feet keep soil disturbance to a minimum, thereby reducing erosion. Uncontrolled llama breeding over the last 500 years has degraded the quality of the fiber they produce, so today it is generally of low quality. Analysis of llama fibers obtained from two production regions of Argentina showed that some llamas possess sufficiently fine mean fiber diameters (less than 23 µm if guard hairs are excluded) to allow their fleeces to be sold at a premium. A higher price would make llamas more attractive to raise than the goats and sheep commonly found in the Puna today. Switching to llama production would increase grower income and sustainability of agriculture in the region.

Coates, W. and R. Ayerza (2004). "Fatty acid composition of llama muscle and internal fat in two Argentinian herds." Small Ruminant Research 52(3): 231-238.

Coronary heart disease and a number of other diseases have been shown to increase with consumption of foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol. However, increased consumption of n - 3 fatty acids reduces the incidence of these diseases. Llama meat has been reported as having a lower fat content, lower saturated fat content, and a higher n - 3 fatty acid content than beef, and hence may serve as a more healthy alternative of animal protein. To assess these claims a study was undertaken in Argentina in which llama meat from two farms was analyzed to determine its composition. On average the lama meat had lower cholesterol (52.8 vs 67 mg/100 g) and fat (12.6 vs 20.6%) content than that reported for beef. The muscle fat of castrated males was lower in saturated fatty acids (42.6 vs 45.7%) and cholesterol (44.1 vs 63.7%), and higher in n - 3 fatty acids (1.2 vs 1.0%) than non-castrated males. As castration appears to substantially improve llama meat quality, additional studies to confirm this appear warranted.

Cockcroft, P. D., et al. (2015). "Serological survey for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus and Neospora caninum in a population of South Australian alpacas (Vicugna pacos)." Aust Vet J 93(12): 476-478.

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and Neospora caninum may cause clinical disease in alpacas. Both diseases are present in the Australian cattle population. The objective of this study was to perform a serological prevalence survey for BVDV and N. caninum exposure in a regional alpaca population of South Australia.|Serum samples were taken from 182 alpacas on 10 farms, which had a combined population of 1308 alpacas. Serological analysis for BVD antibodies was performed using a competitive BVDV antibody ELISA kit. Serological analysis for N. caninum was performed using an anti-Neospora ELISA with a protein G conjugate.|Of the 182 alpacas sampled, 5 animals located on three properties were positive for BVDV antibodies, constituting a prevalence of 2.7% (95% confidence interval 1-6%). All samples tested negative for N. caninum antibodies.|There is a low BVDV seroprevalence and N. caninum is currently either absent or present at a very low prevalence in this population of alpacas in South Australia. There is serological evidence for the presence of both organisms in South Australian beef and dairy cattle herds. Appropriate biosecurity protocols to minimise the risk of introduction and exposure should be a high priority to maintain this favourable status. AN - 26456156

Cockcroft, P. D., et al. (2016). "Cross-sectional observational survey of serum biochemistry values in a population of 69 adult female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in South Australia." Aust Vet J 94(4): 125-126.

Blood samples were collected from 69 'healthy' female alpacas aged ≥12 months from 11 properties in South Australia. The 10-90 percentile ranges of the 16/19 analytes measured in this sample population were within the published ranges of four healthy alpaca populations from other geographic locations. Marginal exceptions were glutamate dehydrogenase and bicarbonate. Potassium was notably elevated, probably because of haemolysis of some samples. The sample size was insufficient to provide the appropriate statistical power to define diagnostic references ranges according to international standards. The health status of the sample population of alpacas was presumptive based on a physical examination. AN - 27021895

Cocquyt, C. M., et al. (2016). "Pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in alpacas following administration of an oral or subcutaneous formulation." Res Vet Sci 105: 160-164.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in alpacas after single subcutaneous injection of a non-aqueous formulation or oral administration of an aqueous drench at 0.2 mg∗kg(-1). Plasma moxidectin concentrations were measured with reverse phase HPLC, and data analyzed using non-compartmental methods. Half-life was longer (p=0.02) after subcutaneous administration than oral (292+/-170 vs 33+/-39 h). The area under the concentration-time curve was greater (p=0.04) following subcutaneous administration (1484.8+/-1049.5 h∗ng∗ml(-1)) than oral (157.6+/-85.9 h∗ng∗ml(-1)). The peak concentration (Cmax) was higher and the after subcutaneous administration, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.18). The relative bioavailability of the oral moxidectin to the subcutaneous moxidectin was 11%. The data suggest a higher relative bioavailability following subcutaneous compared to oral administration. Further studies are needed to determine the therapeutic concentrations of moxidectin in alpacas. AN - 27033926

Cole, D. N. and D. R. Spildie (1998). "Hiker, horse and llama trampling effects on native vegetation in Montana, USA." Journal of Environmental Management 53(1): 61-71.

The environmental impact of hiker, horse and llama recreational traffic on vegetation and groundcover conditions was evaluated for areas in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA. Four replicate sets of severn experimental trampling lanes were established in each of two vegetation types (Equisetum (forb dominated) and Vaccinium (shrub dominated) type). Effects by user type (horse, llama, hiker), trampling intensity (25 100 passes) and vegetation type were assessed immediately after traffic application and again 12 months later. Results, measured in terms of relative cover and height of vegetation, indicate that horse traffic causes the most disturbance and that hiker and llama impacts cannot be statistically differentiated. Equisetum type was vulnerable to traffic damage but recovered quickly. Vaccinium type was more resistant but did not recover easily.

Colomer, I., et al. (2016). "A divergent synthetic approach to diverse molecular scaffolds: assessment of lead-likeness using LLAMA, an open-access computational tool." Chem Commun (Camb) 52(45 LA - eng): 7209-7212.

Complementary cyclisation reactions of hex-2-ene-1,6-diamine derivatives were exploited in the synthesis of alternative molecular scaffolds. The value of the synthetic approach was analysed using LLAMA, an open-access computational tool for assessing the lead-likeness and novelty of molecular scaffolds. AN - 27145833

Colque, M. (2005). Digestibilidad aparente en llamas (Lama glama) alimentadas con (Stipa ichu) tratada con úrea y melaza en el C.E.A.C.

The following work was conducted at the Agricultural Experimental Center under the title of : Apparent digestibility in llamas feed with stipa ichu (Peruvian feather grass) treated with urea and molasses, for which 3 assays were performed in reference to the study : 1) percentage of assimilation of the treated and non- treated grass, 2) apparent digestibility of fiber and protein after and before feeding, and 3) determine the adequate levels of urea and molasses for the chemical treatment of the grass (Stipa ichu). For the first assay, the greater consumption was obtained at the level of 3 (3% of urea) reporting a consumption index of 1895.67 gr, the least amount of consumption was found to be 0(0% of urea) reporting a consumption index of 1450.93 gr. The administered food prepared with (grass + urea + molasses) at the different levels of 3%, 2%, and 4%, we had a variability coefficient of 12.56%. The highest index of water consumption was obtain with the 0% untreated grass with a volume of 882.12 ml, and the least was found at level 2 (2%) with a volume of 335.71 ml, with an average of 424.27 ml/day with a variability coefficient of 77.02%. The amount of excreted feces were found to be produced in a greater amount when fed with grass with at 3 (3%) type of treatment with a total of 1059.8 gr, and the least amount of excretions was shown when fed with treatment 4 (4%) with 60.8 gr, with an average of 826.51 gr/day with a variability of 22.35%. For the second assay, we found that the apparent digestibility of fiber at the 3 different levels of treatment, the greater percentage of fiber assimilated by the organism was with those that received food at level 3 (3%) with a 76.78%, and the least with a 0 (0%) in relationship to the other treatments . The greater percentage of protein was obtained at level 4 (4%) with 49.48%, decreasing the protein level 2%, 3%, and 0%, we can say that the difference is due to the different levels of urea found in the treatments. For the third assay, the most consumed was level 3 (3%) of urea with an average of 94.83%, the second one is level 2 (2%) with an average of 85.71%, followed by level 4(4%) with 74.59%. We concluded that 2.6% of urea is acceptable for the supplementation of stipa ichu (Bolivian feather grass) for the feeding of llamas.

Conboy, G. A., et al. (1988). "A natural infection of Fascioloides magna in a llama (Lama glama)." Journal of parasitology 74(2): 345-346.

A young, female L. glama was euthanized following the onset of hindleg paresis and paralysis. Live trematodes, identified as F. magna, were found in the liver. This represents the first report of F. magna in a llama.

Conboy, G. A., et al. (1988). "A Natural Infection of Fascioloides magna in a Llama (Lama glama)." The Journal of Parasitology 74(2): 345-346.

A young, female llama (Lama glama) was euthanized following the onset of hindleg paresis and paralysis. Live trematodes, identified as Fascioloides magna, were identified from the liver of this animal. This represents the first report of F. magna in a llama.

Concha-Albornoz, I. (2010). Anatomy of the osseous external acoustic meatus, middle ear and surrounding soft tissue in llamas (Lama glama). Oregon, Oregon State University.

Anatomy, llama, ear, titis. - Llamas (Lama glama) appear to have predisposing anatomical features for developing otitis media such as a long and narrow external acoustic meatus and a trabecular tympanic bulla. However, there is limited information available about the morphology of the ear in this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osseous structures of external acoustic meatus, tympanic cavity and tympanic bulla using CT, and the soft tissue surrounding the ear using dissections. Ten heads were collected from healthy llamas slaughtered for meat production. Using a CT scanner with slices acquired at 1 mm, measurements of the bony structures of the external and middle ear of each head were obtained. The surrounding soft tissue was examined using dissection, a 6-inch protractor and a digital caliper. The osseous external acoustic meatus was ventrally curved with an obtuse angle facing ventrally. Its narrowest portion was located medially at the level of the tympanic annulus. The conformation of the tympanic bulla was the most different in appearance compared to other domestic animals. It was divided into caudo-lateral and caudo-medial processes, body, apex, and stylohyoid fossa to study its morphometry. The interior of the tympanic bulla had a honeycombed structure with pneumatized cells similar to the human's mastoid process. The nerves, vessels, muscles and tendons had the general distribution of those structures in herbivorous domestic animals. The present study supplied new information about the shape and measurements of the osseous external and middle ear and surrounding soft tissue in adult llamas. This study also supplied specific landmarks of the location of these structures in relationship with each other. Based on our observations and measurements, a new surgical approach to perform a tympanic bulla osteotomy was suggested to treat otitis media in llamas.

Conde, P. A., et al. (2008). "In vitro production of llama (Lama glama) embryos by IVF and ICSI with fresh semen." Animal Reproduction Science 109(1/4): 298-308.

The interest for South American camelids has increased in the last years. The aim of the present research was to compare the in vitro production of Lama glama embryos using two techniques: in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). For IVF technique, we compared the effect of adding or not, heparin, penicillamine and hypotaurine as sperm capacitating agents. In the oocyte group subjected to ICSI, activation with or without, ionomycin and 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) was assessed. Semen samples were obtained by electroejaculation and incubated at 38°C in a 25% (v/v) collagenase solution. The cleavage and embryo development rates were compared between the different experimental groups. Only the number of cleaved oocytes was less when ICSI with no activation was used (p&lt;0.05).

Condorena, N., et al. (1992). "Gestation period in the llama (Lama glama)." Turrialba 42(1): 112-113.

Data on 79 young and 61 adult ♀♀ were analysed. Duration of copulation averaged 17.4±9.5 min for primiparous and 17.8±5.2 min for multiparous ♀♀ and had no significant effect on CR. The average CR was 27.8 and 45.8% for primiparous and multiparous ♀♀ respectively, gestation period 345.03±6.2 and 346.8±8 days, and calf birth weight 9.9±1.25 and 11.76±1.51 kg (P&lt;0.05).

Condori, G., et al. (2001). Study and characterization of meat production in llamas (Lama glama). Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 211-236.

Congress, L. o. (2011). The fabulous Beekman boys. Llama drama.

Conraths, F., et al. (2013). "Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus infection in ruminants in Europe: potential global impact and preventive measures." New Zealand Veterinary Journal 61(2): 63-67.

Conroy, C. (2012). Mama Wants a Llama, AuthorHouse.

Conway, J. O., et al. (2010). "Llama single domain antibodies specific for the 7 botulinum neurotoxin serotypes as heptaplex immunoreagents." PLoS One(No.January): e8818.

Background - There are currently 7 known serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) classified upon non-cross reactivity of neutralizing immunoglobulins. Non-neutralizing immunoglobulins, however, can exhibit cross-reactivities between 2 or more serotypes, particularly mosaic forms, which can hamper the development of highly specific immunoassays, especially if based on polyclonal antisera. Here we employ facile recombinant antibody technology to subtractively select ligands to each of the 7 BoNT serotypes, resulting in populations with very high specificity for their intended serotype. Methods and Findings - A single llama was immunized with a cocktail of 7 BoNT toxoids to generate a phage display library of single domain antibodies (sdAb, VHH or nanobodies) which were selected on live toxins. Resulting sdAb were capable of detecting both toxin and toxin complex with the best combinations able to detect 100s-10s of pg per 50 µL sample in a liquid bead array. The most sensitive sdAb were combined in a heptaplex assay to identify each of the BoNT serotypes in buffer and milk and to a lesser extent in carrot juice, orange juice and cola. Several anti-A(1) sdAb recognized A2 complex, showing that subtype cross-reactivity within a serotype was evident. Many of our sdAb could act as both captor and tracer for several toxin and toxin complexes suggesting sdAb can be used as architectural probes to indicate BoNT oligomerisation. Six of 14 anti-A clones exhibited inhibition of SNAP-25 cleavage in the neuro-2A assay indicating some sdAb had toxin neutralizing capabilities. Many sdAb were also shown to be refoldable after exposure to high temperatures in contrast to polyclonal antisera, as monitored by circular dichroism. Conclusions - Our panel of molecularly flexible antibodies should not only serve as a good starting point for ruggedizing assays and inhibitors, but enable the intricate architectures of BoNT toxins and complexes to be probed more extensively.

Cooney, L. M. (1987). "Sampling Camelidae (genus Llama glama)." Surveillance, New Zealand 14(1): 5-6.

Corapi, W. V., et al. (2015). "Heterobilharzia americana infection and congestive heart failure in a llama (Lama glama)." Veterinary Pathology 52(3): 562-565.

The schistosome Heterobilharzia americana infects several mammalian species in the southeastern United States, including horses, but infections have not been reported in camelids. This is a report of H. americana infection in a 6-year-old llama with extensive cardiac pathology and congestive heart failure. Parasite-induced granulomas were widely disseminated and included overwhelming involvement of the lungs and liver. Microscopic lesions in the heart included myofiber degeneration and necrosis, with extensive replacement fibrosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed the presence of H. americana in the lungs.

Cornick, J. L. (1988). "Gastric squamous cell carcinoma and fascioliasis in a llama." Cornell Veterinarian 78(3): 235-241.

A 5-year-old intact male Llama glama (one of 2 males in a breeding herd of 50 in Texas, USA) presented with weight loss, anorexia and cachexia. Tests showed neutrophilia, lymphopenia, increased serum hepatic enzyme activity, slightly increased serum urea nitrogen concentration and elevated protein- and nucleated cell-concentration in peritoneal fluid. The liver was enlarged and Fasciola hepatica ova were identified in the faeces. Treatment with clorsulon (7 mg/kg bwt per os) failed to alleviate symptoms. At necropsy, a firm white mass 10 cm in diameter was identified in the anterior part of gastric compartment 1. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed histologically. F. hepatica adults were present in low numbers in the bile ducts. The presence of flukes probably contributed to the increased serum hepatic enzyme activity.

Corpas, J. R. n. (1990). Dira\0301n del dan\0303o y de la llama. Murcia, Editora Regional de Murcia.

Correa, J. E., et al. (1997). "Superovulation in llamas (Lama glama) with pFSH and equine chorionic gonadotrophin used individually or in combination." Animal Reproduction Science 46(3/4): 289-296.

16 adult llamas (average weight 130 kg) that had been showing signs of oestrus for 5 days were randomly allocated to 4 groups. Group 1 received 500 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) daily for 3 days, group 2 received a total of 220 mg pig FSH, in decreasing doses every 12 h for 5 days, group 3 received 500 IU eCG once and a total of 156 mg pig FSH in decreasing doses for the next 4 days, and group 4 (controls) received saline every 12 h for 5 days. All llamas were mated on the evening of day 5 and were given 750 IU HCG at that time; a 2nd mating was carried out 12 h later. Ova/embryos were collected 7 days after the 1st mating and the ovarian response was evaluated by laparoscopy. All 16 llamas mated successfully. The mean number of ovulations in group 2 was higher (P&lt;0.05) than in the other groups (7.3±3.1 vs. 1.5±0.5, 2.0±0.7, and 0.3±0.3 for groups 2, 1, 3 and 4 respectively). The number of follicles &gt;10 mm at the time of ova/embryo collection was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) in the groups treated with eCG. A total of 21 ova/embryos were recovered from the llamas, corresponding to 47.7% of corpora lutea observed. 15 ova were fertilized, 2 of which were dead or degenerating.

Correa, J. E., et al. (1992). "Pregnancy in a llama following embryo transfer." Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 24(1): 113-115.

After daily treatment with progesterone for 14 days and injections of FSH at 12-h intervals on days 11-14 of progesterone treatment, 4 embryos were recovered from an adult llama 7 days after mating. Non-surgical transfer of 2 embryos to 2 ♀♀, injected with 1500 IU HCG at the time of mating, resulted in pregnancy in one of the ♀♀.

Correa, J. E., et al. (1994). "Oestrous activity and ovarian response in llamas and alpacas treated with progesterone and gonadotropins." Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 26(1): 59-64.

16 adult alpacas and llamas were treated with 12.5 mg progesterone daily for 12 days, and on day 12 eight ♀♀ were injected with 1500 or 2000 IU PMSG (groups 1 and 2) and seven ♀♀ with a total of 20 mg FSH over days 10-13 (groups 3 and 4). Of PMSG-treated ♀♀, 75% accepted mating vs. 43% of FSH-treated ♀♀ (P&lt;0.01). The interval from the end of progesterone treatment to the onset of sexual receptivity averaged 48±13.8 and 72±33.9 h respectively in the 2 groups, and the duration of sexual receptivity 32±12.4 and 56±27.7 h. The percentage of PMSG-treated ♀♀ ovulating was 0 vs.57.1% for FSH-treated ♀♀ (P&lt;0.0001). Flushing of the 9 mated ♀♀ resulted in the recovery of 4 good-quality blastocysts from 1 of the 4 FSH-treated llamas.

Corrin, K. (1987). "Llama drug trial alarming." Surveillance, New Zealand 14(2): 7-8.

The response of ten male llamas, aged 1-6 years, to a dose of 5 mg/kg quinapyramine sulphate, included fine muscle tremor, excessive salivation and sternal recumbency. Two died after 28 and 60 hours, with generalized peritonitis due to a tear in the duodenal wall, where there was extensive ulceration, as well as some abomasal ulceration.

Corrin, K. and K. Burnett (1989). "Alpacas and llamas [quarantine] at sea." Surveillance, New Zealand 16(2): 21-23.

Costarella, C. E. and D. E. Anderson (1999). "Ileocecocolic intussusception in a one-month-old llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214(11): 1672-1673.

Coster, M. E., et al. (2010). "Coccidioides posadasii keratouveitis in a llama (Lama glama)." Veterinary Ophthalmology 13(1): 53-57.

A 7-year-old male llama was examined for a 3-month history of weight loss, and unilateral keratouveitis. Clinical examination revealed nonulcerative corneal stromal abscessation, corneal vascularization, corneal edema, miosis, posterior synechia, cataract, and fibrin in the anterior chamber of the right eye. The left eye was normal. Histopathology of the right eye following enucleation revealed pyogranulomatous keratouveitis with intralesional fungal spherules consistent with Coccidioides spp. PCR amplification with DNA sequencing confirmed Coccidioides posadasii infection. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of ocular coccidioidomycosis in a llama.

Cotton, T. (2008). Infertility in male and female llamas. Gainesville, The North American Veterinary Conference: 294.

The aetiology and diagnosis of infertility in male and female llamas and the use of drugs and hormones to induce ovulation and luteinization are discussed.

Cristofanelli, S., et al. (2004). "Meat and carcass quality from Peruvian llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos)." Meat science 66(3): 589-593.

An experiment based on 20 llama males and 40 alpaca males reared in Peru has been carried out with the aim to evaluate the live growth performances, carcass quality, the nutritional characteristics of meat from animals slaughtered at 25 months of age, and to determine the physical and chemical parameters of meat obtained from these animals. The live body weights registered during the 25 months of the experiment were significantly lower in alpaca compared with llama. In llama carcasses were significantly higher both warm and cold carcass weight (P&lt;0.001) but dressing percentage was higher in alpacas (P&lt;0.01). The glycolityc fine-course was very similar both in llama and in alpaca muscle Longissimus Thoracis et Lumborum. Chemical composition of muscle Longissimus Thoracis et Lumborum taken from llama and alpaca carcasses was significantly different (P&lt;0.01) in ash content; cholesterol content was significantly higher (P&lt;0.001) in llama meat compared with alpaca.

Cristofanelli, S., et al. (2005). "Carcass characteristics of peruvian llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) reared in the Andean highlands." Small Ruminant Research 58(3): 219-222.

An experiment based on males from 20 llama and 40 alpaca reared in Peru evaluated the carcass characteristics from animals slaughtered at 25 months of age, at a final body weight of 46.1 kg for alpaca and 63.2 kg for llama. Warm carcass weight was significantly higher in llama carcasses compared with alpaca, while dressing percentage was higher in alpacas. In the llama carcasses, leg, thorax and chops were heavier compared with the same cuts taken from the alpaca carcasses (P&lt;0.05). In contrast, the shoulder and neck were proportionately heavier in the alpaca compared with the llama carcasses. Full digestive tract was the heaviest component found in the carcasses. In the llama carcasses, both full digestive tract and digestive content were significantly heavier than in the alpaca carcasses. Significant differences were observed in the proportion of muscle and bone in the shoulder and in the leg of the llama and alpaca carcasses. Llama and alpaca slaughtered at similar age showed different carcass characteristics; considering the results of this study, llama can be more easily bred as animal for meat production.

Cristofanelli, S., et al. (2016). "Meat and carcass quality from Peruvian llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos)." Meat science.

Cruz, A. (2015). "Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas." Anim Reprod Sci 163: 48-55.

One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. AN - 26490188

Cruz, R. S., et al. (2016). "Comparison of differents methods of sperm selection of llama raw semen." Animal Reproduction Science 173: 8-12.

The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of different sperm selection methods applied to the same llama ejaculate. Four treatments were compared: two variants of the swim up technique (with and without seminal plasma), and two different colloids, Androcoll-E-Large and Percoll®. Using electroejaculation, 21 semen samples were obtained from 7 llama males (n=7, r=3). The ejaculates were incubated in a solution of 0.1% collagenase, to decrease thread formation, and then split into 4 aliquots: one aliquot was layered over a column of Androcoll-E-Large (SLC) and the second over a column of Percoll (45%). The third aliquot was deposited in a tube with culture medium and was incubated at a 45° angle for 30 min at 37°C (SU1). The last aliquot was centrifuged to separate the spermatozoa and seminal plasma. The sperm pellet obtained was resuspended, and transferred to a tube with culture medium which was incubated at an angle of 45° for 30 min at 37°C (SU2). Both aliquots SLC and P showed higher proportions of progressive motility and plasma membrane functionality (p≤0.05) than raw semen. There were no significant differences (p&gt;0.05) in sperm viability and in normal spermatozoa between raw semen and treatments. Nevertheless, only SLC did not have a significant increase of bent tails. In conclusion SLC centrifugation would be the method of choice for selecting llama spermatozoa.

Cucchi, M. E. C. n., et al. (2013). "Detection of fiber-digesting bacteria in the forestomach contents of llamas (Lama glama) by PCR." Revista Argentina de microbiologia 45(3): 147-149.

Cueva, S. and H. Sillau (1972). "[Relative weights of the right ventricle of the heart in alpacas and llamas at high altitude and at sea level]." Revista de Investigacioes Pecuarias, Peru 1(No.2): 145-149.

Cui, Y., et al. (2015). "Heavy chain single-domain antibodies to detect native human soluble epoxide hydrolase." Anal Bioanal Chem 407(24): 7275-7283.

The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a potential pharmacological target for treating hypertension, vascular inflammation, pain, cancer, and other diseases. However, there is not a simple, inexpensive, and reliable method to estimate levels of active sEH in tissues. Toward developing such an assay, a polyclonal variable domain of heavy chain antibody (VHH) sandwich immunoassay was developed. Ten VHHs, which are highly selective for native human sEH, were isolated from a phage-displayed library. The ten VHHs have no significant cross-reactivity with human microsomal epoxide hydrolase, rat and mouse sEH, and denatured human sEH. There is a high correlation between protein levels of the sEH determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the catalytic activity of the enzyme in S9 fractions of human tissues (liver, kidney, and lung). The VHH-based ELISA appears to be a new reliable method for monitoring the sEH and may be useful as a diagnostic tool for diseases influenced by sEH. This study also demonstrates the broad utility of VHH in biochemical and pharmacological research. AN - 26229025

Cullen, C. L. and B. H. Grahn (1997). "Congenital glaucoma in a llama (Lama glama)." Veterinary & Comparative Ophthalmology 7(4): 253-257.

Congenital glaucoma was diagnosed in a llama by clinical and histopathologic examination. Bilateral ocular lesions included buphthalmos, corneal striae, corneal endothelial scars, microphakia, anterior lens luxation, incipient cortical cataracts, iridal hypoplasia, and persistent pupillary membranes. The llama also showed bilateral metacarpophalangeal joint laxity but there was no evidence of skeletal or tendon lesions based on radiographic, ultrasonographic and light microscopic findings, respectively. The aetiology of these developmental ocular anomalies and concurrent forelimb fetlock laxity was undetermined.

Cummings, J. F., et al. (1971). "The mucigenous gastric glands in the llama (Lama peruana) and guanaco (Lama guanacoe)." Proceedings 19th World Veterinary Congress, Mexico City 2: 554.

Cummings, J. F., et al. (1972). "The mucigenous glandular mucosa in the complex stomach of two new-world Camelids, the llama and guanaco." Journal of Morphology 137(No.1): 71-110.

A mucigenous glandular mucosa lined the recessed saccules of the first, the deep cells of the second and the initial four-fifths of the elongated third compartment of the stomach. Undifferentiated cells with many free ribosomes and few mucigen granules were seen in the gland isthmus. More fully differentiated mucigenous cells with fewer ribosomes, an extensive Golgi complex and a large heterogeneous population of secretory granules were observed in the subadjacent end-piece. These cells in the foveola contained a more extensive granular reticulum, a prominent Golgi complex, and large numbers of mucigen granules and mitochondria. In the upper foveolar cells, large supranuclear and narrow apical accumulations of mucigen granules were separated by an intervening mitochondrial mass. In the tall surface cells the mucigen granules were few but mitochondria predominated. Effete cells were also seen. The possible functional significance of these findings is discussed.

Curtis, C. F., et al. (2001). "Concurrent sarcoptic and chorioptic acariosis in a British llama (Lama glama)." Veterinary record 149(7): 208-209.

Czibener, C., et al. (2016). "Delta-pgm, a new live-attenuated vaccine against Brucella suis." Vaccine 34(13): 1524-1530.

Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonosis in the world affecting many domestic and wild animals including bovines, goats, pigs and dogs. Each species of the Brucella genus has a particular tropism toward different mammals being the most relevant for human health Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis that infect bovines, goats/camelids and swine respectively. Although for B. abortus and B. melitensis there are vaccines available, there is no efficient vaccine to protect swine from B. suis infection so far. We describe here the construction of a novel vaccine strain that confers excellent protection against B. suis in a mouse model of infection. This strain is a clean deletion of the phosphoglucomutase (pgm) gene that codes for a protein that catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-P to glucose-1-P, which is used as a precursor for the biosynthesis of many polysaccharides. The Delta-pgm strain lacks a complete lipopolysaccharide, is unable to synthesize cyclic beta glucans and is sensitive to several detergents and Polymyxin B. We show that this strain replicates in cultured cells, is completely avirulent in the mouse model of infection but protects against a challenge of the virulent strain inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This novel strain could be an excellent candidate for the control of swine brucellosis, a disease of emerging concern in many parts of the world. AN - 26899373

D Alterio, G., et al. (2006). "Postal survey of the population of South American camelids in the United Kingdom in 2000/01." Veterinary record 158(3): 86.

DÃaz, P., et al. (2016). "Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru." Acta Parasitol 61(1): 74-78.

A total of 350 faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Southern Peru and to identify the risk factors associated to Eimeria infection in young alpacas. Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Sixty four percent of the examined animals shed Eimeria oocysts; herd prevalence was 96%, with an intra-herd prevalence of 60% (range 5.9-100%). Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E. lamae (91%), E. alpacae (87%) and E. punoensis (78%) the most prevalent; E. macusaniensis (35%) and E. ivitaensis (13%) were less common. Mixed-species infections were more frequent (78%) than single infections (22%). E. lamae was the most common monospecific infection and E. lamae/E. alpacae the most frequent association. The geographical area has a significant effect on Eimeria infection rates (74.9% wet Puna vs 37.4% dry Puna) as well as the breeding system (65.1% traditional vs 63.8% modern). In contrast, the sex of the animals (64.6% males vs 64.0% females) showed no influence on the prevalence of infection by Eimeria. The high prevalence found at both individual and herd level and the common presence of highly pathogenic Eimeria species may lead to important economic losses for alpaca breeders and could require the implementation of suitable control measures. AN - 26751874

Dadak, A. M., et al. (2013). "Establishing an efficacious dose rate of monepantel for treating gastrointestinal nematodes in llamas under field conditions." Veterinary record 172(6): 155.

In this study, 46 llamas in Austria that were naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were divided into 3 groups which were treated with 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg body weight monepantel. Faeces were examined before and 2 weeks after treatment for nematode eggs. It was shown that monepantel at 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg had 84, 93 and 100% reduction in shedding of eggs in the faeces, respectively. It is suggested that while the 2.5 mg/kg dosage may be effective for sheep, it may be considered as underdosing in llamas.

Dadak, A. M., et al. (2013). "Efficacy and safety of oral praziquantel against Dicrocoelium dendriticum in llamas." Veterinary Parasitology 197(1/2): 122-125.

Dicrocoelium dendriticum can cause severe pathological changes of the liver and bile system in camelids, and therapeutic options for treatment are limited. To address this problem, the efficacy of two different dose rates of praziquantel was investigated in llamas suffering from natural D. dendriticum infections. 53 llamas were examined under field conditions on two occasions: before and two weeks after treatment. At the beginning of the study, the animals were weighed, randomly allocated to one of the treatment groups (n=21 each) or the control group (n=11) and dosed orally using a praziquantel-containing paste (250 mg/ml) at a dose of either 25 mg (group 1) or 50 mg (group 2) per kg of body weight. Criteria for efficacy were faecal egg count reduction (FECR) and extensity effect. Animals treated with 25 mg/kg of body weight showed a FECR of 85%. Therapy with 50 mg/kg led to a FECR of 91%. Almost twice the number of animals of group 1 (33%) still shed eggs two weeks after treatment compared with group 2. The results of this study indicate that 50 mg/kg oral praziquantel is required for efficacious dosing and that this dose rate is safe in llamas and thus is recommended for the treatment of camelids naturally infected with D. dendriticum.

Danquah, W. and F. Koch-Nolte (2013). Selection and characterization of llama-derived anti-P2X7 single domain antibodies. Hamburg, Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg.

Dargatz, D. A. and L. W. Johnson (1987). "Castrating the llama: a step-by-step guide." Veterinary Medicine 82(6): 625-627.

Dart, A. J., et al. (1996). "Serum α-tocopherol, vitamin A, and blood selenium concentrations, and glutathione peroxidase activity in llamas fed alfalfa hay." American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(5): 689-692.

15 healthy llamas (8 males, 7 females), 10- to 14-months-old, were fed on lucerne hay for 40 days before sample collection and then for the duration of the trial. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 6, 7, 9, 13, 20, 42, 64 and 98. Blood selenium concentrations were measured, using an inductively coupled spectrometric method. Blood glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity was measured with a spectrophotometer. Isocratic HPLC with fluorescent detection was used to determine serum α-tocopherol and vitamin A concentrations. The lucerne hay contained 0.2 mg/kg of selenium, 5 mg/kg of vitamin E and 0.9 mg/kg of vitamin A precursors. The mean blood selenium concentration and GSH-Px activity were 0.179 ± 0.032 µg/ml and 25.76 ± 6.53 mU NADPH oxidized/min/mg of Hb, respectively, with a correlation coefficient of 0.97. The mean concentrations for serum α-tocopherol and vitamin A were 128.1 ± 41.7 and 74.8 ± 5.5 µg/dl, respectively. It was concluded that blood selenium concentrations in llamas are similar to other domestic ruminants and are highly correlated to GSH-Px activity. Diets containing 0.2 mg/kg of selenium appear to provide an adequate dietary source. The concentrations of vitamin A precursors and vitamin E in the hay were below recommended dietary levels for llamas, and lucerne hay appears to provide an unreliable source of vitamins A and E in this species.

Daverio, M. S., et al. (2014). "Genetic diversity of GH1 and LEP genes in Argentine llama (Lama glama) populations." Small Ruminant Research 120(1): 20-26.

Compared to other domestic species, little is known about variability of genes related to energetic metabolism and growth in camelids. Here, we have analyzed leptin (LEP) and growth hormone (GH1) genes and characterized their variability in three local llama (Lama glama) populations from the Argentine Northwest. Eleven novel SNPs and one indel were identified in the Lep gene. In total, eight haplotypes were found for LEP and seven for GH1. Although geographical origin clustering was not observed, SNP and haplotype frequencies varied significantly among populations. Based on variation of both loci, we detected significant genetic differentiation measured through Fst values. Network analysis of LEP gene supported the well-documented history of hybridization in camelids previously identified by mtDNA analysis.

Daverio, M. S., et al. (2016). "Polymorphisms in MC1R and ASIP genes and their association with coat color phenotypes in llamas (Lama glama)." Small Ruminant Research 144: 83-89.

The melanocortin 1-receptor (MC1R) and the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) are the major genes controlling the type and location of pigments produced in mammals. In recent years, polymorphisms in these genes have been associated with coat color variation in a number of species. Llamas (Lama glama) are characterized by a great diversity of coat colors. However, the genetic basis of coat color determination is still unknown. Here, we sequenced the MC1R and ASIP genes in llamas and studied the association between the polymorphisms identified and the coat color. Sequence analysis revealed ten nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MC1R gene. Three main haplotypes were identified, none of which were completely associated to a particular color phenotype. However, significant association was detected between the MC1R*1 haplotype and the presence of pigmented coat (P&lt;0.0001). Compared to the wild allele, MC1R*1 carried two amino acid substitutions, p.G126S and p.V87 M. This last replacement occurs at a highly conserved residue among mammals and the same substitution has been previously associated to melanic phenotypes in avian species. Furthermore, two polymorphisms in ASIP exon 4, a 57 bp deletion (c.325_381del) and c.292C &gt; T that are both predicted to have a deleterious effect on the protein, were found in homozygous state or combined in most llamas with eumelanic coat.

David, M., et al. (1993). "Further studies on foot-and-mouth disease in the llama (Lama glama)." Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 97: 280-285.

Tests for FMD on 460 llamas on 9 farms in Argentina on which cattle or sheep were also present (5 of them having had recent occurrence of FMD) were all negative. When 10 llamas were placed in contact with 6 pigs infected experimentally with aphthovirus of types A, O or C, two llamas in contact with type O virus developed slight lesions and an antibody response. Infected llamas carried the virus in the oesophageal-pharyngeal region only briefly, in contrast to cattle.

Davies, H. (2005). Digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites in llama and alpaca fed barley and barley alfalfa forages.

These projects were conducted to determine the digestibility of forage diets with differing CP levels in llamas and alpacas. The Utah study was designed to compare llama and alpaca nutritional parameters to determine if nutritional recommendations for llamas can be directly extrapolated to alpacas. The first study evaluated the effects of forage quality on blood metabolites and nitrogen balance in mature, intact male llamas (n = 4, 36 l 4.4 months, 87 l 17 kg) at high altitude in Letanias, Bolivia (4,267 m = aprox. 14,000 ft above sea level). A second experiment was conducted with eight adult gelded camelids (n = 8; 4 llamas, 24-36 months, 90 l 10.7 kg; 4 alpacas, 24-36 months, 50 l 4 kg) at Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (altitude 1370 m). Animals were randomly fed barley hay (B) and 80% barley/20% alfalfa hay (BA). A fresh cut grass pasture (P) was included as the third forage for Bolivian llamas. Animals were housed in metabolism crates and diets were fed for a 7 d adjustment period followed by a 5 d collection period. Feed, feed refusal, feces and urine were collected, dried and N content determined by combustion analysis. Venous blood samples were collected on d 12 at 30 min intervals over a 6 h period. Plasma was harvested and analyzed for electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, Ca, Ca++, P, Mg) and metabolites (glucose, non- esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), urea N, creatinine, albumin, total protein (TPP), osmolality (Osm)). Llamas and alpacas demonstrated differences with respect to nitrogen metabolism when consuming forage diets with differing protein concentration. Llamas showed a N maintenance requirement of 0.75 g crude N/ W0.75. Using the standard CP to digestible protein (DP) conversion factor of 0.8, llamas required 0.60 digestible N/W0.75. When consuming the same high protein barley alfalfa diet, llamas had a much greater increase in N retention than alpacas. These species differences indicate that alpacas have a higher N requirement to meet metabolic needs, and extrapolations with respect to nitrogen requirements and balance are not valid between llamas and alpacas. In the Bolivian llama trial, locally grown and harvested hycrested and Siberian wheat grass pasture (P), barley (B), and barley80%/alfalfa20% (BA) hays were fed. The Bolivian llamas were in negative N balance when fed the B and P diets. Dry matter digestibility was greater with the B and BA than P forage, and N digestibility was significantly higher with BA than either the B or P forages. Nitrogen maintenance requirement for Bolivian llamas at 4,267 m was 0.58 compared to 0.75 g crude N/W0.75 for Utah llamas, an increased digestive efficiency and a lower N maintenance requirement at higher altitude.

Davies, H. L., et al. (2007). "Digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (lama pacos) fed barley or barley alfalfa diets." Small Ruminant Research 73(1/3): 1-7.

To determine the effect of barley diets on digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites, mature gelded llamas and alpacas (n=8; 4 llamas, 36±4 months, 90±10.7 kg; 4 alpacas, 24-36 months, 50±4 kg) were randomly fed 100% barley (B) and 20% alfalfa/80% barley (BA) hay. Animals were housed in metabolism crates and diets were fed for a 7 days adjustment period followed by a 5 days collection period. Feed, feed refusal, feces and urine were collected, dried and N content determined by combustion analysis. Blood samples were collected on day 12 at 30 min intervals over a 6 h period. Plasma was harvested and analyzed for electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, Ca, Ca2+, P, Mg), metabolites glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), urea N, creatinine, albumin, total protein (TPP), osmolality (Osm). Plasma glucose, urea N, albumin, osmolality, electrolyte and metabolite levels were similar between species, and were unaffected by diet. On a metabolic weight basis, only diet was significant for N intake, urinary and fecal N, and total N excreted. Dry matter intake was not significantly different; however, BA consumption was greater than B, (B) 1272 g N/day and (BA) 1636 g N/day for llamas, and for alpacas (B) 835 g N/day and (BA) 1034 g N/day, respectively. Nitrogen intake followed the same pattern, (B) 21.4 g N/day and (BA) 33.9 g N/day, respectively for llamas, and (B) 13.6 g N/day and (BA) 20.6 g N/day, respectively for alpacas (diet, P&lt;0.002). Diet affects were significant for urine N excretion (P&lt;0.02), (B) 11.2 g/day and (BA) 18.2 g/day for llamas, and (B) 6.8 and (BA) 10.8 g N/day for alpacas. Fecal N excretion was different for diet (P&lt;0.03), with fecal excreted N of 9.0 g N/day and 11.9 g N/day for B and BA in llamas, and 5.9 g N/day and 9.1 g N/day for B and BA respectively in for alpacas, respectively. Nitrogen retention, DM digestibility and N digestibility were unaffected by diet or species. However, the llamas in this study displayed an increase in nitrogen intake of 64.6% between the B and BA diets with a 381% increase in N retention. Alpacas increased their N intake by 57.4% when they consumed the BA forage, which only increased N retention by 22.2%. These species differences indicate that alpacas have a lower N requirement to meet metabolic needs than llamas, which are likely related to the smaller body size of the alpaca. When examining the biological value of N from the respective diets, alpacas and llamas had a value of 56.2% when consuming barley. The BA diet had a higher biological value of 65.0% in llamas compared to 57.4% in alpacas. Therefore, on the basis of this study, extrapolations between llamas and alpacas with respect to nitrogen requirement and balance are not valid.

Davis, I. A., et al. (1996). "Intravenous catheterization of the external jugular vein in llamas." Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 18(3): 330-335.

Davis, W. C., et al. (2000). "Flow cytometric analysis of an immunodeficiency disorder affecting juvenile llamas." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 74(1/2): 103-120.

A study was undertaken to characterize the immune system of llamas and alpacas and establish the basis for an immunodeficiency disorder affecting juvenile llamas. Flow cytometric analysis of the immune system with a panel of monoclonal antibodies revealed the immune system of llamas and alpacas is similar in leukocyte subset composition to that in ruminants. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells in adults are comprised of surface immunoglobulin (sIg+) B-cells (31%±8 s.d.; n=16), αβ T-cells (27%±12), WC1+ γδ T-cells (16%±11), and 5-16% monocytes. In contrast to cattle, goats and sheep, however, the frequency of WC1+ γδ T-cells is not high in juveniles but similar to the frequency in adults. Also, sIg+ B-cells are present in high concentration in juveniles (43%±11; n=13). Expression of major histocompatibility class II molecules on resting T-cells was low or absent. Comparative analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte composition in normal juvenile llamas and llamas presenting with the signs of the juvenile llama immunodeficiency syndrome (JLIDS) revealed the concentration of B-cells is extremely low (1-5%) in affected animals. It is suggested that JLIDS is attributable to an autosomal recessive genetic defect in the development of B-cells.

De Souza, E., et al. (2015). "Mapping of somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem." Microsc Res Tech 78(5): 363-374.

Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibers containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca brainstem. Immunoreactive fibers were widely distributed throughout the whole brainstem: 34 brainstem nuclei/regions showed a high or a moderate density of these fibers. Perikarya containing the peptide were widely distributed throughout the mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata. Cell bodies containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) were observed in the lateral and medial divisions of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, reticular formation (mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata), inferior colliculus, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, pericentral division of the dorsal tegmental nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, vestibular nucleus, motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus praepositus hypoglossi, and in the substantia nigra. This widespread distribution indicates that somatostatin-28 (1-12) is involved in multiple physiological actions in the alpaca brainstem. AN - 25754727

Dean, G. S., et al. (2009). "Use of serological techniques for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a llama herd." Veterinary record 165(11): 323-324.

Two serological assays, VetTB STAT-PAK (rapid test [RT]) and multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), were used in a llama herd affected with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis infection. 14 of 15 animals with grossly visible lesions of TB at postmortem examination that had been blood sampled antemortem were included in this study. 13 animals were positive by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, and 12 yielded M. bovis by culture. 14 animals were positive by MAPIA, and 11 of them were positive by RT. Two of the RT-positive animals showed a positive response only when the blood samples were taken 3 weeks after a skin test. Only 2 of the 14 llamas showed positive results to the comparative post-axillary tuberculin skin test. Differences in the antigen responses and strength of responses were observed between the animals. MPB83 was the serodominant antigen, with all animals responding to either the individual antigen or the Acr1/MPB83 fusion protein. MAPIA yielded more positive results than the other antemortem tests. However, it was not shown to be statistically more sensitive than RT. It was concluded that both RT and MAPIA had potential value as in vitro tests for TB in South American camelids. The limitation of skin testing for detecting diseased animals in this herd of llamas was shown.

Deavel, C. C. (1982). Feeding the llamas and the world's smallest pony.

Deforges, L., et al. (2004). "First isolation of Mycobacterium microti (Llama-type) from a dog." Veterinary microbiology 103(3/4): 249-253.

We report the first isolation of Mycobacterium microti from a dog with lesions of acute peritonitis. The isolate was demonstrated to be M. microti of Llama-Type by spoligotyping. Epidemiological implications of the isolation of this possibly zoonotic agent from a dog are discussed.

DeHart, M. (1999). Bilateral cataracts in a three month old llama.

Delgado Callisaya, P. Ã. n. (2002). Biochemical components of llama seminal plasma at three ages.

The present research project work was done at the Rural Academic Unit in Tiahuanaco of the UCB, located in the community of Achaca, third municipal section in the Ingavi province department of La Paz. It is 57 km. from the International freeway at 68 degrees 42"28' South and 16 degrees 35"41' West at an altitude of 3,856 meters above sea level. The study was conducted from October 2000 to September 2001. The study consisted of determining biochemical component concentrations in llama semial plasma for three ages: glucose, inorganic phosphorus, creatinine, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Twelve male llamas were selected and taken from the Choquecota zone in the province of Carangas in the department of Oruro. The llamas were 3, 4 and 5 years old (four animals per age). They were trained for semen collection for two months with an artificial group designed for this effort. Of these, the six that responded the best were used for research. Eight collections have been obtained from each animal, which were submitted to the lab for analysis. the results were analyzed under the Jerárquico factorial design that included a mixed analysis (nested and crossed) of the age factors and collections (the measurements were analyzed that corresponded to the weekly collection). Each weekly average of collection for each age constituted one experimental unit, thus there were four experimental units per age. The statistical packet, version 6.12 S.A.S. was used for statistical analysis.

Delgado Santivanez, D. J. (2003). Perspectivas de la produccion de fibra de llama en Bolivia : potencial y desarrollo de estrategias para mejorar la calidad de la fibra y su aptitud para la comercializacion. Gottingen, Cuvillier.

Delgado Santivañez, J., et al. (2001). Fibre quality of a Bolivian meat-oriented llama population. Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 101-109.

The effects of fleece-type, age and coat colour on main fibre traits and the relationship between these traits in a sub-population of llamas from the experimental farm 'Condoriri' of the Technical University of Oruro (Bolivia), primarily used as meat producers, were studied. Average diameter and diameter of fine fibres were 27.2µm and 22.3µm respectively and the incidence of fine and medullated fibres were 75.7% and 47.9% respectively. With increasing age of the animal the average diameter of fibres, of fine fibres and the incidence of the medullated fibres (p&lt;0,01) increased. The fleece type did not influence fibre quality to a great extent. The Th'ampulli type had lower means of diameter of fine fibres (p&lt;0,05) and a lower incidence of medullated fibres (p&lt;0,01). The average diameter and the incidence of the fine fibres did not differ significantly (p&gt;0,05) between the types. Differences owing to the coat colour were found on diameter of medullated fibres and the incidence of medullated fibres and kemps (p&lt;0,001). Coloured fleeces appeared to be more medullated and displayed lower means of diameter of medullated fibres than white fleeces. However, these findings are supposed to be caused by a methodological bias of OFDA-measurements on dark fibres. The average diameter was highly correlated with diameter and incidence of fine fibres (r=0,90 and r=-0,93). The intensity of selection for meat, which seems to oppose an improvement of the fibre traits, might have negatively influenced the fibre quality. Further investigations are being carried out on non-meat-oriented llama populations. The present study provides a reference for these investigations on the fibre-oriented llama population. Furthermore, methodological aspects of fibre analysis and statistical evaluation of fibre traits are presented and compared to procedures described in the literature.

Delhon, G. and I. v. Lawzewitsch (1994). "Ductus epididymidis compartments and morphology of epididymal spermatozoa in llamas." Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 23(3): 217-225.

In this work, an attempt was made to assess possible regional specializations in the llama ductus epididymidis. According to histological and histochemical criteria, 6 segments (I-VI) were identified. Segment I was a short region where ductuli efferentes joined the ductus epididymidis. Segments II and III showed maximal epithelial height and mitotic activity, respectively, and weak LDH activity. Epithelial cells in segment IV contained PAS-positive, amylase and neuraminidase-resistant secretory granules. Segment V showed strong acid phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. Segment VI was characterized by moderate acid phosphatase and high lactate dehydrogenase activities, respectively, and by maximal spermatozoa density. Scanning electron microscopy of epidydimal spermatozoa revealed that cytoplasmic droplet translocation was accomplished at the distal part of the corpus epididymidis. Bent middle pieces characterized spermatozoa during droplet translocation.

Delhon, G. A. and I. v. Lawzewitsch (1987). "Reproduction in the male llama (Lama glama), a South American camelid. I. Spermatogenesis and organization of the intertubular space of the mature testis." Acta Anatomica 129(1): 59-66.

Based on the shape and distribution of the germ-cell nuclei, the location of the spermatids, the presence of meiotic figures and the release of spermatozoa from the tubular wall, the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium of the llama was divided into 8 stages. The cell populations representing each stage are described. The percentage frequencies of cells representing stages 1-8 were 9.86, 12.46, 17.65, 14.12, 5.81, 8.09, 13.04 and 18.89 resp. In the seminiferous epithelium, spermatogonia of types A and B are present, and 12 spermiogenic steps can be recognised. During the breeding season, Leydig cells contain lipid droplets in their cytoplasm and show a marked immunoreactive testosterone reaction.

Dell, A. (1926). Llama Land : East and West of the Andes in Peru. [S.l.], Geoffrey Bles.

Deluca, T. H., et al. (1998). "Influence of llamas, horses, and hikers on soil erosion from established recreation trails in western Montana, USA." Environmental Management 22(2): 255-262.

Various types of recreational cause different levels of trail degradation; however, trail head restrictions are applied similarly across all types of pack stock. The relative physical impact of hikers, llamas, and horses on recreational trails was assessed. Horse, llama, and hiker traffic were applied to 56 separate plots on an existing trail in western Montana, USA. The traffic was applied to plots at intensities of 250 and 1000 passes along with a no-traffic control under both pre-wetted and dry trail conditions. Soil erosion potential was assessed by sediment yield and runoff, changes in soil bulk density, and changes in soil surface roughness. Soil moisture, slope, and rainfall intensity were recorded as independent variables in order to evaluate the extent that they were held constant by the experimental design. Horse traffic consistently made more sediment available for erosion from trails than llama, hiker, or no traffic when analysed across wet and dry trail plots and high and low intensity traffic plots. Although total runoff was not significantly affected by trail user, wet trail traffic caused significantly greater runoff than dry trail traffic. Llama traffic caused a significant increase in sediment yield compared to the control, but caused erosion yields not significantly different than hiker traffic. Trail traffic did not increase soil compaction on wet trails. Traffic applied to dry trail plots generally resulted in a significant decrease in soil bulk density compared to the control. Decreased soil bulk density was negatively correlated with increased sediment yield and appeared to result in increased trail roughness for horse traffic compared to hiker or llama traffic.

DeRubertis, B. and R. W. Alley (2011). Lana Llama's little lamb. New York, Kane Press.

Lana Llama loves Lucky Lamb, and finally comes up with a way to protect him from the sly and sneaky wolf that lives down the lane.

Dewdney, A. (2013). Llama Llama and the Bully Goat, Penguin Young Readers Group.

Dewdney, A. (2014). Llama Llama Jingle Bells, Penguin Young Readers Group.

Dewdney, A. M. a. (2012). Llama llama red pyjama. London, Hodder Children's.

Dewdney, A. M. a. (2013). Llama llama shopping drama. London, Hodder Children's Books.

Didier, G., et al. (1994). "Diet Selection and Utilization by Llama and Sheep in a High Altitude-Arid Rangeland of Bolivia." Journal of Range Management 47(3): 245-248.

Botanical composition of llamas and sheep diets were quantified monthly during 1 year in the arid highlands of Bolivia to identify competition between these species for forage resources. Results indicated higher proportions of coarse bunchgrasses in llamas diets (48 to 75%) than in sheep (37 to 68%), while sheep consumed more soft herbs and grasses than llamas (25 to 45%, and 8 to 25%, respectively). Llamas had higher (P<0.05) digestion coefficients than sheep for organic matter, dry matter, crude protein, and fiber fractions of the principle bunchgrass paja brava (Festuca orthophylla) during the vegetative phenological stage. Shrubs represented less than 20% of the diet components in both llamas and sheep. A canonical discriminant analysis showed that there was not a strong dietary overlap between these species, and suggested that mixed herds could allow a better utilization of the overall available forage.

Director, A., et al. (2007). "Electroejaculation in llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 14(2): 203-206.

It has become necessary to implement different semen collection techniques for those males of domestic or wild South American Camelids that do not respond to collection with an artificial vagina, to be able to evaluate the reproductive aptitude in these species. The objective of this study was to repeatedly obtain complete, good quality ejaculates from Lama glama using electroejaculation. Semen was collected from 11 males using electroejaculation which was carried out under general anaesthesia, with the voltage being increased 0.2 V starting at 2 V and ending at 10 V. Each ejaculate was evaluated macroscopically (volume and colour) and microscopically: individual sperm motility, sperm concentration, sperm membrane function, live sperm and sperm morphology. Semen was collected from 100% of the males. A total of 106 semen collections were carried out, obtaining 96 complete good quality ejaculates (ejaculates with sperm and not contaminated with urine). Seminal characteristics were the following (mean ± standard deviation): volume (ml) 2.91±1.33; sperm concentration (106 spermatozoa/ml) 39.43±33.58; total sperm motility (%) 28.1±25.42; live sperm (%) 59.70±16.11; sperm with functional membranes (%) 35.78±14.1; normal spermatozoa (%) 61.95±19.71. In conclusion, our results indicated that it is possible to obtain complete, good quality ejaculates in llamas using electroejaculation as the semen collection method.

Dittmann, M. T., et al. (2015). "Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters." J Comp Physiol B 185(5): 559-573 ST - Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles. AN - 25921796

Dobbs, M. C. (2002). "Bilateral patella ligament rupture in a llama." Veterinary record 151(4): 128.

Dohner, J. V. (2007). Livestock guardians: using dogs, donkeys and llamas to protect your herd. North Adams, Storey Publishing.

This book is a complete guide to working with guardian animals with emphasis on how to select the right breed for your needs, establish deep bonds between guardian and livestock, and on the correct training of the guardian animal to carry out his duties reliably and effectively. This practical advice will help livestock owners to successfully integrate a guard animal into the farm for years of inexpensive, nonlethal safety and security. Topics include: the problem of predation, methods of predation control, livestock guard dogs, selecting and training your dog, taking care of your dog, livestock guard dog breeds, livestock guard llamas, taking care of your llama, livestock guard donkeys, and taking care of your donkey.

Donaldson, L. L., et al. (1992). "Atracurium as an adjunct to halothane-oxygen anesthesia in a llama undergoing intraocular surgery: a case report." Veterinary Surgery 21(1): 76-79.

Atracurium (0.2 mg/kg i.v.) was administered to a llama anaesthetized with halothane in oxygen, to ensure immobilization of the globe during intraocular surgery. Recovery of neuromuscular function was facilitated by administration of edrophonium (0.5 mg/kg i.v.).

Dorresteijn, B., et al. (2015). "Camelid heavy chain only antibody fragment domain against β-site of amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 inhibits β-secretase activity in vitro and in vivo." FEBS J 282(18): 3618-3631 ST - Camelid heavy chain only antibody fragment domain against Î361²-site of amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 3611 inhibits Î361²-secretase activity in vitro and in vivo.

Accumulation and aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is generated from the amyloid precursor protein by the successive action of two membrane-associated processing enzymes: β-secretase or β-site of amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase. Inhibition of one or both of these enzymes prevents Aβ generation and the accompanying Aβ accumulation. Antigen binding fragments from camelid heavy chain only antibodies (VHHs) were found to exert excellent enzyme inhibition activity. In the present study, we generated VHHs against BACE1 by active immunization of Lama glama with the recombinant BACE1 protein. Two classes of VHHs were selected from a VHH-phage display library by competitive elution with a peptide encoding the Swedish mutation variant of the BACE1 processing site. One VHH was found to inhibit the enzyme activity of BACE1 in vitro and in cell culture, whereas two other VHHs were found to stimulate BACE1 activity under the same conditions in vitro. Furthermore, an in vivo study with a transgenic AD mouse model, using intracisternal injection of the inhibitory VHH, led to acute reduction of the Aβ load in the blood and brain. This inhibitory VHH may be considered as a candidate molecule for a therapy directed towards reduction of Aβ load and prevention of AD progression. Both the inhibitory and stimulatory VHH may be useful for improving our understanding of the structure-function relationship of BACE1, as well as its role in AD progression.|The GenBank sequence accession numbers are KR363186 for VHH B1a; KR363187 for VHH B3a; and KR363188 for VHH B5a. AN - 26147692

Dowling, P. M., et al. (1996). "Pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in llamas." Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 19(2): 161-163.

Dreja, H., et al. (2015). "CD4 binding site broadly neutralizing antibody selection of HIV-1 escape mutants." J Gen Virol 96(Pt 7): 1899-1905 ST - CD1894 binding site broadly neutralizing antibody selection of HIV-1891 escape mutants.

All human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) viruses use CD4 to enter cells. Consequently, the viral envelope CD4-binding site (CD4bs) is relatively conserved, making it a logical neutralizing antibody target. It is important to understand how CD4-binding site variation allows for escape from neutralizing antibodies. Alanine scanning mutagenesis identifies residues in antigenic sites, whereas escape mutant selection identifies viable mutants. We selected HIV-1 to escape CD4bs neutralizing mAbs b12, A12 and HJ16. Viruses that escape from A12 and b12 remained susceptible to HJ16, VRC01 and J3, whilst six different viruses that escape HJ16 remained sensitive to A12, b12 and J3. In contrast, their sensitivity to VRC01 was variable. Triple HJ16/A12/b12-resistant virus proved that HIV-1 could escape multiple broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, but still retain sensitivity to VRC01 and the llama-derived J3 nanobody. This antigenic variability may reflect that occurring in circulating viruses, so studies like this can predict immunologically relevant antigenic forms of the CD4bs for inclusion in HIV-1 vaccines. AN - 25762593

Drew, M. L., et al. (1995). "Pregnancy determination by use of pregnancy-specific protein B radioimmunoassay in llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 207(2): 217-219.

Blood samples were obtained by jugular venipuncture from 30 llamas: 22 females that had been exposed to a male and were assumed to be pregnant (gestational stage, 2 to 244 days), 1 female that had not been exposed to a male, 3 sexually intact males, 1 castrated male, and 3 females with congenital reproductive anomalies. Serum was tested for the presence of pregnancy-specific protein B, using a radioimmunoassay that accurately detected pregnancy in cattle, sheep, and other ruminants. Pregnancy-specific protein B was not detected in any of the samples. It is concluded that the radioimmunoassay for pregnancy-specific protein B cannot be used in llamas for detection of pregnancy.

Drew, M. L. and M. E. Fowler (1995). "Comparison of methods for measuring serum immunoglobulin concentrations in neonatal llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 206(9): 1374-1380.

Blood samples were collected from 25 newborn llamas before suckling and at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours of age. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were evaluated using 9 different tests. The single radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay, the only quantitative test, was the most accurate. Measurement of globulin and total serum protein, and the sodium sulfite precipitation test were accurate when compared with RID assay results. Measurements of total serum solids, albumin concentration, and the zinc sulfate turbidity and 10% glutaraldehyde coagulation tests were not reliable. Ten of 25 newborn llamas were suspected of having partial to complete failure of passive immunoglobulin transfer on the basis of results of the single RID assay. The other tests identified between 4 and 7 of these 10 llamas at 24 hours of age. On follow-up communication 4 to 6 months after the last-blood sample collection, none of the 25 llamas had been clinically ill or had received any treatments for illness associated with low immunoglobulin concentrations.

Drew, M. L., et al. (2004). "Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur in llamas and alpacas." Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 27(1): 13-20.

Pharmacokinetic studies of antibiotics in South American camelids are uncommon, therefore drugs are often administered to llamas and alpacas based on dosages established in other domestic species. The disposition of ceftiofur sodium was studied in llamas following intramuscular administration and in alpacas following intravenous and intramuscular administration. Eleven adult llamas were given ceftiofur sodium by intramuscular injection. Each animal received either a standard dose of 2.2 mg/kg or an allometrically scaled dose ranging from 2.62 to 2.99 mg/kg in a crossover design. Ten adult alpacas were given ceftiofur sodium by intravenous and intramuscular injections. Each animal received a standard dosage of 1 mg/kg or an allometrically scaled dose ranging from 1.27 to 1.44 mg/kg i.v., and 1.31-1.51 mg/kg i.m. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h after administration of the ceftiofur. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftiofur in llamas and alpacas were similar following i.m. dosing at both dose levels. The only differences noted were in the total AUC between dose levels, but the AUC/dose values were not different. A sequence effect was noted in the alpaca data, which resulted in lower AUCs for the second dose when the i.v. dose was given first, and with higher AUCs for the second dose when the i.m. dose was given first. Overall, ceftiofur pharmacokinetics in llamas and alpacas are similar, and also very similar to reported parameters for sheep and goats.

Drew, M. L., et al. (1999). "Presumptive Sry-negative XX sex reversal in a llama with multiple congenital anomalies." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215(8): 1134-1139.

Drew, M. L., et al. (1992). "Effect of flunixin meglumine and cimetidine hydrochloride on the pH in the third compartment of the stomach of llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 201(10): 1559-1563.

A gastric fistula was surgically implanted in the third compartment of the stomach of 5 llamas to allow measurement of gastric pH. Llamas were given either flunixin meglumine (q 24 h) or cimetidine hydrochloride (q 12 h) in a crossover design. Gastric pH was measured every 30 mins for 6 h. Prior to drug administration, mean gastric pH was 1.43. Flunixin did not significantly decrease gastric pH, but gastric pH was significantly higher for the first 30 min after administration of cimetidine. It was concluded that the use of flunixin does not lower gastric pH and, therefore, is not clearly implicated in causing gastric ulcers in llamas. The usefulness of cimetidine for treatment of gastric ulcers is limited by its short duration of action.

Drufke, N. K. (2000). The use of llamas to protect goats, cattle, and poultry from canid predators.

Previous research has shown that llamas can be very effective as guard animals for protecting sheep from predators. In this study, we interviewed 136 ranchers who were using 237 llamas to protect goats, cattle, and poultry in order to determine if llamas were effective guards and what management practices were used in successful and unsuccessful cases. Llamas decreased the amount of yearly predation from 13% to 1% of the herd on goat ranches, 13% to 0% on cattle ranches, and 40% to 6% on poultry ranches. In 78% of cases, predation on a ranch dropped to zero after introduction of the llama. The use of guard llamas resulted in an average annual savings per ranch of $848 for goat owners, $2,509 for cattle owners, and $1,167 for poultry owners. Fifty-four percent of llamas were seen protecting the livestock from predators. Common behaviors included standing at attention, running towards the predator, chasing the predator, and alarm calling. Ranchers rated their llamas as either effective or very effective as guards in 89% (goats), 92% (poultry), and 100% (cattle) of the cases. The average guard llama was a 5 year old gelded male costing $532 with an additional expense of $135 per year to maintain. Llamas were accepted by livestock in 10 days or less 89% of the time, and livestock were accepted by llamas in 10 days or less 86% of the time. Although we were not able to determine which llama characteristics, if any, were correlated with guarding success, respondents listed alertness, good disposition, and aggressiveness to predators as characteristics to look for when choosing a guard llama. Llamas were an effective, low-cost, low-maintenance, non-lethal method to reduce predation on goat, cattle, and poultry ranches.

Dubey, J. P., et al. (2014). "Toxoplasma gondii infection in Llama (Llama glama): acute visceral disseminated lesions, diagnosis, and development of tissue cysts." Journal of parasitology 100(3): 288-294.

Clinical toxoplasmosis has been reported in many species of warm-blooded animals but is rare in camelids. Here we report acute fatal systemic toxoplasmosis involving heart, thyroid gland, stomach, intestine, diaphragm, kidneys, adrenal glands, and liver of a 13-mo-old llama (Llama glama). Many Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were associated with tissue necrosis in multiple organs. Death was attributed to severe myocarditis. Ulcers associated with numerous tachyzoites were present in the C3 compartment of the stomach. Tissue cyst development was followed using bradyzoite-specific T. gondii antibodies. Individual intracellular, and groups of 2 or more, bradyzoites were identified in hepatocytes, biliary epithelium, myocardiocytes, lung, diaphragm, thyroid gland, spleen, and stomach. Lesions in the brain were a few microglial nodules and very early tissue cysts containing 1-3 bradyzoites. These observations suggest that the animal had acquired toxoplasmosis recently. Diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically by reaction with T. gondii-specific polyclonal rabbit serum but not with antibodies to the related protozoan Neospora caninum. Genetic typing using the DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded myocardium of llama and 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers revealed a type II allele at the SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, PK1 L358, and Apico loci; therefore, this isolate belongs to the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1, which is most common in North America and Europe.

Dubey, J. P., et al. (2016). "Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Llama (Llama glama): Acute Visceral Disseminated Lesions, Diagnosis, and Development of Tissue Cysts." Journal of parasitology.

Dubey, J. P., et al. (1992). "Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in llamas (Lama glama) in the northwest USA." Veterinary Parasitology 44(3/4): 295-298.

Serum samples from 283 llamas from Oregon, Washington State and Idaho, USA, were tested for antibodies to T. gondii using the modified agglutination test. Antibodies were found in 95 (33.5%) llamas. Percent seropositivity in serum dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, 1:500, and 1:5000 was 9.5%, 18.3%, 4.9% and 0.7%, respectively.

DuBois, W. R., et al. (2004). "A comparison of two intramuscular doses of xylazine-ketamine combination and tolazoline reversal in llamas." Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 31(2): 90-96.

Objective: To evaluate the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of two doses of intramuscular xylazine/ketamine in llamas, and to determine if an intramuscular injection of tolazoline would shorten the anesthesia recovery time. Study design: Prospective randomized study. Animals: Six castrated male llamas. Methods: Each llama received a low dose (LD) (0.4 mg kg-1 xylazine and 4 mg kg-1 ketamine) and high dose (HD) (0.8 mg kg-1 xylazine and 8 mg kg-1 ketamine). Time to sedation, duration of lateral recumbency and analgesia, pulse, respiratory rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, arterial blood pressure, blood gases, and the electrocardiogram were monitored and recorded during anesthesia. Three llamas in each treatment were randomized to receive intramuscular tolazoline (2 mg kg-1) after 30 minutes of lateral recumbency. Results: Onset of sedation, lateral recumbency, and analgesia was rapid with both treatments. The HD was able to provide at least 30 minutes of anesthesia in all six llamas. The LD provided only 30 minutes of anesthesia in two out of six llamas. Respiratory depression and hypoxemia were seen in the HD treatment during the first 10 minutes of lateral recumbency. Two llamas were severely hypoxemic during this period and were given nasal oxygen for five minutes. Heart rate decreased, but there were no significant changes in blood pressure. Tolazoline significantly shortened the duration of recumbency in the HD treatment. Conclusions: The HD provided more consistent clinical effects in llamas than did the LD. Intramuscular tolazoline shortens the duration of lateral recumbency in llamas anesthetized with this combination. Clinical relevance: Both doses appear to be very effective in providing restraint in llamas. The LD may be used for procedures requiring a short period of anesthesia or restraint. The HD could be used when a longer duration of anesthesia is desired. Supplemental oxygen should be available if using the HD. Tolazoline (IM) shortened the recovery time with this combination in llamas.

Duckett, L. A. (2005). A case of megaesophagus in a llama.

Megaesophagus was diagnosed in a llama. This llama presented with a chief complaint of chronic choke. His megaesophagus was diagnosed via history, clinical signs, imaging, and endoscopy. An attempt to find a distinct etiology was made, exploring a variety of differential diagnoses extrapolated from other species. The conclusion was that of an idiopathic etiology. Further research of megaesophagus in the camelid species is needed to discover the most common causes of the disorder in this species.

Duff, J. P., et al. (1999). "Chronic and fatal fascioliasis in llamas in the UK." Veterinary record 145(11): 315-316.

28 llamas were kept on a Cumbrian fell farm where they shared poorly drained pasture with cattle and sheep. A dead llama from the farm was presented at the Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Penrish centre on 10 November 1997. The home-bred 5-year old was in a poor condition and PM examination revealed a widespread hepatic fibrosis with hundreds of Fasciola hepatica present in the gall bladder. Histopathology of the liver showed extensive fibrosis, multiplication of the bile ductules and and large number soft fluke eggs in injured bile ducts. Flotation of faeces on zinc sulfate showed hundreds of typical fluke eggs. Approximately 30 Dictyocaulus filaria were found in the bronchi. Moderate infection with Bovicola (Damalinia) breviceps was not associated with gross dermatitis. The fluke infection was determined to be the likely cause of death. Other llamas on the farm were in poor condition and several females had poor crias at foot. Faecal samples from these llamas had a mean fluke egg count of 7 eggs/g. Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities in the llamas were elevated and serum albumin was at the low end of normal. Copper concentrations were normal. Fluke eggs were found in cattle faeces on the farm; sheep faeces were not examined. Neither group showed signs of fascioliasis. Llamas were orally dosed with a triclabendazole (Fasinex 10% solution) using a disposable syringe and a minimum of 2 people to restrain the animal and administer the dose. Combined with further management factors (preventing grazing of the wettest pastures in autumn, dosing cattle and sheep), the programme was expected to reduce infection. Eradication was considered impractical.

Duga, L. (1986). The most important characters of fibres from South American Camelidae (llamas and alpacas and their crosses and guanacos). Montevideo, Editorial Hemisfero Sur: 215-217.

In 1977, in Argentina, there were approx. 13 000 vicuñas, 550 000 guanacos, 110 000 llamas and 50 alpacas. Yields of fibre averaged 0.5, 2.5-3.7 and 3.0-5.0 kg per year for guanacos, llamas and alpacas resp., and 0.25 kg every 2 yr for vicuñas. Data are tabulated for the percentage of clean fibres, fibre length and diameter, and percentage of medullated fibres for llamas and aplacas of various types and crosses, and for guanacos.

Duke, T., et al. (1997). "Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol infusion in llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 58(2): 153-156.

After anaesthesia induction with propofol (2 mg/kg of body weight, i.v.), 5 llamas (mean body weight, 135±17.7 kg) received propofol infusion, either 0.2 mg/kg/min (group 1) or 0.4 mg/kg/min (group 2) for 60 min. Measurements, taken before anaesthesia induction and at regular intervals during infusion were: direct blood pressures, heart and respiratory rates, cardiac output and arterial blood gas tensions. Systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, cardiac and stroke indices, and plasma bicarbonate and base excess concentrations were calculated. At 3 to 60 min after either dosage of propofol, PaCO2 and heart rate increased in all llamas; at the same time, PaO2 and arterial pH decreased. Mean pulmonary artery and central venous pressures, and stroke index decreased at 3 to 60 min after either dosage of propofol. Mean arterial pressure decreased at 30 to 60 min after infusion of 0.4 mg of propofol/kg/min; pulmonary arterial wedge pressure decreased at 20 to 40 min and 3 to 60 min after infusion of 0.2 and 0.4 mg of propofol/kg/min, respectively. Mean time from termination of infusion to sternal recumbency was 7 (group 1) and 13 (group 2) min. Standing was achieved in a mean of 11 (group 1) and 22 (group 2) min. It is concluded that a propofol infusion rate of 0.2 mg/kg/min is too low to maintain a suitable depth of anaesthesia, but 0.4 mg/kg/min is sufficient for non-invasive procedures with minimum cardiopulmonary depression.

Dulphy, J. P., et al. (1997). "Comparison of intake behaviour of llamas and sheep fed dry roughage." Annales de Zootechnie 46(2): 117-125.

Feeding and ruminating activities of 4 llamas and 4 sheep were compared for 4 roughages, 3 hays (fed without concentrate) and one straw (fed with concentrate). For the 4 roughages voluntary DM intake was 13.5 g/kg liveweight (LW) for llamas and 15.8 g/kg for sheep, respectively (P&lt;0.05), but 43.5 and 45.4 g DM/kg0.75, respectively (P&lt;0.05). Time for ingestion was, on average, 335 min/day for llamas and 287 min/day for sheep, respectively (P&lt;0.05) and time for rumination 437 vs. 559 min/day, respectively (P&lt;0.05). After correction for LW the efficiency of chewing was comparable for the 2 species: 1.78 g DM min-1 100 kg-1 LW. Llamas hardly ruminate during the day. The time spent for eating is a little higher for llamas than for sheep. During the night, and particularly during the second part of the night, llamas spent more time ruminating than sheep. On average rumination was delayed by 3.2 h for llamas compared with sheep. This mechanism could explain the higher length of particle retention time in the digestive tract of llamas and higher digestion of cell wall contents. Length of rumination periods was longer for llamas, 45 vs. 40 min for sheep.

Dulphy, J. P., et al. (1997). "Comparative study of forestomach digestion in llamas and sheep." Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 37(6): 709-725.

Four llamas and 4 sheep weighing 118±4 and 72±3 kg, respectively, were fed on hay 16 g DM/kg liveweight alone (H); hay + 11.5% soyabean meal (HS); hay + barley (HB, 70:30) or hay + soyabean meal + barley (HSB, 60:10:30) for 6 weeks. The average digestibilities of DM, organic matter and NDF were higher in llamas (+2.7, 3.6 and 5.3, respectively, for the 4 diets). Barley impaired hay digestion in sheep but had little effect in llamas. Nitrogen retention was greater in llamas than sheep due to very low urine losses. For hay alone, the retention time of digesta in the forestomach was higher in llamas than in sheep. There was no difference between species for the other diets. The pH and ammonia levels were higher in llamas but short-chain fatty acids were lower. In all cases the in situ rate of digestion was greater in llamas. It is concluded that the stability of the 2 first compartment pH levels and an excellent cellulolytic activity are determining factors for the better digestion efficiency of plant cell walls in llamas. Higher NH3 levels were observed in llamas, although urinary N excretion was lower.

Dulphy, J. P., et al. (1994). "Comparison of the intake and digestibility of different diets in llamas and sheep: a preliminary study." Annales de Zootechnie 43(4): 379-387.

Three llamas and 3 sheep were fed on hay, and wheat straw plus soya cake with or without barley. The 2 species ingested the same quantity of hay, but llamas ingested 14% more straw relative to body weight. Organic matter digestibility of straw was 3.8 percentage units higher in llamas than in sheep. Mean retention time of DM was also longer in llamas (32 vs. 25 h in sheep). Reticulo-rumen pH was more stable in llamas and also higher than in sheep. It was concluded that llamas were more efficient than sheep in utilizing low quality roughage.

Dulphy, J. P., et al. (1998). "Intake and digestibility of different forages in llamas compared to sheep." Annales de Zootechnie 47(1): 75-81.

Results of 4 trials, in which intake and digestibility of 9 roughages had been measured, were pooled to make a comparison between llamas and sheep fed dry forages. Llamas and sheep ingest, on average, similar levels of DM: 15.8 vs. 17.7 g DM/kg liveweight, or 49.2 vs. 51.1 g DM/kg0.75. The values for each species are significantly related, but with a low slope, llamas ingest more straw and a lower quantity of high-grade forages than sheep. Overall mean digestibility in llamas is better than in sheep: +2.5 points for organic matter and +4.3 for cell walls. Digestibilities in both species are well correlated, with an important difference for the low-grade, but no difference for high-grade, forages. The mean level of non-digestible CP content of diets is higher by 4 g/kg DM in llamas than in sheep. For each species the intake and digestibilities are positively related to CP content of the roughages and negatively to their NDF content.

Dumont, B. and M. Meuret (1993). "Intake dynamics of goats and llamas feeding on garrigue grazing lands." Annales de Zootechnie 42(2): 193.

Dumont, B., et al. (1995). "Direct observation of biting for studying grazing behavior of goats and llamas on garrigue rangelands." Small Ruminant Research 16(1): 27-35.

The grazing behaviour of goats and llamas on the garrigue rangelands of Southern France was studied by observing a 6-year old dry female Rove goat and 3-year old male llama during the spring and summer. Both animals belonged to flocks and were grazed in 1 of 4 paddocks (shrub species: 35% Quercus coccifera, 15% Rosmarinus officinalis, 7% Juniperus oxycedrus and 5% Genista scorpius, grasses: 25% Brachypodium ramosum, Festuca ovina, Bromus erectus) under decreasing vegetation availability at daily stocking rates of 2000 and 1600 kg body weight/ha in the spring and summer, respectively. Daily DM intake at pasture was 44 (day 6) and 76 (day 3) g DM/kg0.75 for the goat, and 42 and 53 g DM/kg0.75 for the llama during spring and summer, respectively. 89 to 99% of DM intake of the goat was shrub, whereas 55 to 78% of DM intake of the llamas was grass. As vegetation availability decreased, the daily DM intake fell below the animals' requirements. The grass DM intake was always at least 35% for the llama, but never more than 35% for the goat. Diurnal variations were observed in the diets of both animals, on introduction to pasture the goat was very selective in what it ate, whereas the llama ate as quickly as possible. The morphological structure of the shrub species consumed influenced the intake rates of both animals. The technique used provided consistent data on the daily intake and daily diet of grazing ruminants.

Duncanson, G. R. (2012). Veterinary treatment of llamas and alpacas. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, CAB International.

Ebel, S. (1989). "The llama industry in the United States." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 5(1): 1-20.

Ebensperger, G., et al. (2005). "Fetal brain hypometabolism during prolonged hypoxaemia in the llama." Journal of Physiology 567(3): 963-975.

In this study we looked for additional evidence to support the hypothesis that fetal llama reacts to hypoxaemia with adaptive brain hypometabolism. We determined fetal llama brain temperature, Na+ and K+ channel density and Na+-K+-ATPase activity. Additionally, we looked to see whether there were signs of cell death in the brain cortex of llama fetuses submitted to prolonged hypoxaemia. Ten fetal llamas were instrumented under general anaesthesia to measure pH, arterial blood gases, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and brain and core temperatures. Measurements were made 1 h before and every hour during 24 h of hypoxaemia (n=5), which was imposed by reducing maternal inspired oxygen fraction to reach a fetal arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pa,O2) of about 12 mmHg. A normoxaemic group was the control (n=5). After 24 h of hypoxaemia, we determined brain cortex Na+-K+-ATPase activity, ouabain binding, and the expression of NaV1.1, NaV1.2, NaV1.3, NaV1.6, TREK1, TRAAK and KATP channels. The lack of brain cortex damage was assessed as poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) proteolysis. We found a mean decrease of 0.56°C in brain cortex temperature during prolonged hypoxaemia, which was accompanied by a 51% decrease in brain cortex Na+-K+-ATPase activity, and by a 44% decrease in protein content of NaV1.1, a voltage-gated Na+ channel. These changes occurred in absence of changes in PARP protein degradation, suggesting that the cell death of the brain was not enhanced in the fetal llama during hypoxaemia. Taken together, these results provide further evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal llama responds to prolonged hypoxaemia with adaptive brain hypometabolism, partly mediated by decreases in Na+-K+-ATPase activity and expression of NaV channels.

Ebling, G. A. (1991). The biochemical and antibiogram characteristics of aerobic gram negative enteric bacilli from Llamas (Lama glama) : a thesis ...

Echeverri Meji\A, O. (1956). La llama y el espejo. Bogota\0301, Editorial Minerva.

Eckerlin, R. H. and C. E. Stevens (1973). "Bicarbonate secretion by the glandular saccules of the llama stomach." Cornell Veterinarian 63(No.3): 436-445.

Edwards, E. E., et al. (2016). "Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review." J Vet Diagn Invest 28(2): 105-109.

Most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by Haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. Heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. Haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in New World camelids as well, namely llamas (Llama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. Herein, we present a retrospective review of llamas and alpacas that were admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2002 and 2013. Antemortem fecal egg count (FEC) estimates performed on 30 alpacas were negatively correlated with hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Total protein was not significantly correlated with FEC. On postmortem examination, 55 of 198 camelids, including 2 from the aforementioned antemortem review, were infected with H. contortus, with llamas (42.6%) having a significantly higher infection rate than alpacas (22.2%). In 15.7% of the total cases, the parasite was the major cause of death. Common gross lesions included peritoneal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions, visceral pallor, subcutaneous edema, and serous atrophy of fat. Histologic lesions included centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatic atrophy, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the mucosa of the third gastric compartment (C3), extramedullary hematopoiesis in both the liver and spleen, and the presence of nematodes in C3. Our study emphasizes the importance of H. contortus diagnosis and herd monitoring in New World camelids, particularly llamas. AN - 26965230

Ehrlein, H. J. and W. V. Englehardt (1971). "[Studies on the gastric motility of the llama.]." Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin(No.3): 181-191.

A wide-bore rumen fistula was established in a llama (Lama guanicoe). The movements of the rumen and reticulum were registered by pressure changes with ballons or fluid-filled open catheters. After removal of the rumen contents, the ruminal and reticular movements were observed through the fistula and filmed. In addition, the movements of the fore-stomachs were studied radiologically in a Lama guanicoe and a Lama lamae. The movements of the fore-stomachs of the tylopods differ in a number of respects from those of cattle, ox, sheep and goats. The movements of the fore-stomachs begin with a powerful reticular contraction, followed by a contraction of the caudal rumen sac and the cranial rumen sac. The glandular part of the caudal rumen sac contracts shortly before the contraction of the caudal sac itself; this results in emptying of the contents. Rumination occurs during the contraction of the caudal rumen sac. Eructation follows the contraction of the cranial rumen sac. Peristaltic waves are observed in the omasum and abomasum.

Ellis, R. P., et al. (1990). An overview of Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxemia in alpacas and llamas. Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University, College of Veterinary Medicine: 2-3.

Ellis, R. P., et al. (1990). Response of llamas to Clostridium perfringens types C and D vaccines. Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University, College of Veterinary Medicine: 4-5.

Ellison, J. (2011). Knitting with Peruvian yarns : 25 soft sweaters and accessories in alpaca, llama, merino and silk. North Pomfret, Vt., Trafalgar Square.

Presents step-by-step instructions and patterns for twenty-five hand-knit projects using Mirasol yarns --

El-Nouty, F. D., et al. (1978). "Thyroid hormones and metabolic rate in burros, Equus asinus, and llamas, Lama glama: effects of environmental temperature." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A 60(2): 235-237.

Oxygen consumption (VO2) and secretion of thyroid hormones were estimated in donkeys (Equus asinus) and llamas (Lama glama) exposed to heat, cold and dehydration. The llama had a lower VO2 than the donkey. Exposure to heat for 3 to 4 days and to dehydration decreased VO2 in both species. Plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were higher in the llama than in the donkey. Secretion rates of T4 and T3 were similar in both species. The difference between thyroid hormonal plasma values and secretion rates in llamas and donkeys was due to differences in the disappearance rate of these hormones. The difference in VO2 between the species does not seem to be related to thyroid function.

Engel, H. N. and B. J. Watrous (1988). The unique course of the vertebral artery in llamas. 17: 366-367.

Engelhardt, W. and W. v. Engelhardt (1976). Diminished renal urea excretion in the llama at reduced food intake. Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency.: 61-62.

On a control diet, hay to appetite, mean plasma urea of llamas (Llama glama) was 5.7 mmol/litre. On diets of straw with or without energy and protein supplements, plasma urea did not differ from that of controls. Reduction of the hay intake by 40 or 60% increased plasma urea to 7.2 mmol/litre. Glomerular filtered urea was 35.2 mmol/litre on the control diet: on smaller intakes of hay and on straw it was about 30% less. One llama given straw with carbohydrate supplements reabsorbed 87% of the glomerular filtered urea and lost only 5% of bodyweight during 6 months. The llamas on the other diets reabsorbed 36 to 47% of filtered urea in the kidney tubules.

Engelhardt, W. v. (1998). "Forestomach motility in llamas and camels." Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 105(12): 472-474.

Major aspects of forestomach anatomy in llamas and camels are described. The pattern of forestomach motility is a succession of motoric cycles, consisting of A- and B-contraction sequences and a pause. Respective differences between llamas and camels are discussed. Observations on regulation of motility are mentioned. Occurrences and courses of rumination and eructation within the motility cycles are emphasized. Motility of the forestomach achieves a selective retention of feed particles in the forestomach; a long retention time is a prerequisite for an effective microbial digestion, especially of poor quality feed.

Engelhardt, W. V., et al. (1979). "Absorption and secretion in the tubiform forestomach (compartment 3) of the llama." Journal of Comparative Physiology 132(4): 337-341.

Cannulae were placed in the dorsal section of the caudal sac of compartment 1 and in the distal section of compartment 3 of the forestomach of 1 adult female and 3 adult male llama. Water was freely available, pellets of different protein and energy contents were given at 2-hourly intervals and straw at 2 different amounts was given in 2 equal portions daily. The fluid volume of compartments 1 and 2 was estimated by giving a single injection of polyethylene glycol and sampling from compartment 1 at hourly intervals for 8 h. Then polyethylene glycol was infused continuously into compartment 1 for 2 weeks and after 4 days samples of digesta from compartments 1 and 3 were removed twice daily for 2 weeks on Monday and Thursday. Despite changes in water intake and other variables, the concentrations of solutes in compartments 1 and 2 were similar for all. The pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations of compartments 1 and 2 were influenced by the nature of the diet. The absorption of water, sodium, potassium, volatile fatty acids and ammonia from compartment 3 was 30, 60, 6, 70 and 26%, respectively, of the quantities that entered it. The amount of chloride secreted into compartment 3 was similar to the amount that entered with the digesta. Net absorption of Na and water were closely related.

Engelhardt, W. v., et al. (1975). Energy, water and urea metabolism in the llama. Vienna, IAEA.: 111-122.

Energy, water and urea metabolism were studied in about 6 llamas with different degrees of restriction of feed or water. Apparent digestibility of crude protein was lower in llamas than in sheep but the species did not differ in digestibility of DM or cellulose. Energy and water metabolism, either in respiration chamber or barn, were lower than in sheep or cattle, but doubled in grazing. With water restricted and hay given freely, llamas ate relatively more than goats, apparently by a more economical use of water; they produced a smaller volume of more concentrated urine. Total and endogenous urea turnover rates were about the same as in Bovidae. Mean percentage of urea entering the gut was larger, and renal urea excretion was smaller, than in Bovidae. Increasing energy intake increased endogenous urea clearance (entry rate into gut/plasma urea concentration). Changes in permeability of gut mucosa to urea are discussed. With restricted hay, renal plasma urea clearance fell significantly, not by increased tubular reabsorption but by decreased glomerula filtration rate.

England, B. G. (1967). Ovulation, corpus luteum function and estrous behavior in the llama.

England, B. G., et al. (1971). "Oestrous and mating behaviour in the llama (Llama glama)." Animal Behaviour 19(Part 4): 722-726.

Eo, K., et al. (2010). "Skin lesions associated with Demodex sp. in a llama (Lama peruana)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 41(1): 178-180.

A 2.5-yr-old female llama (Lama peruana) with skin lesions was presented to the Animal Health Center in Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Korea. Mites of the genus Demodex in the absence of other mites or fungi were identified from the lesions by skin scrapings. The bodies were elongated, tapered, and 200-280 µm in length; four pairs of stumpy legs were present at the front of the body, and the striated opisthosoma constituted about half of the body length. Histologic examination of the skin biopsy showed typical folliculitis, hyperkeratinization of epidermis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells, consisting mainly of eosinophils and monocytes, in dermis. Although mites were undetected in the dilated hair follicles, the histologic features are consistent with descriptions of infestation by Demodex spp. This is believed to be the first case of skin lesions associated with Demodex sp. in L. peruana. Incidental findings were previously described in a different species of llamas (Lama glama) without any recognized symptoms. Treatment with amitraz (0.025%) eliminated the mites and resolved the clinical signs.

Eo, K.-Y., et al. (2010). "SKIN LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH <em>DEMODEX</em> SP. IN A LLAMA <em>(LAMA PERUANA)</em> [corrected title: SKIN LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH <em>DEMODEX</em> SP. IN A LLAMA <em>(LAMA GLAMA)</em>]." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 41(1): 178-180.

A 2.5-yr-old female llama (Lama peruana) with skin lesions was presented to the Animal Health Center in Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Korea. Mites of the genus Demodex in the absence of other mites or fungi were identified from the lesions by skin scrapings. The bodies were elongated, tapered, and 200-280 um in length; four pairs of stumpy legs were present at the front of the body, and the striated opisthosoma constituted about half of the body length. Histologic examination of the skin biopsy showed typical folliculitis, hyperkeratinization of epidermis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells, consisting mainly of eosinophils and monocytes, in dermis. Although mites were undetected in the dilated hair follicles, the histologic features are consistent with descriptions of infestation by Demodex spp. This is believed to be the first case of skin lesions associated with Demodex sp. in L. peruana. Incidental findings were previously described in a different species of llamas (Lama glama) without any recognized symptoms. Treatment with amitraz (0.025%) eliminated the mites and resolved the clinical signs.

ErdoÄŸan, S., et al. (2015). Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama. [Place of publication not identified], Wiley Periodicals Inc.

Erdoğan, S., et al. (2016). "Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American camelids: alpaca, guanaco, and llama." Microscopy Research and Technique 79(2): 61-71.

The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants.

Erskine Molina, D. and M. Miqueles Rodriguez (1975). "Gastro-intestinal parasites of South American llamas in the first region of Chile." Boletin, Servicio Agricola y Ganader (Chile)(No. 10): 19-22.

Espina, C. (1928). Las Nin\0303as desaparecidas. Novela. (La Llama de Cera. Novela.), Madrid.

Espina, C. (1931). Llama de Cera, Madrid.

Espinosa, M. I., et al. (2015). "Comparison of DNA extraction methods for polymerase chain reaction amplification of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) fecal DNA samples." Genet Mol Res 14(1): 400-406 ST - Comparison of DNA extraction methods for polymerase chain reaction amplification of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) fecal DNA samples.

Feces-based population genetic studies have become increasingly popular. However, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification rates from fecal material vary depending on the species, populations, loci, and extraction protocols. Here, we assessed the PCR amplification success of three microsatellite markers and a segment of the mitochondrial control region of DNA extracted from field-collected feces of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) using two protocols - Qiagen DNA Stool Kit and 2 cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (2CTAB/PCI) method. Chelex resin treatment to remove inhibitors was also tested. Our results show that the mitochondrial locus was the most difficult to amplify. PCR success rates improved for all markers after Chelex treatment of extracted DNA, and 2CTAB/PCI method (95.83%) appeared to perform slightly better than stool kit (91.67%) for the nuclear markers. Amplification success was significantly influenced by the extraction method, Chelex treatment, and locus (P < 0.001) but not by the freshness of the feces (fresh vs old, P = 0.17). The repeatability levels were high without Chelex treatment (> 0.89), but they decreased slightly after treatment for amplification of nuclear markers and markedly after treatment for amplification of the mitochondrial control region. Thus, we showed that Chelex treatment gives high PCR success, especially for nuclear markers, and adequate DNA extraction rates can be achieved from L. guanicoe feces even from non-fresh fecal material. Although not significant, 2CTAB/PCI method tended to provide higher successful amplification rates on a whole set of samples, suggesting that the method could be particularly useful when using small sample sizes. AN - 25729972

Espinoza, J. E. (1981). Mineral status comparisons between llamas and sheep in the Bolivian Altiplano.

Espinoza, J. E., et al. (1982). "Mineral status of llamas and sheep in the Bolivian Altiplano." Journal of Nutrition 112(12): 2286-2292.

An experiment was conducted in the highlands (Altiplano) of Bolivia to establish the specific mineral status for growing llamas compared to sheep grazing unfertilized, native pastures. Samples of plasma, liver and bone and of forage and soil were collected during the wet and dry seasons for estimation of mineral contents. During the wet season, forages were higher (P&lt;0.05) in calcium, potassium, iron and protein. Percent borderline to deficient forage concentrations during the wet and dry seasons, respectively, were found as follows: protein (&lt;7.0%) 20 and 53; Ca (&lt;0.30%) 10 and 40; copper (&lt;5 mu g/g) 20 and 47; K (&lt;0.5%) 10 and 20; magnesium (&lt;0.08%) 10 and 20; sodium (&lt;0.1%) 30 and 69; phosphorus (&lt;0.25%) 100 and 100; Zn (&lt;30 mu g/g) 60 and 80; and Se (&lt;0.1 mu g/g) 90 and 93% of the total forages, respectively. Concentrations of liver Mg, cobalt, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc, plasma Mg and Cu and rib (percent ash) Ca, Mg and P were all higher (P&lt;0.05) during the wet than in the dry season. Compared to llamas, sheep had higher (P&lt;0.05) concentrations of plasma Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn, rib P, Mg and Zn and liver Fe, but lower (P&lt;0.05) concentrations of liver Co, Cu, Mn and Mo. On the basis of forage and animal tissue analyses, the nutrients protein, P, Ca Zn, Na and Se would be insufficient for optimum production of grazing livestock in the high plains of Bolivia.

Estévez, D. M. (2005). Internal sociology of El llano en llamas.

Esteban, L. R. and J. R. Thompson (1988). "The digestive system of new world camelids - common digestive diseases of llamas." Veterinary Student (Iowa State University Veterinarian) 50(2): 117-121.

Estrada Cárdenas, B. r. E., et al. (2010). Homme et chien dans Agua quemada de Carlos Fuentes, Hasta no verte Jesús mÃÂo d'Elena Poniatowska, El llano en llamas de Juan Rulfo et El dÃÂa que fuimos perros d'Elena Garro du simil à l'allégorie. Lille, University of Perpignan.

Eufracio, P. (2003). Octavio Paz : ensayo y ensayÃstica. Puebla, México, El Colegio de Puebla.

Evangelista V, S., et al. (2009). "Equine chorionic gonadotrophin (ECG) stimulation during the luteal and non-luteal phases on ovarian response and embryo quality in llamas." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 20(1): 33-40.

The effect of superovulatory treatment during the two phases of the ovarian cycle on follicular growth and embryo quality was evaluated in 45 sexually adult llamas. Animals bearing a ≥7 mm follicle, observed by ultrasonography, were selected and allocated into 3 groups: T0 (non-stimulated), T1 (superovulatory treatment during the non luteal phase), and T2 (superovulatory treatment during the luteal phase). Animals in groups T1 and T2 received 1 ml of LH (day 0) for synchronization of the follicular wave and 1000 IU of eCG (day 3) as superovulatory treatment. Vaginal sponges impregnated with progesterone were used on days 3 to 7 in T2 to simulate the luteal phase. The induction of the ovulation (day 8) was done through natural mating and the application of GnRH (1 ml). Embryo recovery was done 7 days after natural mating (day 15) on T1 and T2. Similarly, embryo recovery was done 7 days after natural mating and application of GnRH in T0. The number of preovulatory follicles was larger in T1 (11.07±7.53) and T2 (6.13±7.11) than in T0 (1.07±0.26) (p&lt;0.05). The number of corpora lutea was larger in T1 (9.27±3.37) than in T0 (1.07±0.26) and T2 (6.47±4.29) (p&lt;0.05). The number of recovered embryos was larger in T1 (3.47±4.26) than in T0 (0.33±0.48) and T2 (1.33±2.53). The results showed that superovulatory treatment during the non luteal phase had a better response than superovulatory treatment during the luteal phase.

Evermann, J. F. (2006). "Pestiviral infection of llamas and alpacas." Small Ruminant Research 61(2/3): 201-206.

This review summarizes the literature pertaining to pestiviral infections of members of the camelid family. The exact nature of pestiviral infections, in particular bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), is the subject of active investigation especially in llamas and alpacas. Earlier reports based on serology-detected pestiviral (BVDV) antibodies in members of the camelid group ranging from a low 4% to a high of 53%. These studies indicate that members of the camelid group are susceptible to infection and do seroconvert. Over the past decade, clinical reports have documented disease conditions in llamas, alpacas and more recently, camels. These conditions range from respiratory and enteric diseases to chronic wasting and in utero infections resulting in stillbirths, and abortion. The review brings together some thoughts on whether infections of the camelid group are due to interspecies transmission and/or the potential that members of this group have their own unique pestiviral infections.

Fagiolini, M., et al. (2010). "GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN MAMMALS OF TWO ITALIAN ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 41(4): 662-670.

The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was investigated in mammals housed in two of the main Italian zoological gardens: the Zoo Safari of Fasano (province of Bindisi, Apulia, Italy) and the Giardino Zoologico of Pistoia (Tuscany, Italy). In November 2007, fecal samples were collected at the Zoo Safari of Fasano (n = 96) and at the Giardino Zoologico of Pistoia (n = 60), from primates, carnivores, perissodactyls, artiodactyls and proboscideans. In most of the cases, the same animal species or genera were considered in both the zoos. One or more intestinal parasites were detected in 61.5% of the examined samples. However, very different percentages of protozoa- and helminth-positive samples were obtained in the animals from the two zoos, with an overall gastrointestinal parasitic infection of 77.1% in the Zoo Safari of Fasano and 36.7% in the Giardino Zoologico of Pistoia. Overall, 10% (Cryptosporidium sp.) and 43.3% (Toxocara cati, Strongyloides stercoralis, Toxascaris leonina, and hookworms) of carnivores, 66.7% (Cryptosporidium spp.) and 100% (Trichuris spp. and Strongyloides f&#xfc;lleborni) of primates, 25.0% (Eimeria spp., Cryptosporidium spp.), and 57.1% (Trichuris sp., Toxocara [Neoascaris] vitulorum, gastrointestinal strongyles, and Paramphistomidae) of artiodactyls were infected with protozoa and helminthes parasites, respectively. Only gastrointestinal strongyles were diagnosed in 16.7% of proboscideans and in 50.0% of perissodactyls examined. The results of this study suggest that zoonotic protozoans and gastrointestinal helminths are common in zoo mammals and that these animals may serve as a potential reservoir and transmit these parasites to humans. The different animal management in the two zoos indicates that the regular monitoring of parasitic diseases and the use of selective treatments can represent effective measures for the control of several gastrointestinal infections in zoological gardens.

Falcón Florido, J. T., et al. (1984). "Metallic ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc) in wines from Tenerife estimated by flame photometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy." Anales de Bromatologia 35(1): 31-40.

Thirty samples of white, red and rosé wines produced in Tenerife had sodium 6.3 to 174, potassium 500 to 1200, calcium 28.1 to 106.4, magnesium 73 to 158, iron 1.7 to 14.7 and zinc 0.9 to 3 mg/kg.

Fawcett, B. (1954). The Proudest Llama. London, Hutchinson & Co.

Feder, F. H., et al. (1999). "Comparative histological study of the reproductive system of the female llama (Lama guanicoe glama). II. Oviduct, uterus, cervix, vagina." Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 28(2): 139-142.

Felinski, L., et al. (1971). "[Lipid metabolism in ruminants from the zoological gardens in Poland. II. Characteristics of lipids and free fatty acids of adipose tissue from different body sites of camel, llama and other ruminants]." Przeglad Zoologiczny 15(No.2): 201-205.

Felipe, L. (1976). "POETICA DE LA LLAMA." Litoral(67/69): 54-56.

Fenwick, B. W., et al. (1982). "Complete choanal atresia in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 181(11): 1409-1410.

Feracho, L. (2005). Linking the Americas : race, hybrid discourses, and the reformulation of feminine identity. New York, State University of New York ; Bristol : University Presses Marketing [distributor].

Ferna\ndez, P. A. (2005). Esta llama de amor viva. Las Tunas, Editorial Sanlope.

Fernández Iglesias, D. (2006). Caracterización de recubrimientos poliméricos y compuestos obtenidos mediante proyección térmica de llama, Universitat de, Barcelona.

Fernández, A., et al. (2014). "The effect of repeated administrations of llama ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) during the peri-ovulatory period on corpus luteum development and function in llamas." Animal Reproduction Science 149(3/4): 345-352.

The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that repeated administrations of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period (pre-ovulatory, ovulatory, early post-ovulatory), will enhance the luteotrophic effect in llamas. Female llamas were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography in B- and Doppler-mode using a scanner equipped with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer to monitor ovarian follicle and luteal dynamics. When a growing follicle ≥7 mm was detected, llamas were assigned randomly to one of the three groups and given 1 mg of purified OIF/NGF im (intramuscular) (a) pre-ovulation (single dose; n=12), (b) pre-ovulation and at the time of ovulation (2 doses, n=10), or (c) pre-ovulation, at the time of ovulation, and 24 h after ovulation (3 doses, n=10). The pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at the time of treatment, ovulation rate and the first day of CL detection did not differ (P=0.3) among groups. However, maximum CL diameter was greatest (P=0.003) in llamas in the 2-dose group, and smallest in the 3-dose group. Accordingly, the 2 dose-group had the largest day-to-day profile for CL diameter (P&lt;0.01), area of CL vascularization (&lt;0.01), and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.01) compared to the other groups. Interestingly, the luteal response to 3-doses of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period was not different from a single dose. In conclusion, OIF/NGF isolated from llama seminal plasma is luteotrophic and the effect on CL size and function is affected by the number and timing of treatments during the peri-ovulatory period.

Fernandez, F. M. and G. Oliver (1988). "Proteins present in llama milk. I. Quantitative aspects and general characteristics." Milchwissenschaft 43(5): 299-302.

The main proteins in llama milk were isolated by differential precipitation and fractionated by partition chromatography. Four types of caseins were found in the fraction precipitated at pH 4.3, 2 of them at higher concn. than the others. The whey contained 4 main types of proteins, which were identified as serum albumin, α-lactalbumin, proteose peptone and immunoglobulin.

Fernandez, F. M. and G. Oliver (1992). "Studies of α-lactalbumin in llama milk." Small Ruminant Research 8(1-2): 97-106.

α-Lactalbumin was isolated and purified from llama (Lama glama L.) lactoserum. It induces the synthesis of lactose by galactosyltransferase and has an MW of 14 000 according to SDS-PAGE. This α-lactalbumin displays an antigenic cross reaction with bovine and caprine but not with human α-lactalbumin. Chemical characterization showed that it is a metalloprotein carrying 1 calcium atom/mol. The calcium induces conformational changes revealed in the UV absorption spectrum and in passage through the DEAE-Sephadex column. Studies carried out on 42 samples of 18 animals showed no significant variation in the concn. of α-lactalbumin; this was independent of the age of the animal, or the stage of lactation.

Fernandez, F. M. M. a. (1991). Proteinas de la leche de llama (Lama glama). Argentina, Tucuman.

Fernández, G. P., et al. (2010). "Neutralization of Bothrops mattogrossensis snake venom from Bolivia: experimental evaluation of llama and donkey antivenoms produced by caprylic acid precipitation." Toxicon 55(2/3): 642-645.

Polyspecific bothropic/crotalic and bothropic/lachesic antivenoms were produced in Bolivia by immunizing two donkeys with the venoms of Bothrops mattogrossensis and Crotalus durissus terrificus and one llama with the venoms of B. mattogrossensis and Lachesis muta. These antivenoms are currently being used for snakebite envenomation in Bolivia. The rationale for using these animals is that donkeys and llamas are better adapted than horses to the high altitudes in South America and constitute good alternatives for antivenom production in these regions. Plasma was fractionated by caprylic acid precipitation of non-immunoglobulin plasma proteins, to obtain whole IgG preparations. Donkey-derived antivenom showed one band of 150 kDa when analyzed by SDS-PAGE, whereas llama antivenom presented two immunoglobulin bands, of 170 kDa and 120 kDa, the latter corresponding to the heavy-chain antibodies present in camelid sera. The effectiveness of these antivenoms to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, myotoxic, edema-forming, and defibrinogenating activities of the venom of B. mattogrossensis from Bolivia, a species formerly known as Bothrops neuwiedii, was assessed at the experimental level. Although llama antivenom has a total protein concentration four times lower than donkey antivenom, both preparations have similar neutralizing capacity against all toxic activities assessed. Llama and donkey IgG-based antivenoms are effective in the neutralization of B. mattogrossensis venom and represent valuable alternatives for antivenom manufacture in highland regions of South America.

Fernández Pepi, M. G., et al. (2016). "Degradability in sacco of Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae) in sheep (Ovis aries) and llamas (Lama glama)." Lilloa 53(2): 186-192.

The degradability of forage is associated to the chemical composition of the cell wall lignification of tissues (characteristic for each species) and accessibility of rumen microorganisms to these polysaccharides. This paper studied comparatively tissue degradation of Festuca arundinacea blade and sheath in camelids and sheep rumen, in order to assess the greater efficiency of camelids to degrade fiber were made. Sheets and sheaths samples were taken, which were subjected to different ruminal incubation times to measure the degradation of different tissues, by the in sacco method. No differences between the ability of ruminal degradation of llama and sheep were found (p&gt;0,05). The anatomy of the blade and the sheath influenced the differential tissue degradation, although only significant differences for sclerenchyma and xylem of both fractions at 24 h of incubation were found. At 48 h rumen incubation, only they remain of nondigestible tissues, for the vascular system was found. Accessibility to structural carbohydrates of the cell wall by rumen microorganisms is determined by the arrangement of the elements of each tissue type and by the chemical composition of the wall.

Ferrari, A., et al. (2007). "Immunobiological role of llama heavy-chain antibodies against a bacterial β-lactamase." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 117(3/4): 173-182.

In 1993, a fraction of antibodies (Abs) devoid of L chain was found naturally occurring in the Camelidae. They were found to lack L chains, as well as the first constant heavy-chain domain (CH1) and therefore they were named "heavy-chain Abs" (HCAbs). Subsequent studies focused on the functional, structural and biochemical properties of recombinant variable fragments (rVHHs) of HCAbs. It was stated that rVHHs have an augmented capacity to interact with "partially hidden" epitopes, like enzymes active sites, and have an increased stability to thermal and chemical aggression. It has been suggested that these unconventional Abs could represent an evolutionary advantage, being more efficient than conventional Abs to inhibit microbial enzymes, and thus exerting a more protective immune response against pathogens. The present work focuses on the immunobiological role of HCAbs, in their capacity to inhibit microbial enzymes. Two animal models were selected, comprising a model for common vertebrates without HCAbs (rabbits), and a model for vertebrates with both conventional and unconventional Abs (Lama glama). A recombinant bacterial β-lactamase (CTX-M-2) was selected as the microbial enzymatic antigen. After conventional immunization schedules, neither serum titers nor serum inhibitory capacity showed significant differences when rabbits and llamas were compared. These results indicate that the a priori assumption that the adaptive immune system of camelids could be better "prepared" to respond to bacterial enzymes because of the presence of HCAbs, is not always accurate. Furthermore, when the different llama antibody isotypes and subclasses were purified, it was demonstrated that the inhibitory capacity of total serum was due exclusively to IgG1. HCAbs not only failed to inhibit CTX-M-2, but instead they activated its enzymatic activity. Altogether, these results indicate that the hypotheses extrapolated from the rVHHs properties need to be revised; the real role of HCAbs in vivo remains unknown, as well as their evolutionary cause.

Ferré, L., et al. (1996). "Semen production in llamas with two frequencies of ejaculation in the spring." Revista Argentina de Producción Animal 16(4): 367-373.

Ferré, L. B., et al. (2015). "Llama (Lama glama) semen collection via thermo-electric artificial vagina: effect of seasonality and collection interval on ejaculate characteristics." Small Ruminant Research 133: 140-147.

Adult male Llamas (Lama glama) (n=6) were collected using a receptive female and a thermo-electric artificial vagina assembled with a polyethylene collection bag with the following objectives: (a) to develop a reliable and repeatable semen collection technique for Llama, (b) validate semen evaluation tests for Llama, and (c) to determine the effect of collection frequency and season on Llama semen characteristics. First, the semen and sperm variables were recorded and validated through their own repeatability. Semen collection intervals tested were: 1×/week for three weeks and 3×/week for another three weeks, the second collection period occurring after two weeks of sexual rest. The collection frequency of 3×/week significantly reduced (P&lt;0.05) the sperm viability, motility, concentration, Total Sperm/Ejaculate, Total Motile Sperm/Ejaculate and Total Live Sperm/Ejaculate, but improved Total Sperm/Week and Total Live Sperm/Week. All recorded variables were significantly higher during the summer in comparison to the spring with the exception of morphology abnormalities, volume, and viability. Also, the 1×/week versus the 3×/week semen collection frequencies did not produce a significant difference in the percent of total motile sperm/week. Based on semen and sperm characteristics evaluated herein, Llama semen collected in the summer was better (P&lt;0.05), with regard to the majority of the variables analyzed, than semen collected in the spring.

Ferreiro, C. E. (1975). Donde el mundo se llama Celanova = Onde o mundo chamase Celanova. Madrid, Editora Nacional.

Ferrer, M. S., et al. (2015). "Theriogenology Question of the Month. Twins in an alpaca." J Am Vet Med Assoc 247(8): 889-892 ST - Theriogenology Question of the Month. Twins in an alpaca.

Fisher, D. J. and J. G. Zinkl (1996). "Eperythrozoonosis in a one-day-old llama." Veterinary Clinical Pathology 25(3): 93-94.

Fitzgerald, S. D. and D. D. Harrington (1991). "Pulmonary nocardiosis in a young llama." Equine Practice 13(3): 26-29.

PM examination of a 7-month-old llama revealed many firm, plae, miliary nodules over the parietal pleura and multiple fibrinous adhesions between the visceral and parietal pleura. Microscopic examination of stained lung sections revealed multiple foci of caseous necrosis in the subpleural and deep pulmonary parenchyma. Nocardiosis was diagnosed, based on the histological finding of thin (0.5-1 µm), branching, filamentous organisms in silver-stained tissue sections, which were also partially acid-fast in sections stained using a modified Fite-Faraco technique.

Flannery, K. V., et al. (1989). The flocks of the Wamani : a study of llama herders on the punas of Ayacucho, Peru. San Diego ; London, Academic.

Flannery, K. V. a., et al. (2016). The flocks of the wamani : a study of llama herders on the Punas of Ayacucho, Peru. London, Routledge.

Fleck, K., et al. (2016). "From single nucleotide substitutions up to chromosomal deletions: genetic pause of leucism-associated disorders in animals." Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 129(7-8): 269-281.

Leucism is characterized by a complete or partial white skin and hair in combination with pigmented irides, which can be vivid blue or heterochromatic. This is due to a complete or partial lack of melanocytes. The underlying pathogenesis is a disturbed emigration or differentiation of neural crest-derived cells. Therefore, leucistic phenotypes can be associated with defects, which mainly impair sensory organs and nerves. In humans, a well-known example is the Waardenburg syndrome. Leucism-associated disorders were also described in mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, mink, cat, dog, pig, sheep, llama, alpaca, cattle and horse. In some of these species already identified causal mutations affect the genes EDN3, EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3, SILV and SOX10. Defect alleles represent different types of genetic variation, ranging from single nucleotide substitutions up to larger chromosomal deletions. Some of the defect alleles produce desired coat color patterns. In some but not all cases, available genetic tests enable breeders to avoid production of animals affected by a leucism-associated disorder. AN - 27529988

Flores C, B., et al. (2014). "Prevalency of fascioliasis in llamas and alpacas in two rural communities of Jauja, Peru." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 25(2): 284-292.

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and parasite load of Fasciola hepatica in llamas and alpacas of 12-48 months of age in the districts of Masma Chicche and Llocllapampa, Jauja, Peru, and to determine the association between the prevalence of F. hepatica with sex and age. Two hundred fecal samples were collected from llamas (n=97) and alpacas (n=103) in October 2011. The samples were analyzed by the spontaneous sedimentation technique and the parasite load by the modified McMaster method. The prevalence of F. hepatica in llamas was 49.5% and in alpacas was 73.8% without statistical differences due to sex and age. The parasite load was 12.6 and 19.9 eggs per gram of faeces (epg) in llamas and alpacas respectively.

Flores, D. L. (2002). Componentes bioquimicos en la secrecion de las galdnulas bulbouretrales de llama (Lama glama) en tres edades. La Paz, Bolivia.

The present study was performed in the Zoo-Technical Engineering department of ofthe the Tiahuanaco Rural Academic Unit of ofthe the Bolivian Catholic University. The biochemical components of ofthe the secretions produced by the bulb urethral glands of male llama that were studied are glucose, inorganic phosphorus, creatinine, total proteins, albumin, total lipids, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Spectrophotometer standardized techniques were used in nine animals of three, four, and five years of age from communities of ofthe the Ingavi province. Groups comprised of three animals each were selected by age criteria. After dissecting and separating the pelvic urethra, gland secretion was obtained by finger pressure. The process was made after beneficiating the animals. The bulb urethral gland secretions present a white color and a hard viscous consistency. The results of biochemical analysis in the three ages are as follows : glucose 535.79 ., mg/dl mg dl/ ; inorganic phosphoms phosphorus, 30.67 . mg/dl mg dl/ ; creatinine, 25.34 . mg/dl mg dl/ ;; total proteins, 11.78 . g/dl gdl / ; albumin, 8.596 . g/dl gdl / ; total lipids, 1022.55 . mg/dl mg dl/ ; cholesterol, 168.83 . mg/dl mg dl/ ; and triglycerides, 605.10 . mg/dl mg dl/ . Animal age significantly influences on the concentrations of glucose, creatinine, and total lipids with a probability of (p> = 0.05). Animal age has no influence over the concentrations of inorganic phosphorus, total proteins, albumin, cholesterol, and triglycerides with a probability of (p <= 0.05).

Flores, E. R. and G. A. Gutierrez (1996). Ingestive mastication and forage fragmentation in sheep, Alpacas and llamas. Denver, Society for Range Management: 151-152.

Flores, G. E. and F. H. Aballay (2016). "Two Evaniosomini Species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Associated with Decaying Carcasses in Argentina, with Remarks on the Tribal Assignment of Achanius Erichson." Coleopterists' bulletin.

Fondevila, N. A., et al. (1995). "Susceptibility of llamas (Lama glama) to infection with foot-and-mouth-disease virus." Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B 42(10): 595-599.

An experimental trial was conducted to evaluate the ability of foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus (serotypes A79, C3, O1) to infect susceptible llamas exposed either directly to affected livestock, or indirectly to llamas that had been directly exposed to affected livestock. In addition, susceptible livestock species (cattle, pigs, goats and sheep) were exposed to those llamas that had been both directly and indirectly exposed to the FMD virus. Of 30 llamas directly exposed to the FMD virus, only 3 showed evidence of infection, and of those, only 2 had mild clinical signs. No FMD virus was isolated from either oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid or blood samples collected from the infected llamas beyond 14 days after exposure. There was no evidence of virus transmission between the 30 directly exposed and 30 indirectly exposed llamas or between both groups of llamas and 40 susceptible domestic livestock, as determined by the lack of clinical signs, by virus isolation, and by serology results. It is concluded that llamas are resistant to FMD infection, and that they play a minor role, if any, in transmitting the virus to domestic livestock.

Fontana, C., et al. (2016). "Microbial ecology involved in the ripening of naturally fermented llama meat sausages. A focus on lactobacilli diversity." Int J Food Microbiol 236: 17-25.

Llama represents for the Andean regions a valid alternative to bovine and pork meat and thanks to the high proteins and low fat content; it can constitute a good product for the novel food market. In this study, culture-dependent and independent methods were applied to investigate the microbial ecology of naturally fermented llama sausages produced in Northwest Argentina. Two different production technologies of llama sausage were investigated: a pilot-plant scale (P) and an artisanal one (A). Results obtained by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) of 16S rRNA amplicons showed that the production technologies influenced the development of microbial communities with a different composition throughout the entire fermentation process. Both sequencing and microbiological counts demonstrated that Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) contributed largely to the dominant microbiota. When a total of 230 isolates were approached by RAPD-PCR, presumptive LAB strains from P production exhibited an initial variability in RAPD fingerprints switching to a single profile at the final of ripening, while A production revealed a more heterogeneous RAPD pattern during the whole fermentation process. The constant presence of Lactobacillus sakei along the fermentation in both productions was revealed by HTS and confirmed by species-specific PCR from isolated strains. The technological characterization of Lb. sakei isolates evidenced their ability to grow at 15°C, pH4.5 and 5% NaCl (95%). Most strains hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Bacteriocins encoding genes and antimicrobial resistance were found in 35% and 42.5% of the strains, respectively. An appropriate choice of a combination of autochthonous strains in a starter formulation is fundamental to improve and standardize llama sausages safety and quality. AN - 27434177

Fontana, C., et al. (2016). "Microbial ecology involved in the ripening of naturally fermented llama meat sausages. A focus on lactobacilli diversity." International Journal of Food Microbiology 236: 17-25.

Llama represents for the Andean regions a valid alternative to bovine and pork meat and thanks to the high proteins and low fat content; it can constitute a good product for the novel food market. In this study, culture-dependent and independent methods were applied to investigate the microbial ecology of naturally fermented llama sausages produced in Northwest Argentina. Two different production technologies of llama sausage were investigated: a pilot-plant scale (P) and an artisanal one (A). Results obtained by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) of 16S rRNA amplicons showed that the production technologies influenced the development of microbial communities with a different composition throughout the entire fermentation process. Both sequencing and microbiological counts demonstrated that Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) contributed largely to the dominant microbiota. When a total of 230 isolates were approached by RAPD-PCR, presumptive LAB strains from P production exhibited an initial variability in RAPD fingerprints switching to a single profile at the final of ripening, while A production revealed a more heterogeneous RAPD pattern during the whole fermentation process. The constant presence of Lactobacillus sakei along the fermentation in both productions was revealed by HTS and confirmed by species-specific PCR from isolated strains. The technological characterization of Lb. sakei isolates evidenced their ability to grow at 15°C, pH 4.5 and 5% NaCl (95%). Most strains hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Bacteriocins encoding genes and antimicrobial resistance were found in 35% and 42.5% of the strains, respectively. An appropriate choice of a combination of autochthonous strains in a starter formulation is fundamental to improve and standardize llama sausages safety and quality.

Foreyt, W. J. and J. Lagerquist (1992). "Experimental Infections of Eimeria alpacae and Eimeria punoensis in Llamas (Lama glama)." The Journal of Parasitology 78(5): 906-909.

Four llamas (Lama glama) ranging in age from 1.5 yr to 7 yr each were inoculated orally with 10,000 (n = 2) or 50,000 (n = 2) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria alpacae (25%) and Eimeria punoensis (75%). The prepatent period for E. alpacae was 16-18 days, and it was 10 days for E. punoensis. Patent periods for E. alpacae and E. punoensis were approximately 9 days and 24 days, respectively. Although large numbers of oocysts were present in feces, no clinical sign of coccidiosis was observed. Based on this experiment, E. alpacae and E. punoensis at the numbers given are not likely pathogenic in healthy llamas older than 1 yr.

Foreyt, W. J. and J. Lagerquist (1992). "Experimental infections of Eimeria alpacae and Eimeria punoensis in llamas (Lama glama)." Journal of parasitology 78(5): 906-909.

Four llamas ranging in age from 1.5 to 7 years each were inoculated orally with 10 000 (n = 2) or 50 000 (n = 2) sporulated oocysts of E. alpacae (25%) and E. punoensis (75%). The prepatent period for E. alpacae was 16-18 days, and it was 10 days for E. punoensis. Patent periods for E. alpacae and E. punoensis were approximately 9 days and 24 days, respectively. Although large numbers of oocysts were present in faeces, no clinical sign of coccidiosis was observed. Based on this experiment, it is concluded that E. alpacae and E. punoensis at the numbers given are unlikely to be pathogenic to healthy llamas older than 1 year.

Foreyt, W. J. and S. Parish (1990). "Experimental Infection of Liver Flukes (Fascioloides magna) in a Llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 21(4): 468-470.

One llama (Lama glama) was used to evaluate the effect of an experimentally induced Fascioloides magna infection. The llama was given 250 viable metacercariae of F. magna orally in a gelatin capsule. Eight months after inoculation, the llama was euthanized, and three nonencapsulated mature F. magna were recovered from the parenchyma of the liver. Trematode eggs were present within the hepatic parenchyma but not in feces. Based on a sample of one animal, response of llamas to F. magna is similar to that of cattle, which are aberrant dead-end hosts for this parasite.

Foreyt, W. J., et al. (1992). "Psoroptes sp. in two llamas (Lama glama) in Washington." Journal of parasitology 78(1): 153-155.

Psoroptes sp. mites were isolated from 2 llamas (L. glama), a 4-month-old male and its dam, from a ranch in Washington state, USA. Mites were restricted to the ears and were responsible for head-shaking and incoordination. Infestations were treated successfully with a subcutaneous injection of ivermectin at 0.2 mg/kg of body weight and with 2 drops of ivermectin diluted in saline given topically in each ear. This is the first known report of Psoroptes sp. in llamas in the USA.

Foreyt, W. J., et al. (1991). "Experimental Infections of Two Llamas with the Meningeal Worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 22(3): 339-344.

Two adult female llamas (Lama glama) were inoculated orally with meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) larvae to determine the effects of infection. One llama given 48 larvae developed paralysis 51 days after inoculation and was euthanized. A second llama given six larvae developed incoordination and hypermetria 51-57 days after inoculation and died during transport 65 days after inoculation. Infection in both llamas was characterized by incoordination, hypermetria, reluctance to stand, eosinophilia of cerebrospinal fluid, and severe meningoencephalomyelitis associated with migrating P. tenuis larvae. Based on these experimental infections, signs and lesions occur within 2 mo of infection and can be fatal in llamas.

Foreyt, W. J., et al. (1991). "Experimental infections of two llamas with the meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 22(3): 339-344.

Two adult female llamas, 5 and 7 years of age respectively, were inoculated orally with P. tenuis larvae to determine the effects of infection. One llama given 48 larvae developed paralysis 51 days after inoculation and was euthanized. A 2nd llama given 6 larvae developed incoordination and hypermetria 51-57 days after inoculation and died during transport 65 days after inoculation. Infection in both llamas was characterized by incoordination, hypermetria, reluctance to stand, eosinophilia of cerebrospinal fluid, and severe meningoencephalomyelitis associated with migrating P. tenuis larvae. Other parasites recovered at necropsy included Fasciola hepatica, Trichostrongylus, Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Ostertagia and Capillaria. Biting lice (Damalinia sp.) were also present in the fleece of one of the llamas. Based on these experimental infections, signs and lesions occur within 2 months of infection and can be fatal in llamas.

Forsman, A., et al. (2008). "Llama antibody fragments with cross-subtype human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-neutralizing properties and high affinity for HIV-1 gp120." Journal of Virology 82(24): 12069-12081.

Members of the Camelidae family produce immunoglobulins devoid of light chains. We have characterized variable domains of these heavy chain antibodies, the VHH, from llamas immunized with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein gp120 in order to identify VHH that can inhibit HIV-1 infection. To increase the chances of isolating neutralizing VHH, we employed a functional selection approach, involving panning of phage libraries expressing the VHH repertoire on recombinant gp120, followed by a competitive elution with soluble CD4. By immunizing with gp120 derived from an HIV-1 subtype B′/C primary isolate, followed by panning on gp120 from HIV-1 isolates of subtypes A, B, and C, we could select for VHH with cross-subtype neutralizing activity. Three VHH able to neutralize HIV-1 primary isolates of subtypes B and C were characterized. These bound to recombinant gp120 with affinities close to the suggested affinity ceiling for in vivo-maturated antibodies and competed with soluble CD4 for this binding, indicating that their mechanism of neutralization involves interacting with the functional envelope spike prior to binding to CD4. The most potent VHH in terms of low 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and IC90 values and cross-subtype reactivity was A12. These results indicate that camelid VHH can be potent HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Since VHH are stable and can be produced at a relatively low cost, they may be considered for applications such as HIV-1 microbicide development. Antienvelope VHH might also prove useful in defining neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on HIV-1 envelope proteins, with implications for HIV-1 vaccine design.

Forsman, A. M. (2009). Characterisation of llama antibody fragments able to act as HIV-1 entry inhibitors, University College London (University of London).

Foster, A., et al. (2009). "Haematology and biochemistry in alpacas and llamas." In Practice 31(6): 276-281.

South American camelids - especially alpacas - are growing in numbers and popularity in the UK as sources of fibre. They are also kept for breeding and as pets. Previous studies of clinical biochemistry and haematology values have been reported from Australia, Germany, North America and Switzerland. The population sizes of some of these studies have been small, and the analytes determined have varied; in addition, there is an assumption that mean and reference interval values for llamas are equally valid for alpacas. However, differing management systems internationally may not allow easy comparison between these studies and clinical pathology values for camelids in the UK. This article provides haematological and biochemical parameters for alpacas and llamas using reference intervals derived from published literature and data drawn from animals of known health status sampled in the UK. It also highlights which parameters may be useful for assessing camelid health and disease status. However, the relationship between biochemical analytes, especially trace elements, and reproductive performance and various disease processes, including those affecting the central nervous system and the skin, have yet to be determined and require further investigation.

Foster, A., et al. (2007). "Bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection of alpacas (Vicugnapacos) in the UK." Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association 161(3).

Fowler, M. (1994). "Model regulation for interstate transport of llamas." Proceedings of the United States Animal Health Association 98: 271-276.

Fowler, M. E. (1982). "Angular limb deformities in young llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 181(11): 1338-1342.

Fowler, M. E. (1983). "The Jugular Vein of the Llama (Lama peruana): A Clinical Note." The Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 14(2): 77-78.

Fowler, M. E. (1983). "The jugular vein of the llama (Lama peruana): a clinical note." Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 14(2): 77-78.

Fowler, M. E. (1984). "Congenital and hereditary diseases of llamas." Verhandlungsbericht des Internationalen Symposiums über die Erkrankungen der Zootiere 26: 153-158.

Fowler, M. E. (1985). "Plant poisoning [Sierra laurel, Leucothoe davisiae] in two pack llamas." California Veterinarian 39(3): 17-20.

Fowler, M. E. (1986). "Lice in llamas." Avian/Exotic Practice 3(1): 22-25.

The symptoms of infestation, transmission and chemical control of the species of lice found on llamas in the USA are described. Damalinia breviceps is common, and Microthoracius mazzai, M. minor and M. praelongiceps have been reported on both llama and alpaca. The control measures recommended include dusting, dipping, soaking or spraying the host with 0.06% coumaphos w.p. or e.c., 0.03% lindane w.p., powder containing 50% methoxychlor, or carbaryl powder, or injecting ivermectin at 0.2 mg/kg subcutaneously to control the Microthoracius species.

Fowler, M. E. (1987). "Ulceration and obstruction of the spiral colon in the llama." Verhandlungsbericht des Internationalen Symposiums über die Erkrankungen der Zootiere 29: 201-208.

Fowler, M. E. (1989). Medicine and surgery of South American camelids : llama, alpaca, vicun\0303a, guanaco. Ames, Iowa State University Press.

Fowler, M. E. (1989). Medicine and surgery of South American camelids: llama, alpaca, vicuña, guanaco. Ames, Iowa 50010, Iowa State University Press.

In North America there are some 12 000 llamas and 500-1000 alpacas, imported from their natural South American habitats. The author presents his own experience of how to handle and treat these 'lamoid' animals, and reviews about 1000 items of literature concerning them. Among the 23 chapters, 30 pages are devoted to infectious diseases (with 105 references) and 14 to parasites (84 ref.).

Fowler, M. E. (1990). Hypophosphatemia in llamas and alpacas. Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University, College of Veterinary Medicine: 20-24.

Fowler, M. E. (1994). "Health care of the geriatric llama and alpaca." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 391-399.

Fowler, M. E. (1994). "Hyperthermia in llamas and alpacas." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 309-317.

Fowler, M. E. (1996). "Johne's disease in llamas and alpacas: not a threat to other animals." Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 100: 276-282.

A ban on llamas as pack animals in Canyonlands, southern Utah, because of a risk of transmission of paratuberculosis to bighorn sheep, was unjustified.

Fowler, M. E. (1998). Medicine and surgery of South American camelids : llama, alpaca, vicun\0303a, guanaco. Ames, Iowa State University Press.

Fowler, M. E. (1998). Medicine and surgery of South American camelids: llama, alpaca, vicuna, guanaco. Ames, Iowa 50014, Iowa State University Press.

The author states that some 1300 references to veterinary aspects of llamas, alpacas and guanacos have appeared since the first edition of this book, ten years ago, and that these have been incorporated in the new edition. The number of llamas in North America was put at 120 000, and alpacas at 20 000, most of them privately owned as pets. These animals were also being imported into other areas of the world. Hence the need for a specific textbook. The format of this second edition is similar to that of the first with two new chapters on conformation and disaster management. Some of the chapters have been considerably revised while others did not require much changing. [There is a critical dosage error on page 135 (Chapter 6) under Anaesthesia: the dosage for i.v. ketamine should be 2.5 mg/kg and not 25 mg/kg as stated].

Fowler, M. E. (1999). "Llama and alpaca behaviour: a clue to illness detection." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 6(2): 135-152.

Llamas and alpacas are thought to mask signs of illness until a disease process is well advanced. However, routine careful observation usually identifies subtle changes in vocalisation, body posture or ear and tail position. Other signs may be exaggerated behaviours such as excessive rolling, prolonged straining at the dung pile and unwillingness or inability to rise from the recumbent state. Ability to evaluate signs of illness and/or abnormal behaviour presupposes that the observer understands normal llama and alpaca behaviour, which is described in this article.

Fowler, M. E. (2011). Medicine and surgery of camelids, John Wiley & Sons.

Fowler, M. E. and B. Frost (1999). Prevalence of selected diseases of llamas and alpacas. Richmond, United States Animal Health Association: 268-276.

Fowler, M. E. and D. Gillespie (1985). "Middle and Inner Ear Infection in Llamas." The Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 16(1): 9-15.

Fowler, M. E. and D. Gillespie (1985). "Middle and inner ear infection in llamas." Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 16(1): 9-15.

Fowler, M. E., et al. (1985). "Lymphosarcoma in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 187(11): 1245-1246.

Fowler, M. E. and H. J. Olander (1990). "Fetal membranes and ancillary structures of llamas (Lama glama)." American Journal of Veterinary Research 51(9): 1495-1500.

Twenty five placentas were examined from full term newborn llamas. They were tubular and crescent shaped and the weights and measurements are given. The placenta of llamas is epitheliochorial, with patchy areas of dense folded papillation serving as the placentome. The amnion of the full-term placenta is closely adhered to either the allantois or the chorion and remains with these structures at the time of parturition. Llamas and alpacas, like dromedaries, have an extra fetal membrane that is derived from the epidermis of the fetus. In association with the watery amniotic fluid of llamas, the epidermal membrane is slippery, facilitating delivery of the fetus.

Fowler, M. E., et al. (1992). "Coccidioidomycosis in llamas in the United States: 19 cases (1981-1989)." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 201(10): 1609-1614.

Coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed in 19 llamas (California, 9; Arizona, 10). All but 1 had a disseminated form, with pyogranulomas principally in the lungs, thoracic lymph nodes, liver and kidneys. However, lesions were found in tissue specimens from most organ systems. Antemortem diagnosis was based on radiographic evaluation of the lungs, serological testing, or presence of spherules of Coccidioides immitis in pyogranuloma aspirates, skin scrapings or biopsy specimens. It was concluded that animals residing in endemic areas of southwestern United States are at risk, and llamas appear to be highly susceptible to developing disseminated forms of coccidioidomycosis.

Fowler, M. E. and J. Paul-Murphy (1985). "Cephenemyia sp. infestation in the llama." California Veterinarian 39(6): 10-12.

A report is given of 3 cases of myiasis attributable to the larvae of Cephenemyia sp. in llamas from ranches in California. Sneezing and coughing, with or without nasal discharge, were the symptoms that presented themselves in the llamas. Two of the llamas were treated using 0.2 mg ivermectin/kg, whereas in the 3rd animal a single larva was removed by endoscopy after immobilization with an intravenous injection of 0.25 mg xylazine hydrochloride/kg and 3 mg ketamine hydrochloride/kg. The ranches from which the infested animals had come were in an area where black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus), a more usual host for the oestrid, were known to be present.

Fowler, M. E. and J. G. Zinkl (1989). "Reference ranges for hematologic and serum biochemical values in llamas (Lama glama)." American Journal of Veterinary Research 50(12): 2049-2053.

Haematological and serum biochemical values were determined in 174 llamas of all age groups and both sexes from ranches in California and Nevada. Compared with haematological values for horses and cattle, llama erythrocytes were more numerous (10.1 to 17.3×106/µl), but the PCV was lower (25 to 45%) because the smaller elliptical cells pack tighter. The mean corpuscular volume was half that of horses and cattle (22 to 29.5 fl). The mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration was higher (38.9 to 46.2 g/dl), and the mean corpuscular haemaglobin slightly lower (9.6 to 12.6 pg). Most serum biochemical values were similar to those of cattle and horses, with the exception of triiodothyronine (48 to 468 ng/dl) and thyroxine (9.8 to 30 µg/dl), which are up to 10 times higher than values for other domestic species.

Fowler, M. E. M. a., et al. (2010). Medicine and surgery of camelids : [llama, alpaca, vicuña, guanaco, dromedary & Bactrian camels]. Ames, Iowa, Wiley-Blackwell.

Frank, E. N., et al. (2001). SUPREME-project: a new approach for histological description of skin follicular complex in Argentine llamas. Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 243-250.

Frank, E. N., et al. (2001). SUPREME-project: classification of fibres of different types of fleeces in Argentine llamas. Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 251-259.

Frank, E. N., et al. (2007). "Argentine Llamas fleeces grading by subjective and objective identified body positions." Revista Argentina de Producción Animal 27(Suppl.1): 358-359.

Frank, E. N., et al. (2006). "Phenotypic and genetic description of fibre traits in South American domestic camelids (llamas and alpacas)." Small Ruminant Research 61(2/3): 113-129.

Even though llamas and alpacas are multipurpose animals, fibre production remains the main trait from an international market point of view. The objectives of this review are to describe the phenotypic traits that determine fibre quality, and to identify the genetic mechanisms governing them. The finer and lesser prickling effect the fibre has, the higher its value is. All these characteristics are related to fibre diameter and evenness, and to other traits such as color, type of fleece, fibre length and yield. Studies on genetic mechanisms for llama and alpaca fleece traits show that the white phenotype is dominant to the pigmented phenotype and to the spotted phenotype. Black face and extremities phenotypes are dominant to black and wild phenotypes. Lustre is dominant to non-lustre type and double coated is governed by an additive genetic mechanism. Heritabilities of fleece weight, staple length and fibre diameter are low to moderate in the high plateau environment and very high outside Altiplano conditions.

Frank, E. N., et al. (2006). "Effects of age-class, shearing interval, fleece and color types on fiber quality and production in Argentine Llamas." Small Ruminant Research 61(2/3): 141-152.

Influence of animal age, shearing intervals and fleece and color types on the productivity and quality of the fiber were investigated in fleeces and skin samples of a Llama flock of the high altitude plateau in the province of Jujuy, Argentina. In this fiber and skin samples of Llama the following variables were evaluated (mean±S.D.): (i) fleece variables - greasy fleece weight (GFW), 1614.97±376.16 g; fiber weight per skin surface unit (FWSSU, mg/mm2), 122±28.7 mg; staple length (SL), 19.07 cm; mean fiber diameter (MFD), 22.91±1.55 µm; fiber diameter coefficient of variation (FDCV), 26.39±4.34%; weighted fiber diameter (WFD), 23.11±2.28 µm; total medullation degree (TMD), 28.3±4.7%; continuous medullation degree (CMD), 19.95±4.5%; non-continuous medullation degree (NCMD), 30.7%±5.5; lattice medullae (La), 0.4±0.32%; continuous medullae (C), 15.8±4.01%; interrupted medullae (I), 11.0±4.3%, fragmented medullae (F), 22.8±5.8%, and non-medullated (NM), 51.9±3.77%. (ii) Horizontal sections variables - total follicular density (TFD), 20.69±4.38 No/mm2; secondary follicle density (SFD), 16.92±3.82 Nr/mm2; primary follicle density (PFD), 3.77±0.83 No/mm2; secondary/primary ratio (SPR), 4.52±0.82; fiber diameter within primary follicles (FDPF), 35.5±4.27 µm; fiber diameter within secondary follicles (FDSF), 19.92±3.82 µm; primary on secondary diameter ratio (PSDR), 1.77±0.82. (iii) Vertical sections variables - follicular length (FL), 2624.68±299.77 µm; follicular depth (FD), 1515.55±229.23 µm; grade of follicular curvature (GFC), 4.33%; follicular angle (FA), 35.9±6.86°; bulbar papillae area (BPA), 962.90±230.47 µm2. The analysis showed that age is the external effect that displays greater modifications (GFW, FWSSU, fundamentally MFD and WFD). The GFW increases significantly (p&lt;0.05) between ages, with a slight but constant tendency to 4 years old, and at the same time the SL and MFD also significantly (p&lt;0.05) increases. The shearing interval affects only the fiber productivity (GFW and SL), and significant (p&lt;0.05) differences are only between annual shearing and the rest. The fleece types show variations in SL between straight curled types or hemi lustre (HL) and straight or non-crimped or lustre (L) types and double coated (DC) fleece type. In this way, the HL and L have significance (p&lt;0.05) longer SL though do not show significant (p&lt;0.05) weight (GFW, FWSSU) differences in relation to the DC fleece type. The overall MFD does not show any variation between fleece types (p&lt;0.05), but the FDPF show significant (p&lt;0.05) differences. These results also are wider PSDR in DC, and narrower PSDR in HL and L fleece types. This has no relation with TFD and SFD, which is less (p&lt;0.05) in L and with FL, which is shorter in DC fleece type. We concluded that the increase of the GFW with age is mainly due to the increase of the MFD (diminution of the quality). This could be explained by the decrease of TFD that takes place as animal grows, since the points of inflection of the increases of MFD, diminution of SL and diminution of TFD agree into the same class of ages.

Frank, E. N., et al. (2011). "Genetic parameters for fleece weight and fibre attributes in Argentinean Llamas reared outside the Altiplano." Small Ruminant Research 99(1): 54-60.

The objective of this work with Argentinean Llamas was to estimate (co)variance components and genetic and permanent environmental parameters and to report mean and standard deviations of fleece weight and fibre attributes, measured under outside Altiplano areas conditions. A total of 2850 records, from 450 founder females and 45 founder males allowed the measurement of 816 animals. The animals came from 3 different localities and the fleece variables were: fleece weight (under annual shearing) (FW, kg), fleece strip weight (as fleece weight predictor) (FSW, g), staple length (SL, cm), mean fiber diameter (MFD, µm), fiber diameter coefficient of variation (FDCV, %), total medulation grades (MG, %) and lattice medulla fibre (CFP,%); Chest circumference (CC, cm) was used as a predictor for animal size. Residual, genetic and permanent environmental (co)variances were obtained through a multivariate Animal Model with repeatibilities, using VCE4 software. Mixed model fixed effects include: year of production, year of sampling (repeated), animal age classed at sampling, flocks, coat color and type of fleeces and CC as linear covariate. The estimated heritabilities were: 0.44±0.05 (FW), 0.34±0.06 (FSW), 0.23±0.05 (SL), 0.32±0.05 (MFD), 0.33±0.06 (FDCV), 0.29±0.04 (MG), and 0.33±0.07 (CFP). Genetic correlations were significant (p&lt;0.05) for all pairs of variables with the exception of FW-FDCV and MFD-FDCV. All correlations level were medium to high, but FW-FSW was very high (0.89±0.04), showed that both attributes are almost identical. Repeatibilities were high for all attributes, and all permanent environment effects were statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). The heritabilities, repeatibilities and correlations obtained in this work were generally lower than other values out of the Altiplano areas, but in concordance with similar values from Altiplano. It can be concluded that there are large opportunities to improve the fibre diameter and fibre diameter variation, and also fibre production attribute if this are chosen as selection criteria. The fleece strip weight variable is important as fleece weight predictor because of the high genetic and phenotypic correlation between them. The implication of this work is grounded on the use of genetic parameters to generate a selection program outside Altiplano (highlands) conditions and under production systems in the hands of small peasants.

Frank, E. N. and C. M. Nuevo Freire (1985). "Production of a flock of llamas in Catamarca." Revista Argentina de Producción Animal 5(7-8): 505-512.

Data on a flock of 150 llamas, kept at an altitude of 3200 m in Argentina, were analysed. Coat colour was brown in 58.19% of animals, black in 15.33%, bay in 12% and white in 6.55%. Body weight at weaning at 6-9 months of age averaged 36.25±2.45 kg for ♂♂ and 37.35±3.67 kg for ♀♀. For yearlings, body weight averaged 60.20±4.56 kg and fleece weight 1.89±0.14 kg vs. 96.67±8.01 kg and 1.39±0.21 kg resp. for adult llamas. Fibre diameter averaged 26.79±2.09 µm and the percentage of medullated fibres 35.44±8.35. The results are compared with those of llamas in Peru and Bolivia and with those of llamas in a different district in Argentina.

Frank, E. N. and C. M. Nuevo Freire (1987). "Analysis of the intrinsic variation in fleece measurements in llamas. 1. Effect of body site of collection of sample." Revista Argentina de Producción Animal 7(1): 61-68.

20 fibre samples (each weighing 60 g) were obtained from the rump, flank, shoulder, neck and extremities (including the lower part of the legs, head and underside of the belly) of 5 llamas. There were significant differences between samples obtained from the different sites in staple length, fibre diameter, percentage of medullated fibres measuring &gt;34 µm in diameter (all P&lt;0.05), with the most accurate results obtained for samples from the mid-shoulder. The percentage of primary fibres was significantly correlated with fibre diameter (0.91) and percentage of medullated fibres (0.72). [For Pt. 2 see pp. 69-75 of the same number of the journal].

Frank, E. N. and C. M. Nuevo Freire (1987). "Analysis of the intrinsic variation in fleece measurements in llamas. 2. Effect of cutting site of staple." Revista Argentina de Producción Animal 7(1): 69-75.

Staples from 5 llamas were cut, and fibre diameter, variation in fibre diameter, incidence of fibre medullation and the percentage of primary fibres were determined at the point, middle and base of each staple. There were no significant differences among the cutting sites for any of the traits. There were significant correlations of the incidence of fibre medullation with fibre diameter (0.86) and the percentage of primary fibres (0.61). [For Pt. 1 see pp. 61-68 of the same number of the journal].

Frank, E. N., et al. (1985). "A study of the physical fleece characters in llamas." Revista Argentina de Producción Animal 5(7-8): 513-521.

For 70 llamas aged 2, 3, 4, 5 and &gt;5 yr, fibre diameter averaged 24.98, 25.13, 30.03, 29.97 and 23.85 µm resp., and percentage of medullated fibres 31.96, 25.53, 41.83, 44.76 and 33.16 (both P&lt;0.05). Age had no significant effect on staple length, which ranged from 12.25 to 12.68 cm. For llamas with black, brown, bay and white coat colour, fibre diameter averaged 24.81, 26.16, 29.15 and 29.76 µm resp., staple length 17.57, 15.41, 16.5 and 13.0 cm, and the percentage of medullated fibres 10.10, 38.54, 56.05 and 49.55 (all P&lt;0.05). Staple type significantly affected greasy fleece weight, fibre diameter, staple length and percentage of medullated fibres. Greasy fleece weight was significantly correlated with body weight (-0.47), staple length (0.34) and fibre diameter (0.11), and fibre diameter was significantly correlated with the percentage of medullated fibres (0.77).

Frank, E. N., et al. (2002). Segregation analysis of irregular spotting and full white in llama. Montpellier, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA): 0-4.

The phenotypic relationships between SC (self coloured) and FW (full white) and between IS (irregular spotted) and SC animals on llamas, were observed in the SC × SC, SC × IS, IS × IS, and FW × FW, FW × SC, and SC × SC segregations. Only the families with at least one proband were included in this study. Monofactorial hypothesis of inheritance could be accepted to explain the relationship between SC and IS. SC was autosomal dominant to IS. The disagreement between this hypothesis and the results of SC × IS and IS × IS segregations could be explained in terms of misclassification of some spotted parents, probably included in the IS parental group. White appeared dominant on no white conditions. Spotted animals could have appeared in this segregation as the result of epistasis of FW on hypostatic IS phenotype and the incomplete penetrance of dominant FW.

Frank, N., et al. (1998). "Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli septicemia and meningoencephalitis in a 7-day-old llama." Canadian Veterinary Journal 39(2): 100-102.

Franz, S., et al. (2016). "The occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic South American Camelids in Austria." Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 129(7-8): 318-322.

Reports of CMhl infections in South American Camelids in Europe are only available from the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Knowing that CMhl infections can lead to severe disease resulting in death if combined with other diseases or stress, it was the aim of this study to assess prevalence data from camelids in Austria. In comparison to the previous studies a representative number of camelids was investigated nationwide. Data were assessed due to differences in geographical region, age, sex, species, and origin. A relatively high prevalence of 25.8% was recorded. CMhl was detected significantly more often in alpacas (Vicunja pacos) than in llamas (Lama glama) and more frequently in animals younger than 2 years. Additionally regional differences have been observed, which might be due to climatic differences and/or variations in insect vectors. In this study apperantly clinical healthy animals were shown to be infected with CMhl. Camelids infected with CMhl are a pathogen reservoir. The results of this study indicate different risk levels of infection between llamas and alpacas and between younger and older animals. The data presented underline the necessity of further studies on CMhlI infections in South American Camelids. AN - 27529994

Franz, S., et al. (2015). "Llamas and alpacas in Europe: endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control." Veterinary Journal 204(3): 255-262.

There are distinctive specifications for veterinary medical care of South American camelids (SACs), namely, llamas, alpacas, vicunas and guanacos. Camelids are classified as food-producing animals, but as veterinary medicinal products are often only licensed for domestic food-producing species such as horses, goats, sheep and cattle, treatment of SACs generally requires off-label use of drugs. Endoparasitism is a major health concern in camelids and can result in severe clinical diseases and economic losses. There is still a lack of work on the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy for most antiparasitic drugs used in SACs. Even when choosing an appropriate route of administration, several aspects must be considered such as the fact that pour-on formulations are largely ineffective in camelids due to the unique features of llama and alpaca skin and hair that result in extremely low drug bioavailability. This review focuses on the main endoparasites of the digestive tract in llamas and alpacas in Europe and pharmacotherapeutic options based on current knowledge.

Franz, S., et al. (2015). "Llamas and alpacas in Europe: Endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control." Vet J 204(3): 255-262 ST - Llamas and alpacas in Europe: Endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control.

There are distinctive specifications for veterinary medical care of South American camelids (SACs), namely, llamas, alpacas, vicunas and guanacos. Camelids are classified as food-producing animals, but as veterinary medicinal products are often only licensed for domestic food-producing species such as horses, goats, sheep and cattle, treatment of SACs generally requires off-label use of drugs. Endoparasitism is a major health concern in camelids and can result in severe clinical diseases and economic losses. There is still a lack of work on the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy for most antiparasitic drugs used in SACs. Even when choosing an appropriate route of administration, several aspects must be considered such as the fact that pour-on formulations are largely ineffective in camelids due to the unique features of llama and alpaca skin and hair that result in extremely low drug bioavailability. This review focuses on the main endoparasites of the digestive tract in llamas and alpacas in Europe and pharmacotherapeutic options based on current knowledge. AN - 25933827

Fraser, M. D. (1994). Grazing ecology of goats, red deer and South American camelids.

A study was undertaken to determine and compare the grazing ecology of goats, red deer and South American camelids when pastured on three contrasting vegetation types typical of hill and upland ecosystems in Scotland: an established sown sward (Lolium perenne dominated); an indigenous grassland (Nardus stricta dominated); and a dwarf-shrub community (Calluna vulgaris dominated). Plots at each site were grazed in sequence with data collected during one spring (May/June) and two summer (August/September) experimental sessions. For each period at each site plant species composition, canopy structure and herbage biomass were characterized. Samples of the diet selected by up to five mature castrated goats, red deer and guanacos fistulated at the oesophagus were used to establish diet composition and in vitro digestibility of the diet. Herbage intake and diet digestibility of an additional five intact animals of each species were determined using n-alkane faecal markers. Total grazing time was estimated using vibracorders and bite rate data collected by observation. The influence of vegetation type and season on the diet composition and ingestive behaviour of each species was evaluated. Between species comparisons on each vegetation type were also made. Differences in selectivity for and against vegetation components indicate that guanacos are principally grazers while goats and red deer are intermediate feeders. On the Lolium sward the goats and red deer selected green leaf of both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants whereas the guanacos selected only graminoids. On the Nardus community the main dietary component for all three animal species was broad-leaved grasses selected from the species-rich intertussock areas. On the dwarf-shrub community there was strong selection for and against graminoid species and Calluna vulgaris respectively, with the dominant species of plant only making a substantial contribution to the red deer diet. Where differences between estimates of diet digestibility were identified the digestibility of material consumed by each species of animal on the sown sward was higher than that from either indigenous community; and the digestibility of material selected from the indigenous grassland was higher than that from the dwarf-shrub community.

French, R. A. and C. D. Ashworth (1994). "Zygomycosis caused by Conidiobolus coronatus in a llama (Lama glama)." Veterinary Pathology 31(1): 120-122.

Deformative and obstructive nasal entomophthoramycosis caused by C. coronatus in a 3-year-old female llama with a 2-year history of sneezing and a 6-month history of nasal discharge is described and compared with that described in the horse.

Frost, B. (1998). Research update on diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in llamas/alpacas. Richmond, United States Animal Health Association: 726-727.

Fugal, R. A., et al. (2010). "Exotic grass and shrub production evaluation and llama preference on the Bolivian Altiplano." Small Ruminant Research 94(1): 150-160.

Fugal, R. A., et al. (2010). "Exotic grass and shrub production evaluation and llama preference on the Bolivian Altiplano." Small Ruminant Research 94(1/3): 150-160.

Lack of nutritional forage during the dry season limits llama (Lama glama) production on the Bolivian Altiplano. Minimal supplementation with stockpiled energy-rich grasses and high-protein shrubs may improve the dry season nutritional status of llamas. The purposes of this study were first, to evaluate forage production on the Altiplano of cold-hardy, drought-resistant plants successful in the Intermountain Western United States and second, the acceptability of these species to llamas. Six species of grass (pubescent wheatgrass [Agropyron trichophorum], smooth brome [Bromus inermis], crested wheatgrass [Hycrest] [Agropyron cristatum × A. desertorum], weeping lovegrass [Eragrostis curvula], orchard grass [Dactylis glomerata], and timothy [Phleum pratense]) and 6 species of shrubs (black sage [Artemisia nova], fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens], saltbush [Atriplex halimus], mountain mahogany [Cercocarpus montanus], bitterbrush [Purshia tridentata], and forage kochia [Kochia prostrata]) were planted at three sites on the Altiplano and evaluated during the dormant season of the following 2 years. Data measuring row fill, biomass, and nutrient concentrations were collected for the grasses. Data measuring percent survival, biomass, and nutrient concentrations were collected for the shrubs. Preference trials including focal animal sampling and instantaneous-scan sampling evaluated the acceptance of these forages by llamas. During the first year, row fill among the grasses ranged from 30-96%. Smooth brome biomass increased from 3427 to 5420 kg dry weight/ha between years (p≤0.01) and was the most productive grass measured. Crested wheatgrass also increased from 2487 to 4687 kg dry weight/ha (p≤0.01). The most successful shrubs, forage kochia and fourwing saltbush, survived 75-90%. At one site, fourwing saltbush produced 638 kg dry weight/ha and forage kochia 616 kg dry weight/ha, more (p≤0.01) than produced at the other sites (91-316 kg dry weight/ha). Among the grasses, the highest CP concentrations were found in crested wheatgrass (9.7%) and orchard grass (9.6%). Weeping lovegrass had lower (p&lt;0.01) CP concentration (3.7%). Forage kochia, contained 14.6% CP. Five grasses were similarly preferred receiving between 11 and 18% time grazed. Weeping lovegrass received less (p≤0.01) at 1-2%. The llamas refused the shrubs completely. Considering biomass and acceptability, orchard grass, pubescent wheatgrass, and smooth brome are likely selections for dry season supplementation.

Fugaro, M. N., et al. (2005). "Retinoblastoma in the eye of a llama (Llama glama)." Veterinary Ophthalmology 8(4): 287-290.

Animal studied: A 6-year-old, pregnant female llama experienced a 6-month history of epiphora, buphthalmos, and acute loss of vision in the left eye. The condition was unresponsive to topical antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapy and progressed to corneal rupture. Procedures: Transpalpebral enucleation was performed and an intraorbital silicone prosthesis was implanted. The eye was fixed in formalin and processed according to routine paraffin technique. Sections of a mass were immunohistochemically prepared routinely and stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S-antigen, and rhodopsin. Results: Gross, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed a retinal tumor consistent with a retinoblastoma. The neoplastic tissue formed Flexner-Wintersteiner and Homer-Wright rosettes, originated from the retina, and demonstrated photoreceptor differentiation with S-antigen and rhodopsin expression. Neoplastic cells were negative for GFAP. Four years after enucleation, the llama showed no signs of recurrent neoplasia. Conclusions: This report describes the diagnosis and successful treatment of the first known retinoblastoma in a llama.

Fulton, I. C., et al. (1989). "Surgical Repair of a Bilateral Choanal Atresia in a Llama." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 20(4): 488-490.

Repair of bilateral choanal atresia in a 2-day-old llama (Lama glama) was achieved with Steinman pin perforation of the choanal membranes. An endotracheal tube was used to protect nasal mucosa and guide the Steinman pin to the membrane. Patency of the choanae was maintained by endotracheal tube stents that were retained by sutures to the external nares. These were changed at 7 days and then removed at 14 days. Daily cleaning was necessary to maintain patency of the tubes. The llama had grown to a normal weight at 8 mo of age with no evidence of respiratory distress.

Fulton, I. C., et al. (1989). "Surgical repair of a bilateral choanal atresia in a llama." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 20(4): 488-490.

Gabor, M., et al. (2010). "Chronic myositis in an Australian alpaca (Llama pacos) associated with Sarcocystis spp." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22(6): 966-969.

An alpaca (Llama pacos), born and raised in Australia, was presented with multiple subcutaneous abscesses. Histological findings indicated a severe necrotizing and histiocytic myositis and cellulitis associated with central caseation and multiple sarcocysts. Ultrastructural examination supported the diagnosis; however, cyst wall characteristics were not consistent with the 2 known species found in alpacas. While seroconversion in camelids is reported to be near ubiquitous, myositis is rare, and this is the first case reported outside of the Americas.

Güttler, E. (1986). Untersuchungen über die Haltung, Zucht, Physiologie und Pathologie der Fortpflanzung und Krankheiten von Lamas in den Anden Argentiniens. Giessen, Justus-Liebig-Universität.

Galbreath, E. J., et al. (1994). "Adenovirus-associated pneumonia and hepatitis in four llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 204(3): 424-426.

The diagnostic laboratory and PM findings are given. In 2 young llamas, clinical illness was characterized by chronic respiratory tract disease. In the 2 adult llamas, clinical illness was characterized by neurological signs and a history of respiratory tract disease. Histological examination, electron microscopy, virus isolation, and fluorescent antibody results indicated that adenovirus infection was associated with disease in all 4 llamas.

Galleguillos, M., et al. (2001). "Nitric oxide synthase activity in brain tissues from llama fetuses submitted to hypoxemia." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology 129(2/3): 605-614.

The fetal llama (Lama glama; a species adapted to live in chronic hypoxia in the highlands of the Andes) did not increase cerebral blood flow and reduce the brain oxygen uptake during hypoxaemia. Although nitric oxide (NO) is a normal mediator in the regulation of vascular tone and synaptic transmission, NO overproduction by hypoxaemia could produce neuronal damage. We hypothesized that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity is either maintained or reduced in the central nervous system of the llama fetuses submitted to chronic hypoxaemia. Approximately 85% of the Ca2+-dependent NOS activity was soluble, at least 12% was associated with the mitochondrial fraction, and less than 5% remains associated with microsomes. To understand the role of NO in chronic hypoxaemia, we determined the effect of 24-h hypoxaemia on NOS activity in the central nervous system. No changes in activity or the subcellular distribution of NOS activity in brain tissues after hypoxemia were found. We proposed that the lack of changes in NOS activity in the llama under hypoxaemia could be a cytoprotective mechanism inherent to the llama, against possible toxic effects of NO.

Gallinger, M. M., et al. (1995). "Rheological meat quality characters in llamas." Revista Argentina de Producción Animal 15(3/4): 973-975.

The rheological characters of 8 muscles were investigated in the carcasses of 14 llamas, slaughtered in Argentina at 6 years of age, at an average body weight of 105 kg. Meat from the hindquarter was tougher than that from the forequarter (P&lt;0.05), and there was a highly significant correlation between shear force values and the amount of connective tissue.

Galotta, D. R. and J. M. Galotta (1987). "Arteriovenous system of the lama stomach." Revista de Ciéncias Agrárias 8(1-2): 27-33.

Galotta, D. R. and J. M. Galotta (1988). "Osteology of the llama." Revista de Ciencias Agrarias y de Tecnologia de los Alimentos 9(1-4): 19-61.

Galotta, D. R., et al. (1985). "The quadratus plantae muscle in the lama." Revista de Ciéncias Agrárias 4(1-2): 55-57.

Garaicoechea, L., et al. (2015). "Llama nanoantibodies with therapeutic potential against human norovirus diarrhea." PLoS One 10(8): e0133665 ST - Llama nanoantibodies with therapeutic potential against human norovirus diarrhea.

Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, but no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are available. Llama-derived single chain antibody fragments (also called VHH) are small, recombinant monoclonal antibodies of 15 kDa with several advantages over conventional antibodies. The aim of this study was to generate recombinant monoclonal VHH specific for the two major norovirus (NoV) genogroups (GI and GII) in order to investigate their potential as immunotherapy for the treatment of NoV diarrhea. To accomplish this objective, two llamas were immunized with either GI.1 (Norwalk-1968) or GII.4 (MD2004) VLPs. After immunization, peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected and used to generate two VHH libraries. Using phage display technology, 10 VHH clones specific for GI.1, and 8 specific for GII.4 were selected for further characterization. All VHH recognized conformational epitopes in the P domain of the immunizing VP1 capsid protein, with the exception of one GII.4 VHH that recognized a linear P domain epitope. The GI.1 VHHs were highly specific for the immunizing GI.1 genotype, with only one VHH cross-reacting with GI.3 genotype. The GII.4 VHHs reacted with the immunizing GII.4 strain and showed a varying reactivity profile among different GII genotypes. One VHH specific for GI.1 and three specific for GII.4 could block the binding of homologous VLPs to synthetic HBGA carbohydrates, saliva, and pig gastric mucin, and in addition, could inhibit the hemagglutination of red blood cells by homologous VLPs. The ability of Nov-specific VHHs to perform well in these surrogate neutralization assays supports their further development as immunotherapy for NoV treatment and immunoprophylaxis. AN - 26267898

GarcÃÂa López, M. n. (2010). Desarrollo de nuevas metodologÃÂas para la determinación de plastificantes y retardantes de llama organofosforados y sus derivados en muestras medioambientales memoria para optar al grado de Doctor en QuÃÂmica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Servizo de Publicacións e Intercambio CientÃÂfico.

Garcia Calderon, V.-M. a., et al. (1938). The white llama : being La venganza del condor of V. G. Calderon, now translated into English for the first time. London, Golden Cockerel Press.

García-Luján, J. M. a. (2011). La llama del triunfo. Madrid, Esfera de los Libros.

Gareis, I. (1982). Llama und Alpaca in der Religion der rezenten Bewohner des zentralen und su\0308dlichen Andengebietes. Hohenscha\0308ftlarn, Renner.

Garlick, D. S., et al. (1990). "Gemistocytic astrocytoma in a one-month-old llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 196(12): 2009-2010.

Garmendia, A. E., et al. (2015). "Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru." Vet Microbiol 180(1-2): 109-112 ST - Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru.

Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex. AN - 26243695

Garnica, J., et al. (1993). Immunoglobulin G in mammary secretions and crias of llamas and alpacas. Gainsville, International Society of Veterinary Perinatology: 88.

Garro\n de Doryan, V. (1971). Para que exista la llama. San Jose\0301, Lehmann.

Garry, F. (1989). "Clinical pathology of llamas." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 5(1): 55-70.

Garry, F. (1994). "Assessment of colic in llamas." Equine Practice 16(8): 34-36.

The physical examination, body condition assessment and treatment of colic in llamas are discussed.

Garry, F., et al. (1994). "Clinical pathology of llamas." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 201-209.

Gasthuys, F., et al. (1996). "Ostectomy for congenital flexural deformity of the metacarpophalangeal joints in llama." Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 9(1): 40-42.

Gatica G, R., et al. (1994). "Successful pregnancy obtained by embryo transfer to a llama." Agricultura Técnica (Santiago) 54(1): 68-71.

The transfer of a 7-day embryo to a llama in Chile resulted in the birth of a liveborn female 327 days later. An account is given of methods used for superovulation and embryo transfer.

Gattas, M. (1989). El tiempo se llama diez. Motevideo, DestaBanda.

Gauly, M. (1997). Seasonal changes in semen characters and serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol-17β, thyroxine and triiodothyronine in male llamas (Lama glama) in Central Europe, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin, Giessen: 163 pp.

Using an artificial vagina, semen was collected at weekly intervals from 4 llamas in Germany, aged 3-7 years and kept indoors with no access to females and subjected to the natural photoperiod throughout the year. Blood samples were obtained 3 times per week. The average duration of semen collection was 11 min, and it was significantly correlated with ejaculate volume (0.23) and the number of spermatozoa (0.48). There were significant differences between males in semen characters. The average concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and triiodothyronine in blood were 5-6 ng/ml, 20.0 pg/ml and 1.5 ng/ml respectively. Social rank had a significant effect on sperm concentration and blood testosterone and oestradiol concentrations, and season significantly affected sperm concentration (highest in November-December and lowest in summer) and serum oestradiol and triiodothyronine concentrations. It was concluded that male llamas have adapted to European climatic conditions.

Gauly, M., et al. (1997). "Annual changes in serum levels of thyroid hormones in male llamas (Lama glama) and their correlation with reproduction parameters." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 4(2): 159-163.

Seasonal changes in serum thyroid hormones and reproductive parameters were measured in mature male llamas (3-6 years old) under middle European conditions. The animals were housed indoors and subjected to the natural photoperiod throughout the year. Blood was taken 3 times a week for 1 year. Total and free serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Ejaculates were collected once a week over a period of 17 months using a modified artificial vagina. The average serum concentration of T3 ranged from 1.29 to 1.55 ng/ml and T4 from 61.73 to 76.04 ng/ml, and that of free T3 ranged from 2.4 to 3.5 pg/ml and free T4 from 5.2 to 6.7 ng/dl. The mean T4/T3 ratio was 50.6%. Individual differences (P&lt;0.001) were found in the average concentrations of both thyroid hormones which were correlated with the male's position in the dominance hierarchy. Thyroid hormone concentrations changed seasonally, with the highest concentration during the winter and the lowest during the summer. Serum T3 and T4 concentrations were positively correlated with the number of spermatozoa (P&lt;0.05). T3, T4 and free T4 concentrations were negatively correlated with the average ambient temperature, the maximum and minimum temperature and the hours of sunlight per day. Free T3 was negatively correlated with ejaculate volume (P&lt;0.01).

Gauly, M., et al. (2004). Annual changes in serum levels of thyroid hormones in male llamas (Lama glama) and their correlation with reproduction parameters. Bikaner, The Camelid Publishers: 186-194.

Gauly, M., et al. (2003). "Suckling behaviour of llamas (Lama glama)." Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 110(10): 412-416.

The suckling behaviour of 6 llama crias was analysed. A total of 3398 suckling bouts were observed and evaluated. The crias mostly suckled in a reverse parallel position with no side preference. The crias initiated suckling in most bouts, whereas the dams usually ended them. The total number of suckling bouts could be divided into 2 types: suckling bouts of short duration and suckling bouts of long duration. There were no significant differences in duration per suckling bout among the different ages of crias. However, the animals suckled less frequently and spent less total time suckling as they grew older. The age related differences and evidence for a dual function (nutrition and social contact) of suckling behaviour were discussed.

Gauly, M., et al. (2005). "Brainstem auditory-evoked potential assessment of auditory function and congenital deafness in llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (L. pacos)." Journal of veterinary internal medicine 19(5): 756-760.

Auditory function of llamas and alpacas was assessed objectively by means of brainstem auditory-evoked response audiometry (BAER) to establish the normal hearing range and to test the hypothesis of a correlation between blue eyes, white coat, and deafness. Sixty-three camelids were available for the study. Thirteen animals had blue irides; 1 animal had 1 blue and 1 pigmented iris. Wave latencies, amplitudes, and interpeak latencies were measured under general anesthetic. Click stimuli (dB [HL]) were delivered by an insert earphone. Four to five positive peaks could be detected; waves I, II, and V were reproducible; wave II appeared infrequently; and wave IV generally merged with wave V to form a complex. Peak latencies decreased and peak amplitudes increased as stimulus intensity increased. A hearing threshold level of 10-20 dB (HL) was proposed as the normal range in llamas and alpacas. None of the animals with pigmentation of coat and iris showed any degree of hearing impairment. Seven of the 10 blue-eyed, pure-white animals were bilaterally deaf and one of them was unilaterally deaf. However, 2 blue-eyed, white animals exhibited normal hearing ability. Three blue-eyed animals with pigmented coat did not show any hearing impairment. All white animals with normal iris pigmentation had normal auditory function; so did the 1 animal with 1 normal and 1 blue iris. The high frequency (78%) of bilaterally deaf animals with pure white coat and blue iris pigmentation supports the hypothesis of a correlation between pigmentation anomalies and congenital deafness in llamas and alpacas.

Gauna, C. D., et al. (2001). SUPREME-project: a study of growth and development in Argentine llamas. Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 260-266.

Gavier, D., et al. (1988). "Evaluation of a combination of xylazine, ketamine, and halothane for anesthesia in llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 49(12): 2047-2055.

Anaesthesia induced by use of a combination of xylazine, ketamine, and halothane, under conditions of spontaneous and mechanically controlled ventilation, was evaluated in 5 llamas positioned in dorsal recumbency. Using chronically implanted catheters, systemic arterial blood pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, right atrial pressure, heart rate and rhythm, cardiac output, blood pH and gas tensions, body temperature, and respiratory rate were measured before anaesthesia induction (baseline), throughout the anaesthesia period, and for 1 h into the recovery period. During anaesthesia, llamas undergoing spontaneous ventilation developed hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis. Cardiovascular function was decreased during both types of ventilation. The combination of xylazine, ketamine, and halothane in various doses and 2 ventilation procedures (spontaneous and controlled) provided a reliable method for general anaesthesia in llamas, but marked cardiovascular depression developed during anaesthesia maintenance with halothane. Spontaneous ventilation resulted in potentially clinically important respiratory acidosis.

Gavier, M. D. (1987). Evaluation of the combination of xylazine, ketamine and halothane for anesthesia in llamas. Davis, Calif.

Gavier, M. D., et al. (1986). "Evaluation of xylazine, ketamine hydrochloride and halothane for anaesthesia in llamas." Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians: 127.

Safe and acceptable anaesthesia was obtained in 5 llamas with a combination of xylazine (0.25 mg/kg intravenously), ketamine (2.5 mg/kg intravenously) and halothane. Controlled ventilation is recommended.

Gazitúa, F. J., et al. (2001). "Prediction of gestational age by ultrasonic fetometry in llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos)." Animal Reproduction Science 66(1/2): 81-92.

Fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) and thorax height (TH) were measured by ultrasound during intrauterine growth in pregnant llamas (L. glama) and alpacas (L. pacos). The goal was to establish representative curves that allows estimation of gestational age (GA) from real-time ultrasonic measurements of these fetal structures at any stage of gestation. Llamas and alpacas were mated under controlled conditions. Ultrasound exams were conducted to determine pregnancy status 1 month later. Measurements of fetal BPD and TH were conducted from the second month of pregnancy until term. Observation and assessment of fetal TH was difficult during the last 3 months of pregnancy, specially in llamas. Regression curves were calculated from the data as a function of GA, with the best fit represented by the following equations: llama GA = (BPD - 0.002399)43.02293,r=0.98, P&lt;0.001; llama GA=(TH - 0.07137)46.94485, r=0.95, P&lt;0.001; alpaca GA=(BPD - 0.11376)47.23287, r=0.98, P&lt;0.001; alpaca GA=(TH - 0.36436)52.87663, r=0.96, P&lt;0.001, where GA was measured in days and BPD and TH in centimeters. Results indicate that ultrasonic measurement of these fetal biometric variables constitute a valuable tool to estimate GA at any stage of pregnancy in these domestic South American camelids.

Gehring, H. (1981). Sarcoptes in llama (Lama guanicoe glama) and alpaca (Lama guanicoe pacos). Berlin, Akademie-Verlag.: 257-260.

Genin, D. and M. Tichit (1997). "Degradability of Andean range forages in llamas and sheep." Journal of Range Management 50(4): 381-385.

In sacco dry matter degradability (DMD) of the most commonly consumed range forages (Festuca orthophylla, F. dolichophylla, Stipa ichu, Calamagrostis heterophylla, Poa candamoana, Distichlis humilis, Tarasa tenella, Adesmia spinosissima, Tetraglochin cristatum, Parastephia lepidophylla, Baccharis incarum) by llamas and sheep in the arid highlands of Bolivia was measured during the wet and dry seasons to determine if llamas have more efficient digestion than sheep. Results showed that degradability of low quality forages (DMD &lt;60% in sheep) was 20-30% higher for llamas than sheep, while no significant differences were found for highly digestible forages. There was a high correlation between DMD in llamas and sheep with a coefficient of determination of 0.96. Parameters of degradation curves indicated that llamas did not have higher microbial activity than sheep, since there was no consistent difference in degradation rates of the studied forages. The significantly higher potential degradability and effective degradability found in this study suggested that the longer retention time in the forestomach of llamas may be responsible for the higher digestibility of poor quality forages.

Genin, D., et al. (1994). "Diet selection and utilization by llama and sheep in high altitude-arid rangeland of Bolivia." Journal of Range Management 47(3): 245-248.

Botanical composition of llamas and sheep diets were quantified monthly during Oct. 1991-Sep. 1992 in the arid highlands of Bolivia. Llamas consumed more coarse bunchgrasses (Stipa ichu and Festuca dolichophylla) than sheep (48-75% vs. 37-68%), while sheep consumed more soft herbs and grasses (such as Calamagrostis heterophylla, Poa candamoana, Muhlenbergia peruviana, M. fastigiata, Malvastrum peruvianum and Distichlis humilis) than llamas (25-45% vs. 8-25%). Llama diets had higher digestion coefficients than sheep for OM, DM, CP and fibre fractions for the dominant bunchgrass F. orthophylla during the vegetative stage. Shrubs represented &lt;20% of the diet intake in both animals. A canonical discriminant analysis showed that there was not a strong dietary overlap between these species, and suggested that mixed grazing could allow a better utilization of the available forage.

Gentz, E. J., et al. (1994). "Polycythemia in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 204(9): 1490-1492.

Gerken, M., et al. (1998). "Social behaviour and social distance in female llamas." KTBL-Schrift(No. 380): 173-181.

Gerros, T. C. (1998). "Recognizing and treating urolithiasis in llamas." Veterinary Medicine 93(6): 583-590.

Gerros, T. C. and C. B. Andreasen (1999). "Analysis of transtracheal aspirates and pleural fluid from clinically healthy llamas (Llama glama)." Veterinary Clinical Pathology 28(1): 29-32.

Characteristics of transtracheal aspirates (TTA) and pleural fluid samples were examined in 17 clinically healthy adult llamas. Results of complete blood counts, fibrinogen measurement and thoracic radiographs were within normal limits before sampling. Cytology of TTA identified most of the cells as vacuolated macrophages (60-100%), with 0-40% neutrophils, and fewer lymphocytes (0-1%), eosinophils (0-3%), and ciliated respiratory epithelial cells (0-10%). In TTA from 10 of 17 llamas, neither aerobic nor anaerobic bacteria were isolated. Bacteria isolated in pure culture from TTA were similar to isolates found in clinically healthy animals of other species, and included Acinetobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. Results (mean±s.d.) of pleural fluid analyses were: total nucleated cell count 576±361/µl; specific gravity 1.0133±0.002; glucose concentration 135.1±9.02 mg/dl; and lactate concentration 2.95±1.34 mg/dl. Pleural fluid total protein concentrations measured by refractometry ranged from &lt;2.5 to 3.5 g/dl. The refractive index ranged from 1.3396 to 0.0013. In pleural fluid, small lymphocytes were the predominant cell type.

Gerros, T. C. and W. C. Stone (1994). "What is your diagnosis? [Complete bilateral choanal atresia in a llama]." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 205(2): 179-180.

Geurden, T., et al. (2005). "Parasite infections in llamas in temperate zones." Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 74(5): 347-354.

The occurrence of scabies (caused by Sarcoptes scabiei and Psoroptes) in Lama spp. is described. Treatment and prevention are outlined. Problems casued by Fasciola hepatica, treatment and prevention are described. Helminths and Moniezia spp. also cause problems for Belgian keepers. Problems due to protozoal infections and ectoparasites are minimal.

Gevrey, J. (1989). "Llamas and sheep : cross infection studies." Bulletin de la Société Française de Parasitologie 7(2): 245-249.

Seven llamas were grazed on a sheep pasture from mid-March to the end of May and then grazed together with 6 ewes. Faeces from both species were monitored for helminths every 3 weeks from March to the end of July. The results suggest that there may be transmission of trichurids and Skrjabinema from llama to sheep since these parasites were found in sheep only after they had grazed together with llamas for 21 days. Dicrocoelium lanceolatum appeared simultaneously in both llamas and sheep suggesting that they became infected via ants infected in the previous year. Protostrongylids appeared specific to sheep. Camelostrongylus was certainly acquired by sheep from llamas. A parasite-free lamb infected by larvae extracted from llama faeces was found to have numerous Camelostrongylus in the abomasum and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in the small intestine.

Gibran, K. and C. Ruiz (1978). Llama azul : cartas ineditas a Mayy Ziyadeh. Madrid, Instituto Hispano-Arabe de Cultura.

Gidlewski, T., et al. (2000). "Experimental Brucella abortus induced abortion in a llama: pathologic effects." Veterinary Pathology 37(1): 77-82.

Gilbert, R. M., et al. (2009). "Platelet aggregation responses in clinically healthy adult llamas." Veterinary Clinical Pathology 38(1): 42-45.

Background: Limited information exists regarding hemostasis in camelids despite the importance of platelet function testing in the accurate identification of platelet disorders. As further importation of llamas to North America is restricted, variability in breeding stock will continue to decrease, potentially leading to an increase in heritable bleeding disorders. Objective: The objective of this study was to measure platelet aggregation responses in clinically healthy llamas and provide baseline data to which abnormal platelet function may be compared in the future. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 39 healthy adult llamas, citrated, and centrifuged to produce platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Within 4 hours of the blood draw, 20 µL of each agonist reagent were added to 180 µL of PRP. Final concentrations of agonists were 2×10-5 M ADP, 0.19 mg collagen/mL PRP, 1×10-4 M epinephrine, and 500 µg arachidonic acid/mL PRP. Results: Llama platelets were most responsive to ADP and collagen, with a maximum percent aggregation (mean±SD) of 71.3±18.6% and 55.8±19% and aggregation rates of 9.5±3.9 and 6.7±3.7 cm/min, respectively. Llama platelet aggregation in response to epinephrine and arachidonic acid was minimal to absent. Conclusions: This study is the first of its kind to establish baseline values for platelet aggregation in healthy adult llamas.

Gillespie, R. A. M., et al. (2010). "Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia." Veterinary Parasitology 172(1/2): 168-171.

The number of South American camelid (SAC; llama and alpaca) farms is growing in the southeastern United States, and infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern in this region. There is widespread resistance to anthelmintic remedies in small ruminants (sheep and goats), but a paucity of information on llamas and alpacas. Anthelmintic resistance was evaluated on three SAC farms (two llama; one alpaca) in Georgia in the southern United States using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. For each farm, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups based on initial fecal egg count (FEC) and number of animals available (2-5 groups, n=9-11 per treatment). Ivermectin (IVM, subcutaneous injection; 0.3 mg/kg body weight (BW)) and a control group were tested on an alpaca farm, and fenbendazole (FBZ, oral; 10 mg/kg BW; two farms), moxidectin (MOX oral; 0.2 mg/kg BW; two farms), and levamisole (LEV, oral; 8 mg/kg BW; one farm) were added for the llama farms. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by comparing FEC of treatment and control animals 14 days post-treatment, with resistance evaluated using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Based upon these guidelines, there was GIN resistance to IVM in both llamas and alpacas in Georgia and to FBZ on both llama farms where this drug was tested. There was MOX resistance on one llama farm using the FECR test, while there was no resistance to LEV detected in this study. These data demonstrate a serious emerging problem in the United States of llama and alpaca GIN resistant to drugs from two of the three major anthelmintic classes.

Gilsdorf, M. J., et al. (2001). "Experimental exposure of llamas (Lama glama) to Brucella abortus: humoral antibody response." Veterinary microbiology 81(1): 85-91.

Positive antibody reactions to brucella were observed in the sera of four llamas receiving Brucella abortus Strain 19 subcutaneously at 2-3 weeks post-exposure (PE) using five of eight conventional brucella serologic tests and an ISU-ELISA. Positive brucella antibody reactions were detected in sera of four llamas exposed by intraocular instillation (IOI) of 1.02 × 108 (high dose) B. abortus Strain 2308 at 16-35 days PE using seven of eight serologic tests or an ISU-ELISA. Brucella antibody was also detected in sera of four llamas exposed by IOI of 9 × 105 (low dose) B. abortus using each of four agglutination tests, Complement Fixation test, PCFIA, the rivanol test and the ISU-ELISA at 16-35 days PE. Positive reactions were observed using the Card test, BAPA, SPT, STT, the rivanol test, the PCFIA and the ISU-ELISA on sera collected on days 42-70 PE, except on one llama, given the low dose; that llama was negative on the PCFIA on day 42. Positive or suspicious reactions were not detected in sera of controls, receiving saline subcutaneously, using the routine tests, with the exception of the CFT. The B. abortus Strain 2308 was isolated from tissues of seven of eight llamas exposed to virulent B. abortus Strain 2308.

Gionfriddo, J. R. (1994). "Ophthalmology [llama]." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 371-382.

Gionfriddo, J. R. and M. Blair (2002). "Congenital cataracts and persistent hyaloid vasculature in a llama (Lama glama)." Veterinary Ophthalmology 5(1): 65-70.

Gionfriddo, J. R., et al. (2000). "Detection of lysozyme in llama, sheep, and cattle tears." American Journal of Veterinary Research 61(10): 1294-1297.

The objective of the study is to determine whether the tears of 40 llamas, 5 sheep and 36 cattle contain lysozyme and compare lysozyme concentrations in tears among these species. Electrophoresis, western blot immunoassay for lysozyme, a spectrophotometric assay to detect tear lysozyme by its ability to lyse a suspension of Micrococcus lysodeiticus, and a microtiter plate colorometric assay were performed. A 13.6-kd protein band was detected by use of electrophoresis and western blot immunoassay in llama and sheep tears but not cattle tears. Results of spectrophotometric assay suggested that llama and sheep tears had high concentrations of lysozyme, whereas cattle tears had low concentrations. Results of the microtiter plate colorometric assay suggested that llama tears had high concentrations of lysozyme, whereas concentrations in sheep and cattle tears were lower. Lysozyme concentrations in tears may vary among species and this variability may contribute to differing susceptibilities to ocular diseases such as infectious keratoconjunctivitis.

Gionfriddo, J. R., et al. (1997). "Ocular diseases of llamas: 194 cases (1980-1993)." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210(12): 1784-1787.

Medical records of all llamas entered into the Veterinary Medical Database between 1980 and 1993 were reviewed to identify the prevalences of ocular and adnexal diseases to which llamas in North America are susceptible, and to compare prevalences in llamas with those in cattle and horses. 194 of 3243 (6%) llamas had at least one ocular disease. The proportion of llamas that had ocular disease was significantly higher than the proportions of cattle (4937/141 932; 3%) or horses (11 950/243 483; 5%) with ocular diseases. The most frequently affected ocular structure in llamas was the cornea, and ulcerative keratitis was the commonest corneal disease. The second most commonly affected structure was the uveal tract. Cataracts were reported in 20 (10%) of the llamas with ocular problems. Eyelid disorders, retinal diseases, glaucoma and ocular or adnexal neoplasia were reported infrequently in llamas.

Gionfriddo, J. R., et al. (2000). "Comparison of tear proteins of llamas and cattle." American Journal of Veterinary Research 61(10): 1289-1293.

To analyze and compare contents of the preocular tear films of 40 llamas and 35 cattle, tear pH was determined by use of a pH meter. Total protein concentration was determined by use of 2 microtiter methods. Tear proteins were separated by use of electrophoresis and molecular weights of bands were calculated. Western blot immunoassay was used to detect IgA, lactoferrin, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, α1-antitrypsin, α1-amylase, and α2-macroglobulin. Enzyme electrophoresis was used to detect proteases. The pH of llama and cattle tears were 8.05±0.01 and 8.10±0.01, respectively. For results of both methods, total protein concentration of llama tears was significantly greater than that of cattle tears. Molecular weights of tear protein bands were similar within and between the 2 species, although llama tears had a distinct 13.6-kd band that was not detected in cattle. Lactoferrin, IgA, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, α1-antitrypsin, α1-amylase, α2-macroglobulin, and proteases were detected in both species. Llama tears have significantly greater total protein concentration than cattle tears, whereas pH is similar between species. Because little variation was detected within species for the number and molecular weight of protein bands, pooling of tears for analysis is justified. Results suggest that lactoferrin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, α1-antitrypsin, α2-macroglobulin, α1-amylase, and IgA are present in the tears of llamas and cattle.

Gipps, R. (1995). Llama's lullaby : for bassoon & piano. Bridgend, Griffiths Edition.

Giudicelli, B. (2001). "Veterinary interventions in small camelids (llamas and alpacas)." Point Vétérinaire 32(214): 30-37.

Giuliano, S., et al. (2010). "Improvement of llama (Lama glama) seminal characteristics using collagenase." Animal Reproduction Science 118(1): 98-102.

Llama semen is characterized by great structural viscosity and minimal sperm progressive motility. These characteristics, inherent to South American Camelid ejaculates, have slowed down the development of assisted reproductive techniques in these species. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of different combinations of dilutions and incubation time with H-TALP-BSA medium, with and without adding 0.1% collagenase, on the qualitative and quantitative semen characteristics, for its use in assisted fertility techniques. Ejaculates (n=8; r=3) were obtained using electroejaculation. Each ejaculate was evaluated and then split into four aliquots. Two of these were diluted 4:1 and 8:1 in 0.1% collagenase in H-TALP-BSA (treatments 1 and 3) and the other two 4:1 and 8:1 in H-TALP-BSA without collagenase (treatments 2 and 4). Treatments 1 and 2 were incubated 4 min at 37°C while treatments 3 and 4 were incubated 8 min. All aliquots were centrifuged at 800 × g for 4 min immediately after incubation. Supernatants were pipetted to observe thread formation and pellets were re-diluted in H-TALP-BSA. Supernatants from samples treated with collagenase did not form a thread when pipetted, while the ones from samples that were not treated with the enzyme did. Only semen samples treated with collagenase showed progressive sperm motility, with averages over 40%. There were no significant differences (P&gt;0.05) for the percentage of live spermatozoa and for the percentage of detached heads between raw and treated semen samples. Percentages of spermatozoa with functional membranes were significantly higher (P≤0.05) in samples treated with collagenase than in raw semen and in samples incubated without collagenase. These results show that treating semen with 0.1% collagenase in H-TALP-BSA improves semen rheological properties while facilitates the separation of spermatozoa from seminal plasma in llama; it also promotes sperm progressive motility, while maintaining sperm membrane functionality and integrity. Consequently, this protocol could be used for in vitro llama embryo production with ejaculated spermatozoa.

Giuliano, S., et al. (2008). "Collection method, season and individual variation on seminal characteristics in the llama (Lama glama)." Animal Reproduction Science 104(2/4): 359-369.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of semen collection method (electroejaculation "EE" as compared with the artificial vagina "AV"), the season (summer versus winter) and the male used on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of ejaculates in llamas. A total of 110 ejaculates were collected from six males and 92 of them were analyzed. Ejaculate volume, concentration, total sperm and the following sperm characteristics were studied: motility, membrane function (HOS test), membrane integrity (CFDA/PI fluorochromes) and morphology. A mixed linear model, that considered season and collection method as the fixed variables and the male as the random variable, was used for the statistical analysis. Variability was found between males (p≤0.05) when comparing the seminal characteristics. When considering the number of collections performed and the number of ejaculates discarded with each method, significant differences (p&lt;0.01) were found between collection methods (EE and AV), with EE having a greater proportion of successful semen collections. There were significant differences (p≤0.05) between collection methods for volume, sperm motility and membrane function. Ejaculates obtained by EE have a greater volume, sperm motility, live spermatozoa and sperm with functional membranes. Comparison of semen variables between the two seasons indicated that sperm concentration and sperm abnormalities were different (p&lt;0.01). Ejaculates obtained during winter have greater sperm concentration and less sperm tail abnormalities than in summer. We conclude that semen variables have individual variation in llamas and are affected both by method of collection and season. The most desirable semen quality was obtained during winter using EE as the semen collection method.

Giussani, D. A., et al. (1993). "Rapid, intense peripheral vasoconstriction in the llama fetus in utero during acute hypoxaemia at 0.6-0.7 of gestation." Journal of Physiology 473: 64P.

Giussani, D. A., et al. (1999). "Adrenergic and vasopressinergic contributions to the cardiovascular response to acute hypoxaemia in the llama fetus." Journal of Physiology 515(1): 233-241.

Göbel, B. (2001). The symbolism of llama breeding in North-Western Argentina. Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 175-180.

The paper focuses on the pastoral community of Huancar in the Andean highlands of northwestern Argentina. The aim of the contribution is to show, that in the management of llamas economic and cosmological aspects are narrowly interwoven. Economic success, as for example herd growth, is addressed in Huancar as suerte (luck). Luck can only partially be achieved by individual action. It depends to a great extent from the benevolence of Mother Earth (pachamama). Many breeding practices are not understandable, if one does not take this basic conceptualization of the dynamics between humans and animals into account.

Godynicka, M. and S. Godynicki (1971). "A case of persistent arterial trunk in a guanaco llama (Lama guanicoe, Miller, 1776)." Folia Morphologica (English edition) 30(No.2): 212-215.

Goldman, E. R., et al. (2008). "Thermostable llama single domain antibodies for detection of botulinum A neurotoxin complex." Analytical Chemistry (Washington) 80(22): 8583-8591.

Immunoglobulins from animals of the Camelidae family boast unique forms that do not incorporate light chains. Antigen binding in these unconventional heavy-chain homodimers is mediated through a single variable domain. When expressed recombinantly these variable domains are termed single domain antibodies (sdAb) and are among the smallest naturally IgG-derived antigen binding units. SdAb possess good solubility, thermostability, and can refold after heat and chemical denaturation making them promising alternative recognition elements. We have constructed a library of phage-displayed sdAb from a llama immunized with a cocktail of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) complex toxoids and panned the library for binders for BoNT A complex toxoid. Six unique binders were isolated and found to specifically bind BoNT A complex in toxoid and untoxoided forms and when used in optimal combinations in buffer and milk could detect 100 pg/mL untoxoided complex. All sdAb retained their ability to specifically bind target after heating to 85°C for 1 h, in contrast to conventional polyclonal sera. All of the sdAb were highly specific for subtype A1 rather than A2 and demonstrated binding to the 33 kDa hemagglutinin, potentially to a somewhat overlapping linear epitope. The unique properties of these sdAb may provide advantages for many diagnostic applications where long-term storage and in-line monitoring require very rugged yet highly specific recognition elements.

Gomez-Puerta, L. A., et al. (2013). "A case of nasal myiasis due to Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) in a llama (Lama glama)." Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária 22(4): 608-610.

Infection by the larval form of Oestrus ovis (sheep bot fly) is common in many areas of Peru. This is an obligate parasite of sheep and goats, and it is the cause of oestrosis, or nasal myiasis, which can lead to severe clinical manifestations in livestock. A case of myiasis caused by O. ovis in a llama (Lama glama) in Cuzco, Peru, is reported here. This llama presented with respiratory distress and died due to bilateral hemorrhagic pneumonia. During the necropsy, six intact dipterous larvae were recovered from the nasal fossae and cranial sinuses being identified as O. ovis. This is the first report of nasal myiasis in llamas due to O. ovis in Peru.

Goniakowska-Witalinska, L. and W. Witalinski (1977). "Occurrence of microtubules during erythropoiesis in llama, Lama glama." Journal of Zoology 181(3): 309-313.

Gonza\Lez Posada, A. (1926). La Llama, Valencia.

Gonza\lez Vian\a, E. (1979). ¡Habla, Sampedro : llama a los brujos! Barcelona, Argos Vergara.

González., B. n. (2015). Evaluación del impacto ambiental asociado al uso de nuevos retardantes de llama, Universitat de Barcelona.

González, E., et al. (2004). "Thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS): application for total determination of Cd, Pb and Zn in fresh waters, seawater and marine sediments." Química Nova 27(6): 873-877.

Thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) was used for the total determination of Cd, Pb and Zn in fresh water and sea water samples at µg/litre levels, and in marine sediment samples at µg g-1 levels. Using a sample loop of 50 µlitre and a peristaltic pump the samples were transported into the metallic tube placed over an air/acetylene flame, through a ceramic capillary (o.d.=3.2 mm) containing two parallel internal orifices (i.d=0.5 mm). The detection limits determined for Cd, Pb and Zn using a synthetic water matrix (2.5% m/v NaCl, 0.5% m/v MgCl2 and 0.8% m/v CaCl2) were 0.32, 2.6 and 0.21 µg litre-1, respectively. The methodology by TS-FF-AAS was validated by determination of Cd, Pb and Zn in certified reference materials of water and marine sediment, and the t-test was used to determine differences between means. No statistically significant differences were established in fresh water and sea water (p&gt;0.05), whereas differences became apparent in marine sediment (p&lt;0.03).

Gorman, T., et al. (1999). "Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and alpacas (Llama pacos) in Chile." Preventive Veterinary Medicine 40(3/4): 143-149.

Serum samples from 408 sheep from different regions of Chile and 447 alpacas from the north of the country were tested for T. gondii antibodies [date not given]. The indirect haemagglutination test (IHAT) was used in both species and the indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT) was also used on the sheep samples in order to compare the performance of the tests in that species. In both tests, titres ≥1:16 were considered diagnostically significant. Sera from 49 sheep (12%) were positive to T. gondii antibodies by the IHAT. When using the IIFT, 114 sheep sera (28%) were positive. The results obtained with the 2 tests were significantly different. No differences in seroprevalence were observed between geographical locations or sex of the sampled sheep. Adult sheep showed higher T. gondii reactivity than young sheep. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in alpacas was 16.3% (32 positive out of 447). It is suggested that the rather low prevalence in alpacas may be associated with their extensive management as well as the extreme climatic conditions of The Andes which apparently would not be favourable for the transmission of the parasite.

Gose, P. (1990). "The Flocks of the Wamani: A Study of Llama Herders on the Punas of Ayacucho., Kent V. Flannery." Man 25(4): 729-729.

Grabkowski, M. and B. Rutkowiak (1989). "Blood values of guanacos, llamas, Cameroon goats and buffaloes in a zoo." Medycyna Weterynaryjna 45(6): 349-352.

Graziotti, G., et al. (2000). "Arteries of the hindfoot of the llama (Lama glama)." Anatomia Histologia Embryologia 29(5): 273-276.

Graziotti, G. H., et al. (2007). "Distribution of the internal pudendal artery in male and female llama (Lama glama)." Annals of Anatomy 189(3): 295-298.

The aim of this research has been to describe the internal pudendal artery distribution in male and female llama and to compare it with that of other domestic animals including the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). The arterial system was perfused with a solution of 14% coloured plaster and preserved in a solution of a 10% formalin, 3% carbolic acid and 3% glycerine. The systematic dissection was made using traditional working techniques and standard instruments. The internal pudendal artery is the ventral terminal branch of the internal iliac artery at the level of the third sacral vertebra. The main supply of the pelvic organs comes from the prostatic or vaginal arteries; notwithstanding these arteries arise from the internal pudendal artery, showing an important difference between ruminants and pig (long iliac type). Similarities between the distribution of the internal pudendal artery of the llama and those obtained in the camel provide strong evidence of a common phylogenetic origin.

Graziotti, G. H., et al. (2003). "Systematic study of the internal iliac artery in llama (Lama glama)." Annals of Anatomy 185(5): 461-463.

The aim of this research was to determine the origins of the parietal and visceral branches of the internal iliac artery of the llama and to match those with the known types mid classifications in the human being and domestic animals. The internal iliac artery divides at the level of the third sacral vertebra into the caudal gluteal and internal pudendal arteries corresponding to an inter mediate long iliac type. It gives off the following collateral branches: umbilical, cranial gluteal, obturator and iliolumbar arteries. The intrapelvic visceral branches, vaginal or prostatic arteries, arise from the internal pudendal artery as occurs in carnivores. This is an important difference in relation to the distribution in characteristic long iliac and artiodactyla types. The origins of the parietal and visceral branches of internal iliac artery in the llama have characteristics in common with the domestic cat, which belongs to the carnivores. In relation to the Adachi classification, the internal iliac artery of the llama will be included in the IV a type. We believe that this study is a contribution of a new aspect in teaching and research in comparative anatomy.

Gregory, P. C., et al. (1985). "Control of stomach motility in the llama (Lama guanacoe F. Glama)." Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 70(1): 51-61.

Manometric and electromyographic recordings of stomach motility were made in 5 conscious llamas to investigate the influence of distension of the stomach compartments, of temporary cervical vagal blockade and the influence of atropine, acetylcholine and epinephrine. It is concluded that whereas the hind stomach may have intrinsic motility, the contractions of C1, C2, the canal and C3 of the llama stomach are dependent on a vagal motor nerve supply and that the pattern of contractions observed is regulated at least partly according to the individual degree of distension of each of the stomach compartments.

Grubb, T. L., et al. (1992). Evaluation of lidocaine, xylazine and a combination of lidocaine and xylazine for epidural anesthesia in the llama. 21: 499.

Grubb, T. L., et al. (1993). "Evaluation of lidocaine, xylazine, and a combination of lidocaine and xylazine for epidural analgesia in llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 203(10): 1441-1444.

Epidural analgesia was achieved at weekly intervals in 6 adults llamas by injection of 2% lidocaine, 10% xylazine , and a combination of 2% lidocaine/10% xylazine at the sacrococcygeal junction. Analgesia was determined by lack of response to pin prick or haemostat pressure in the perineal area. Ataxia could not be accurately evaluated because of the llamas' tendency to assume sternal recumbency when restrained. Time to onset of analgesia was not different between lidocaine (3.16 ± 0.31 minutes) and lidocaine/xylazine (3.50 ± 0.56 minutes), but results for both groups were different than those for xylazine (20.67 ± 3.37 minutes). Duration of analgesia was different among all groups (lidocaine, 71.0 ± 6.15 minutes; xylazine, 186.83 ± 14.86 minutes; lidocaine / xylazine, 325.83 ± 29.39 minutes). Mild sedation developed in 4 llamas given xylazine alone. Lidocaine/xylazine caused mild sedation in 2 llamas and moderate sedation in 1 llama. Significant changes in pulse or respiratory rates were not observed among drugs, but changes were observed over time with all drugs. As has been reported in other species, lidocaine/xylazine provided rapid onset and prolonged duration of analgesia.

Grubb, T. L., et al. (1993). Evaluation of lidocaine, xylazine, and a lidocaine/xylazine combination for epidural anesthesia in the llama. 22: 88.

Grubb, T. L., et al. (2003). "Minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in spontaneously breathing llamas and alpacas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 223(8): 1167-1169.

Objective: To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in spontaneously breathing llamas and alpacas. Design: Prospective study. Animals: Six healthy adult llamas and 6 healthy adult alpacas. Procedure: Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane (SevoFlo) delivered with oxygen through a mask. An endotracheal tube was inserted, and a port for continuous measurement of end-tidal and inspired sevoflurane concentrations was placed between the endotracheal tube and the breathing circuit. After equilibration at an end-tidal-to-inspired sevoflurane concentration ratio &gt;0.90 for 15 minutes, a 50-Hz, 80-mA electrical stimulus was applied to the antebrachium until a response was obtained (i.e. gross purposeful movement) or for up to 1 minute. The vaporizer setting was increased or decreased to effect a 10 to 20% change in end-tidal sevoflurane concentration, and equilibration and stimulus were repeated. The MAC was defined as the mean of the lowest end-tidal sevoflurane concentration that prevented a positive response and the highest concentration that allowed a positive response. Results: Mean±SD MAC of sevoflurane was 2.29±0.14% in llamas and 2.33±0.09% in alpacas. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: The MAC of sevoflurane in llamas and alpacas was similar to that reported for other species.

Grubb, T. L., et al. (2006). "Minimum alveolar concentration of desflurane in llamas and alpacas." Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 33(6): 351-355.

Objective: To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of desflurane in llamas and alpacas. Design: Prospective study. Animals: Six healthy adult llamas and six healthy adult alpacas. Procedure: Anesthesia was induced with desflurane delivered with oxygen through a mask. An endotracheal tube was inserted, and a port for continuous measurement of end-tidal and inspired desflurane concentrations was placed between the endotracheal tube and the breathing circuit. After equilibration at an end-tidal-to-inspired desflurane concentration ratio &gt;0.90 for 15 minutes, a 50-Hz, 80-mA electrical stimulus was applied to the antebrachium until a response was obtained (i.e. gross purposeful movement) or for up to 1 minute. The vaporizer setting was increased or decreased to effect a 10-20% change in end-tidal desflurane concentration, and equilibration and stimulus were repeated. The MAC was defined as the average of the lowest end-tidal desflurane concentration that prevented a positive response and the highest concentration that allowed a positive response. Results: Mean±SD MAC of desflurane was 7.99±0.58% in llamas and 7.83±0.51% in alpacas. Conclusions and clinical relevance: The MAC of desflurane in llamas and alpacas was in the range of that reported for other species.

Grundman, C. (1974). Zoo illogical. For solo voice, or voices in unison or octaves, with instrumental ensemble (opitonal piano). 1. The Mongoose. 2. The Anteater. 3. The Llama. 4. The Giraffe. 5. The Hippo. <Full score [and parts for woodwind, brass and percussion instruments].>. [New York], Boosey & Hawkes.

Grüss, A. and N. Priymenko (2009). "Cotoneaster sp. poisoning in a llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 21(2): 247-249.

A case of poisoning with a Cotoneaster sp. is described in a llama (Lama glama). The clinical signs were dyspnea, with congested mucous membranes, chewing, recumbency, and opisthotonos. Several hours after ingestion of the plant, the llama died, despite treatment with sodium thiosulfate and nitrite. Necropsy revealed approximately 676 g of leaves and fruit of Cotoneaster in the first compartment of the stomach. The blood was light red and did not clot. Because Cotoneaster sp. contains low concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides, toxicosis occurs only following massive ingestion of plant material.

Guedon, J. T., et al. (2015). "Monoclonal and Single Domain Antibodies Targeting β-Integrin Subunits Block Sexual Transmission of HIV-1 in In Vitro and In Vivo Model Systems." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 69(3): 278-285 ST - Monoclonal and Single Domain Antibodies Targeting Î27²-Integrin Subunits Block Sexual Transmission of HIV-271 in In Vitro and In Vivo Model Systems.

Poor adherence to prevention regimens for gel-based anti-HIV-1 microbicides has been a major obstacle to more effective pre-exposure prophylaxis. Concern persists that the antiretroviral drug containing microbicides might promote development of antiretroviral resistance.|Using in vitro transwell systems and a humanized mouse model of HIV-1 sexual transmission, we examined, as candidate microbicides, antibodies targeting the heterodimeric leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), a non-virally encoded protein acquired by the virus that also plays a critical role cell movement across endothelial and epithelial barriers. LFA-1-specific single domain variable regions from alpaca heavy-chain only antibodies (VHH) were identified and evaluated for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 transmission in the in vitro transwell system.|Monoclonal antibodies targeting the CD11a and CD18 components of LFA-1 significantly reduced cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 transmission in the in vitro transwell culture system and prevented virus transmission in the humanized mouse model of vaginal transmission. The broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody b12 was unable to block transmission of cell-free virus. CD11a-specific VHH were isolated and expressed and the purified variable region protein domains reduced in vitro transepithelial transmission with an efficacy comparable with that of the CD11a monoclonal antibody.|Targeting integrins acquired by HIV-1 during budding and which are critical to interactions between epithelial cells and lymphocytes can reduce viral movement across epithelial barriers and prevent transmission in a humanized mouse model of sexual transmission. VHH capable of being produced by transformed bacteria can significantly reduce transepithelial virus transmission in in vitro model systems. AN - 25828964

Guerra Gómez, P. and . (2011). Análisis de retardantes de llama halogenados emergentes y su impacto en el medio ambiente y en humanos, Universitat de Barcelona.

Gunsser, I. (2009). "Problems in keeping and in transporting of llamas and alpacas." Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 116(3): 121-124.

The popularity of llamas and alpacas in Germany has increased substantially. Because of inadequate German language information about husbandry, breeding and specific behaviour, existing problems may not be recognized or may provoke new ones. As an example, incorrect conformation may affect the well-being of the animals. Also, due to the owner's frequent desire to feed, many llamas and alpacas receive additional feedstuff, causing adiposis and hyperacidity of the stomach, entailing severe problems in the metabolism. Further problems may arise, when new llamas and alpacas are integrated into the existing flock without prior parasite control, improper education or wrong environmental conditioning, and also the lack of selection of the breeding animals for companionable character, may lead to dangerous situations for the animal owner as well as for the flock members. In addition, the keeping of stud groups and of geldings, which have been castrated late, or keeping studs in female groups, is not unproblematic. In general, llamas and alpacas can be easily transported. Problems may arise due to fixing the animals during transport, or to use of transport vehicles which are not secured against breakouts. All these problems will be addressed and possibilities will be discussed to avoid them.

Gustafson, L. L., et al. (1998). "Predicting Early Mortality of Newborn Guanacos by Birth Mass and Hematological Parameters: A Provisional Model." The Journal of Wildlife Management 62(1): 24-35.

We measured hematological determinants, endocrine parameters, and birth mass of 145 newborn (chulengo) guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile, to determine if these factors were predictors of early mortality. Within 10 days of life, 16% of chulengos died in 1991 and 14% died in 1992. The principal cause (68%) of chulengo mortality was predation by the Patagonian puma (Felis concolor patagonia), but the role of compromised health was unknown. We assessed the health status of hand-captured chulengos by measuring white blood cell (WBC) count, differential leukocyte count, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (N:L), metarubricyte count, cortisol levels, total T3 and T4, and birth mass. We evaluated the prognostic relation of these parameters on neonatal mortality through Chi-square and Bayesian analyses. Band neutrophil count >1000/&#x3bc;L, lymphocyte count >4000/&#x3bc;L, N:L ratio <2, metarubricyte count >300/&#x3bc;L, and birth mass <10 kg categorized the nonsurvivor group more than the survivor group. A Bayesian model using band neutrophil count and N:L ratio labeled 9% of the newborns as "unhealthy," and correctly predicted 44% of the mortalities and 96% of the survivors. Variations between cohorts suggested that a low N:L ratio (possible prematurity) and metarubricytosis were more common in 1991, but that sepsis was more important in 1992. Within the category of correctly predicted mortalities, none (0/3) of the carcasses of animals with band counts >1000/&#x3bc;L (suggestive of sepsis) showed signs of puma predation, while 100% (4/4) with an N:L ratio <2.0 (possible prematurity) showed signs of puma predation. The hematological parameters showing the strongest relation with mortality were also some of the least expensive and easiest parameters to measure. Readers should consider this Bayesian model groundwork for future studies assessing health-related neonatal mortality in guanacos. The approach also has research and management implications for other wildlife species.

Güttler, E. (1986). Investigations on the management, breeding, physiology and pathology of reproduction and diseases in llamas in the Argentinian Andes, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Giessen: 169pp.

Improved management during the mating season of an unspecified number of ♂ and ♀ llamas resulted in pregnancy rates at 64-85% vs. previous figures in the herd of &lt;50%. It was possible to diagnose pregnancy at the end of the 1st month of gestation by means of rectal palpation. All births occurred between 07.00 and 15.00 h, and there were no difficult births. Details are given of parturition and of growth and body measurements up to 10 months of age. Mortality up to 1 yr of age was 31.48%.

Güttler, E. (1992). "Problems in the husbandry and breeding of llamas in the Argentinian Andes." Zoologische Garten 62(1): 23-32.

Guzman, J. H. (1948). Argentina is your name.

Haard, H. J. W. d., et al. (2005). "Llama antibodies against a lactococcal protein located at the tip of the phage tail prevent phage infection." Journal of Bacteriology 187(13): 4531-4541.

Bacteriophage p2 belongs to the most prevalent lactococcal phage group (936) responsible for considerable losses in industrial production of cheese. Immunization of a llama with bacteriophage p2 led to higher titers of neutralizing heavy-chain antibodies (i.e., devoid of light chains) than of the classical type of immunoglobulins. A panel of p2-specific single-domain antibody fragments was obtained using phage display technology, from which a group of potent neutralizing antibodies were identified. The antigen bound by these antibodies was identified as a protein with a molecular mass of 30 kDa, homologous to open reading frame 18 (ORF18) of phage sk1, another 936-like phage for which the complete genomic sequence is available. By the use of immunoelectron microscopy, the protein is located at the tip of the tail of the phage particle. The addition of purified ORF18 protein to a bacterial culture suppressed phage infection. This result and the inhibition of cell lysis by anti-ORF18 protein antibodies support the conclusion that the ORF18 protein plays a crucial role in the interaction of bacteriophage p2 with the surface receptors of Lactococcus lactis.

Haibel, G. K. and E. D. Fung (1991). "Real-time ultrasonic biparietal diameter measurement for the prediction of gestational age in llamas." Theriogenology 35(4): 683-687.

Llama fetuses (n=25) of known gestational age (day 66 to day 235) were examined transabdominally using real-time ultrasound with a 5 MHz linear-array scanhead. Maximum head width, or biparietal diameter (BPD), was measured in symmetrical images using electronic linear distance calipers. The fetus was easily located and the BPD measured as early as day 66 of gestation. During the last trimester, measurement became increasingly difficult due to the posture of the fetus and the limited penetration of the 5 MHz frequency. The relationship between days of gestational age (GA) and mean BPD in millimeters is described by the equation: GA= 18.8 + 3.79 BPD.

Hajsig, M., et al. (1985). "Systemic mycoses in domestic and wild ruminants. I. Candidosis of forestomachs in the lamb, calf, kid and newborn llama." Veterinarski Arhiv 55(2): 53-58.

Candidosis of the forestomach in 5 lambs, 1 calf, 1 kid and a new born llama was diagnosed on the basis of histological and mycological findings at necropsy. Candida albicans was isolated from 4 forestomach lesions of 4 of the 5 lambs, which came from the same farm. The fifth lamb, from another flock, was found to have C. pseudotropicalis lesions in the rumen, reticulum and omasum. C. albicans was isolated from lesions in the kid, calf and llama, which were confined to the rumen.

Hamir, A. N., et al. (1997). "Endogenous lipid pneumonia (alveolar histiocytosis) and hydrocephalus in an adult llama (Lama glama)." Veterinary record 141(18): 474-475.

PM examination of an 11-year-old, homebred, intact male llama with a 6-day history of recumbency and tenesmus, showed yellow fibrin clots in the peritoneal cavity, shallow acute ulceration in the C3 stomach compartment and distal oesophagus and calcified foci, possibly due to a past parasite infection, in the liver. There were multiple foci on the dorsal surfaces of the diaphragmatic lobes of the lungs. Histopathological examination detected multifocal pulmonary alveolar histiocytosis or endogenous lipid pneumonia; bilateral hydrocephalus was an incidental finding. Endogenous lipid pneumonia has been described infrequently in man and domestic animals but not previously in herbivorous large mammals. Three further cases of lipid pneumonia in South American camelids (2 llamas and an alpaca) have since been seen by one of the authors. All 3 were over 10 years of age and the lesions were confined to the dorsal aspects of the diaphragmatic lung lobes.

Hamir, A. N., et al. (1998). "Pancreatic necrosis in a llama." Veterinary record 142(23): 644-645.

Hamir, A. N. and G. Moser (1998). "Immunohistopathological findings in an adult llama with listeriosis." Veterinary record 143(17): 477-479.

Hamir, A. N., et al. (1997). "Intraosseous hemangiosarcoma with metastasis in a three-month-old llama." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 9(2): 210-213.

Hamir, A. N. and K. I. Timm (2003). "Nodular hyperplasia and cysts in thyroid glands of llamas (Lama glama) from north-west USA." Veterinary record 152(16): 507-508.

Postmortem examination was performed on 77 llamas from farms in Northwest USA (November 1995 to May 1998). Grossly, the affected thyroids revealed either unilateral or bilateral enlargement. Cut surfaces of the affected thyroids revealed a single or multiple fluid-filled cavities, which usually contained clear, yellowish material. In 10 thyroid glands with grossly visible cysts, there were small, multifocal areas of follicular hyperplasia elsewhere in the sections. Microscopic evidence of thyroid follicular hyperplasia occurred mostly in older animals (11 of 12 10- to 20-year old animals).

Hamir, A. N., et al. (2000). "Thrombosis of the splenic vein in llamas (Lama glama)." Veterinary record 146(8): 226-228.

PM examinations were performed on 88 adult South American camelids (11 alpacas, 77 llamas) from farms in north-west USA between November 1995 and May 1998. Gross lesions of splenic vein thrombosis were seen in 10 llamas: 8 females and 2 males. Age of affected llamas ranged from 3 to 23 years. In all 5 cases with more than 1 thrombus, the cut surfaces and the histopathological findings of the thrombi appeared similar, suggesting they formed at approximately the same time. The splenic thrombi were located adjacent to the organ and were never found within the splenic parenchyma. This is apparently the first documentation of thrombosis of the splenic vein in llamas.

Hammer, S., et al. (2001). Medetomidine/ketamine-anaesthesia of llama (Lama glama) under field conditions and its influence on haemodynamics, respiration and metabolism. Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 267-268.

Harmon, D. A. R. (1989). Llama packing : a guide for the low impact use of llamas in the backcountry.

Harmsen, M. M., et al. (2008). "Passive immunization of pigs with bispecific llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease and porcine immunoglobulin." Veterinary microbiology 132(1/2): 56-64.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that occasionally causes outbreaks in Europe. We aim to develop an immunotherapy that confers rapid protection against FMD in outbreak situations. For this purpose, we previously isolated llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) binding to FMDV or porcine immunoglobulin (pIg). The pIg binding VHHs can be genetically fused to other VHHs, resulting in so-called VHH2s. As compared to non-pIg binding VHHs such VHH2s have a 100-fold increased serum half-life which is essential for effective immunotherapy. We have now produced three bispecific VHH2s by fusion of three FMDV binding VHHs (clones M3, M8 and M23) to a pIg binding VHH (VI-4). The resulting yeast-produced VHH2s bound FMDV and pIg with high affinity (KD about 1 nM) and neutralized FMDV in vitro as efficiently as their monovalent counterparts. To evaluate their therapeutic potential all three VHH2s were intramuscularly injected into pigs that were challenge infected with FMDV 24 h later. Administration of one of these VHH2s (M23ggsVI-4) reduced the viraemia significantly (P=0.0034) and reduced viral shedding almost significantly (P=0.11). However, it did not prevent development of clinical signs or transmission of FMDV. These results suggest that immunotherapy using bispecific VHH2s binding to FMDV and pIg is possible in principle, but should be improved by increasing VHH2 dosage or using more potent VHH2s.

Harmsen, M. M., et al. (2009). "Passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody fragments reduces foot-and-mouth disease transmission between pigs." Vaccine 27(13): 1904-1911.

We aim to develop a method that confers rapid protection against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) by passive immunization with recombinant llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs). Previously constructed genetic fusions of two VHHs (VHH2s) that either neutralizes FMDV or binds to porcine immunoglobulin to increase the serum half-life, conferred only limited protection to pigs. We therefore now generated VHH3s containing an additional FMDV binding VHH. Two VHH3s neutralized FMDV more potently than single VHHs and were highly produced by yeast cells. Injection of a mixture of these two VHH3s 24 h before FMD challenge infection of pigs reduced and delayed the development of clinical disease, viraemia and viral shedding. Furthermore, it significantly (P=0.023) delayed FMD transmission. Thus, we have shown a proof of concept of passive FMD immunoprophylaxis using VHHs.

Harmsen, M. M., et al. (2000). "Llama heavy-chain V regions consist of at least four distinct subfamilies revealing novel sequence features." Molecular Immunology 37(10): 579-590.

In addition to conventional antibodies (Abs), camelids possess Abs consisting of only heavy chains. The variable domain of such a heavy-chain Ab (VHH) is fully capable of antigen (Ag) binding. Earlier analysis of 47 VHHs showed sequence features unique to VHH domains. These include the presence of characteristic amino acid substitutions in positions which, in conventional VH domains are involved in interdomain interactions, and the presence of a long third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) which is frequently constrained by an interloop disulphide bond. Here, we describe a large (152) set of Lama glama VHH cDNAs. Based on amino acid sequence similarity, these and other published camelid VHHs were classified into 4 subfamilies. Three subfamilies are absent in dromedaries, which have been the primary source of VHHs thus far. Comparison of these subfamilies to conventional VH regions reveals new features characteristic of VHHs and shows that many features previously regarded as characteristic of VHHs in general are actually subfamily specific. A long CDR3 with a concomitant putative additional disulphide bond is only observed in 2 VHH subfamilies. We identified new VHH-characteristic residues at positions forming interdomain sites in conventional VH domains. The VHH subfamilies also differ from each other and conventional VH domains in the canonical structure of CDR1 and CDR2, mean CDR3 length, and amino acid residue variability. Since different VHH-characteristic residues are observed in all 4 subfamilies, these subfamilies must have evolved independently from classical VH domains. The nucleotide sequences reported have been deposited with the EMBL database with the accession numbers 022284-022288, 022290-022300,035496-035501, 035503-035529, 037660,038135-038144, AJ243205-AJ243206, AJ236094-AJ236100, AJ236102, AJ236107, AJ237276-AJ237393, AJ238045-AJ238060 and AJ401066-AJ401078.

Harmsen, M. M., et al. (2007). "Passive immunization of guinea pigs with llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease." Veterinary microbiology 120(3/4): 193-206.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that occasionally causes outbreaks in Europe. There is a need for therapies that provide rapid protection against FMD in outbreak situations. We aim to provide such rapid protection by passive immunization with llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs). Twenty-four VHHs binding serotype O FMDV in vitro were isolated from immunized llamas by phage display and expressed in bakers yeast for further characterization. They recognized four functionally independent antigenic sites. Six strongly FMDV neutralizing VHHs bound to a peptide representing the GH-loop of viral protein 1 known to be involved in binding to the cellular receptor of FMDV. Clone M8, recognizing this antigenic site, and clone M23, recognizing another antigenic site, showed synergistic in vitro virus neutralization. Three FMDV specific VHHs were PEGylated in order to decrease their rapid blood clearance and thus enable in vivo guinea pig protection experiments. Passive immunization with individual VHHs showed no protection, but a mixture of M8 and M23 showed partial transient protection. The protection afforded by these VHHs was however low as compared to the complete protection afforded by convalescent guinea pig serum. In contrast, these VHHs showed far more efficient in vitro FMDV neutralization than convalescent guinea pig serum. This lack of correlation between in vitro neutralization and in vivo protection lends further credence to the notion that opsonophagocytosis of FMDV is important for protection in vivo.

Harmsen, M. M., et al. (2005). "Prolonged in vivo residence times of llama single-domain antibody fragments in pigs by binding to porcine immunoglobulins." Vaccine 23(41): 4926-4934.

The therapeutic parenteral application of llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) is hampered by their small size, resulting in a fast elimination from the body. Here we describe a method to increase the serum half-life of VHHs in pigs by fusion to another VHH binding to porcine immunoglobulin G (pIgG). We isolated 19 pIgG-binding VHHs from an immunized llama using phage display. Six VHHs were genetically fused to model VHH K609 that binds to Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae. All six yeast-produced genetic fusions of two VHH domains (VHH2s) were functional in ELISA and bound to pIgG with high affinity (1-33 nM). Four pIgG-binding VHH2s were administered to pigs and showed a 100-fold extended in vivo residence times as compared to a control VHH2 that does not bind to pIgG. This could provide the basis for therapeutic application of VHHs in pigs.

Harmsen, M. M., et al. (2005). "Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae specific llama single-domain antibody fragments effectively inhibit bacterial adhesion in vitro but poorly protect against diarrhoea." Veterinary microbiology 111(1/2): 89-98.

Oral administration of polyclonal antibodies directed against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4 fimbriae is used to protect against piglet post-weaning diarrhoea. For cost reasons, we aim to replace these polyclonal antibodies by recombinant llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that can be produced efficiently in microorganisms. Six F4 fimbriae specific VHHs were isolated. The VHH that was produced at the highest level by yeast, K609, was further analysed. 3.8 mg/L K609 inhibited 90% of bacterial attachment to intestinal brush borders in vitro. Perfusion of a jejunal segment with at least 4 mg/L K609 reduced the ETEC-induced fluid loss, but only to 30%. Preventive administration of a high K609 dose (150 mg/(piglet day)) to piglets that were challenge infected with ETEC resulted in less severe diarrhoea only at 4 and 5 days post-infection, but did not improve average daily weight gain, ETEC shedding and piglet survival. Thus, we have shown that an antibody fragment that effectively inhibited in vitro ETEC adhesion to intestinal brush borders poorly protected piglets against experimental ETEC infection.

Harmsen, M. M., et al. (2006). "Selection and optimization of proteolytically stable llama single-domain antibody fragments for oral immunotherapy." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 72(3): 544-551.

We previously demonstrated that oral application of the recombinant single-domain antibody fragment (VHH) clone K609, directed against Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae, reduced E. coli-induced diarrhoea in piglets, but only at high VHH doses. We have now shown that a large portion of the orally applied K609 VHH is proteolytically degraded in the stomach. Stringent selection for proteolytic stability identified seven VHHs with 7- to 138-fold increased stability after in vitro incubation in gastric fluid. By DNA shuffling we obtained four clones with a further 1.5- to 3-fold increased in vitro stability. These VHHs differed by at most ten amino acid residues from each other and K609 that were scattered over the VHH sequence and did not overlap with predicted protease cleavage sites. The most stable clone, K922, retained 41% activity after incubation in gastric fluid and 90% in jejunal fluid. Oral application of K922 to piglets confirmed its improved proteolytic stability. In addition, K922 bound to F4 fimbriae with higher affinity and inhibited fimbrial adhesion at lower VHH concentrations. K922 is thus a promising candidate for prevention of piglet diarrhoea. Furthermore, our findings could guide selection and improvement by genetic engineering of other recombinant antibody fragments for oral use.

Harreveld, P. D. v., et al. (2000). "Llama castration." Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 22(4): S88-S91.

Harrison, R. A., et al. (2006). "Neutralisation of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from camels and llamas immunised with viper venom and also by endogenous, non-IgG components in camelid sera." Toxicon 47(3): 364-368.

Envenoming by snakes results in severe systemic and local pathology. Intravenous administration of antivenom, prepared from IgG of venom immunised horses or sheep, is the only effective treatment of systemic envenoming. Conventional antivenoms, formulated as intact IgG, papain-cleaved (Fab) or pepsin-cleaved F(ab′)2 fragments, are however ineffective against the local venom effects because of their inability to penetrate the blood/tissue barrier. We have embarked on a new research program to examine (i) whether the unusually small (15 kDa) antigen-binding fragment of camelid heavy chain IgG (VHH) can be exploited to neutralise the local effects of envenoming and (ii) whether a novel antivenom to treat both the systemic and local effects of envenoming can be formulated by combining anti-snake venom VHH and conventional F(ab′)2. In this preliminary study, we demonstrate that camels and llamas respond to immunisation with Echis ocellatus venom with high antibody titres and broad antigen specificity. These encouraging immunological results were matched by the successful elimination of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from the venom-immunised camels and llamas. Unexpectedly, we report for the first time that camelid serum contains a non-IgG, highly potent inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage.

Hart, H. (2009). "Riding the SPCA's Llama in the Christmas Parade." Ploughshares 35(4): 74-75.

Hashimoto, K. (2006). "Commodification of farm products in Andes highlands, production of llama meat of Bolivia." Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture 50(5): 288-292.

This is an overview of the current status and issues of llama meat production in Bolivia. As the potential of llama meat production has not been used effectively due to the lack of disseminating technology for commercialization and unstructured producers, research on the production and distribution of llama meat was carried out to improve the current situation. This research was based on the past survey 'commodification of llama meat in the Andes highlands' that was carried out during October 2001-April 2002 by the Japan International Cooperation Agency. The following topics are discussed: the summary of Bolivian agriculture and llama breeding; the study region and method; the current status of llama production (live llama and meat); and the issues of llama meat production. On the last topic, current problems such as lack of motivation and knowledge, hygiene problems, lack of cooperation between producers, and disorganized slaughterhouses are discussed.

Hathcock, J. T., et al. (1995). "Computed tomography of the llama head: technique and normal anatomy." Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 36(4): 290-296.

Computed tomography was performed on the head of 6 normal adult llamas. The animals were under general anaesthesia and positioned in dorsal recumbency on the scanning table. The area scanned was from the external occipital protuberance to the rostral portion of the nasal passage, and the images are presented in both a bone window and a soft tissue window to allow evaluation and identification of the anatomy of the head. Computed tomography of the llama head can be accomplished by most computed tomography scanners utilizing a technique similar to that used in small animals with minor modification of the scanning table.

Haurie Ibarra, L., et al. (2006). Estudio de la hidromagnesita sintética como retardante de llama en EVA y mezclas LDPE/EVA.

Hawkey, C. M. and F. M. D. Gulland (1988). "Haematology of clinically normal and abnormal captive llamas and guanacoes." Veterinary record 122(10): 232-234.

Blood counts of healthy juvenile and adult llamas (Lama glama) and guanacoes (L. guanacoe) showed the guanacoes have higher red cell counts, haemoglobin values and packed cell volumes than llamas. In both species, the numbers of lymphocytes and platelets were higher in juveniles than in adults. By reference to the values found in normal animals, abnormal haematological variations were detected in a number of sick individuals. Neutrophilia, hyperfibrinogenaemia and a tendency to develop regenerative hypochromic anaemia were observed in animals with acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, and hypochromic macrocytic anaemia occurred in animals with parasitic infections. Many individuals in which subclinical intestinal parasitic infections were suspected had relatively high eosinophil counts, although their other haematological values were normal.

Healy, K. (2001). Llamas, weavings and organic chocolate: multicultural grassroots development in the Andes and Amazon of Bolivia. Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame Press.

This book tells the story of Bolivian rural development and cultural change. Part I provides an overview of the history of rural development in Bolivia. It deals with the long history of anti-indigenous discrimination, the introduction of aid programmes in the Western development paradigm, the rise of grassroots movements challenging this paradigm, and the array of initiatives now contributing to the revitalization of indigenous cultural resources. Part II consists of in-depth narratives of nine projects, giving an inside view of the processes that interweave cultural recuperation and developmental strategies. These stories illustrate the cultural barriers that must be overcome and the setbacks often faced by grassroots federations. The projects range from successful agro-exports such as organic chocolate and quinoa to the ground breaking work of indigenous artists and artisans. Part III attempts to identify the numerous factors that helped engender successful outcomes in these projects and discusses the effects of globalization on Bolivian culture and development patterns.

Heath, A. M., et al. (2002). "Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of testicular biopsies in llamas." Theriogenology 58(6): 1125-1130.

Evaluation of the reproductive function of Lama glama is generally considered to be a challenging task due to the difficulty of obtaining representative semen samples. One method that has been proposed for evaluation of testicular function in these animals is histologic examination of testicular needle biopsies. This study was undertaken to examine the safety and efficacy of using needle biopsies to assess testicular function in this species. One randomly selected testicle from each of 16 sexually mature llamas was biopsied with a 14-gauge self-firing biopsy instrument. The llamas were evaluated over a 6-week period with thermography for temperature changes of the scrotum. At the end of the 6-week trial, the llamas were castrated and sections of each testis were fixed in Bouin's solution for histologic examination. Immediately prior to castration, an additional biopsy was taken from each testis to compare the tissue obtained via biopsy with sections from the corresponding testis obtained after castration. A qualitative grading scale was used to compare the seminiferous tubules from each testis. No difference was found between the biopsied and the nonbiopsied testes (P=0.69). The percentage of normal tubules between the biopsied and the nonbiopsied sides also did not differ (P=0.70). Furthermore, the percentage of normal seminiferous tubules did not differ between the needle biopsy samples and the corresponding tissue samples obtained at castration (P=0.48). The number of round seminiferous tubules counted in each biopsy section ranged from 3 to 67. There was no significant difference in the thermographic images of the scrotum between the biopsied and the nonbiopsied testes. This study supports testicular biopsies as a safe and useful procedure in the evaluation of testicular function.

Heath, D., et al. (1974). "The heart and pulmonary vasculature of the llama (Lama glama)." Thorax 29(4): 463-471.

Heath, D., Smith, P., Williams, D., Harris, P., Arias-Stella, J., and Krüger, H. (1974).Thorax, 29, 463-471. The heart and pulmonary vasculature of the llama (Lama glama). A qualitative and quantitative histological study was made of the pulmonary trunk and muscular pulmonary arteries of a male and a pregnant female llama born and living at an altitude of 4,720 m above sea-level in the Peruvian Andes. A similar study was made on the fetal llama. The individual cardiac chambers of the two adults were weighed. Our results show that in the adult llama there is no hypertrophy of the right ventricle or of the media of the pulmonary trunk or small pulmonary arteries. This appears to be of evolutionary significance in respect of survival at high altitude and suggests that the llama does not have a sustained significant pulmonary hypertension. The pulmonary arteries of the fetal llama are thick-walled and we associate this with the physiological pulmonary hypertension of fetal life. IMAGES:

Heath, R. B. (1989). "Llama anesthetic programs." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 5(1): 71-80.

Heller, R., et al. (1986). "Retention of fluid and particles in the digestive tract of the llama (Lama guanacoe f. glama)." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A 83(4): 687-691.

The retention times of fluid and particles of different lengths were measured in the digestive tract of the llama. Polyethylene glycol was used as a fluid marker; hay particles were labelled with cerium or samarium and the samples were estimated by neutron activation analysis. In compartments 1 and 2 the retention time of fluid (9.7 h) was significantly shorter than that of particles having a length of 0.2 to 1.0 cm (19.2 h) and of 2.5 to 4.0 cm (25.0 h). In the intestine slightly significant differences in the retention times of fluid (20.1 h) and particles (26.2 h) were seen. In the whole digestive tract retention times were 36.2 h for fluid, 52.0 h for smaller particles and 59.9 h for larger particles.

Hendrix, D. V. H., et al. (2000). "Malignant teratoid medulloepithelioma in a llama." Veterinary Pathology 37(6): 680-683.

Henry, K. A., et al. (2016). "Isolation of TGF-β-neutralizing single-domain antibodies of predetermined epitope specificity using next-generation DNA sequencing." Protein Eng Des Sel 29(10 LA - eng): 439-443.

The epitope specificity of therapeutic antibodies is often critical to their efficacy and mode of action. Here, we report the isolation of single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) against a pre-specified epitope of TGF-β3: namely, the site of interaction between the cytokine and its cell-surface type II receptor. By panning a phage-displayed immune llama VhH library against TGF-β3 using competitive elution with soluble dimeric type II receptor ectodomain in tandem with next-generation DNA sequencing, we identified several sdAbs that competed with the receptor for TGF-β3 binding and neutralized TGF-β3 in in vitro cellular assays. In contrast, all other sdAbs identified using conventional panning approaches (i.e., without regard to epitope specificity) did not target the site of receptor:cytokine interaction. We expect this strategy to be generally applicable for identifying epitope-specific sdAbs when binding reagents directed against the epitope of interest are available. The sdAbs identified here are of potential interest as cancer immunotherapeutics. AN - 27613412

Henry, K. A., et al. (2016). "A Rational Engineering Strategy for Designing Protein A-Binding Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies." PLoS One 11(9): e0163113.

Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) and streptococcal protein G (SpG) affinity chromatography are the gold standards for purifying monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapeutic applications. However, camelid VHH single-domain Abs (sdAbs or VHHs) are not bound by SpG and only sporadically bound by SpA. Currently, VHHs require affinity tag-based purification, which limits their therapeutic potential and adds considerable complexity and cost to their production. Here we describe a simple and rapid mutagenesis-based approach designed to confer SpA binding upon a priori non-SpA-binding VHHs. We show that SpA binding of VHHs is determined primarily by the same set of residues as in human mAbs, albeit with an unexpected degree of tolerance to substitutions at certain core and non-core positions and some limited dependence on at least one residue outside the SpA interface, and that SpA binding could be successfully introduced into five VHHs against three different targets with no adverse effects on expression yield or antigen binding. Next-generation sequencing of llama, alpaca and dromedary VHH repertoires suggested that species differences in SpA binding may result from frequency variation in specific deleterious polymorphisms, especially Ile57. Thus, the SpA binding phenotype of camelid VHHs can be easily modulated to take advantage of tag-less purification techniques, although the frequency with which this is required may depend on the source species. AN - 27631624

Henry, K. A., et al. (2015). "Identification of cross-reactive single-domain antibodies against serum albumin using next-generation DNA sequencing." Protein Eng Des Sel 28(10): 379-383 ST - Identification of cross-reactive single-domain antibodies against serum albumin using next-generation DNA sequencing.

Antibodies that cross-react with multiple isoforms or homologue of a given protein are often desirable, especially in therapeutic applications. Here, we report the identification of several unique, clonally unrelated, single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) that bind to multiple serum albumin orthologues (human, rhesus, rat and mouse) with low-to-medium nanomolar affinity from a llama immunized only with human serum albumin. Using single-round panning of a phage-displayed sdAb library against serum albumins and next-generation DNA sequencing, we were able to predict patterns of sdAb reactivity to the albumins of different species with ∼90% accuracy. We expect this strategy to be generally applicable for identifying cross-reactive sdAbs, particularly when these exist at low frequency and/or are poorly enriched by panning. Moreover, the sdAbs identified here are of potential interest for serum half-life extension of biologics. AN - 26319004

Herceg, M., et al. (1976). Hyaline membranes in the lungs of a newborn llama (Lama glama). Berlin, Akademie-Verlag.: 123-125.

Herdt, T. H. (1995). "Blood serum concentrations of selenium in female llamas (Lama glama) in relationship to feeding practices, region of United States, reproductive stage, and health of offspring." Journal of Animal Science 73(2): 337-344.

Serum selenium and vitamin E concentrations were estimated twice in each of 35 female llamas from a high-Se region and 96 female llamas from a low-Se region of the USA. The first measurement was taken at a random time during gestation and the second shortly after parturition. At the time of postpartum sampling, a sample was also taken from the cria. Dietary information was collected from each llama owner and a subjective estimate of strength and vigour was assigned by the owner to each cria studied. Mean serum Se concentrations in llamas during gestation and at parturition were 213 and 203 mg/ml, respectively. Average serum Se was 113 ng/ml in neonatal cria. Among herds, serum Se means varied for the cria (P&lt;0.05) and at both sampling times in the females (P&lt;0.01). In adult females, mean serum Se was higher during gestation (P=0.066) and at parturition (P&lt;0.01) for the low-Se region than for the high-Se region, but this effect was removed by covariate adjustment for intake of supplemental Se. Serum Se in females was correlated (P&lt;0.05) to supplemental Se intake. Vigour and/or viability of the cria were not affected by the Se status of the dams or cria. However, there were very few weak or stillborn cria in this study. It is suggested that serum Se &gt;85 ng/ml is adequate for newborn cria and that dams with serum Se &gt;160 ng/ml can be predicted to give birth to cria with adequate Se status.

Herrera, C., et al. (2015). "Mechanisms of Ricin Toxin Neutralization Revealed through Engineered Homodimeric and Heterodimeric Camelid Antibodies." J Biol Chem 290(46): 27880-27889 ST - Mechanisms of Ricin Toxin Neutralization Revealed through Engineered Homodimeric and Heterodimeric Camelid Antibodies.

Novel antibody constructs consisting of two or more different camelid heavy-chain only antibodies (VHHs) joined via peptide linkers have proven to have potent toxin-neutralizing activity in vivo against Shiga, botulinum, Clostridium difficile, anthrax, and ricin toxins. However, the mechanisms by which these so-called bispecific VHH heterodimers promote toxin neutralization remain poorly understood. In the current study we produced a new collection of ricin-specific VHH heterodimers, as well as VHH homodimers, and characterized them for their ability neutralize ricin in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that the VHH heterodimers, but not homodimers were able to completely protect mice against ricin challenge, even though the two classes of antibodies (heterodimers and homodimers) had virtually identical affinities for ricin holotoxin and similar IC50 values in a Vero cell cytotoxicity assay. The VHH heterodimers did differ from the homodimers in their ability to promote toxin aggregation in solution, as revealed through analytical ultracentrifugation. Moreover, the VHH heterodimers that were most effective at promoting ricin aggregation in solution were also the most effective at blocking ricin attachment to cell surfaces. Collectively, these data suggest that heterodimeric VHH-based neutralizing agents may function through the formation of antibody-toxin complexes that are impaired in their ability to access host cell receptors. AN - 26396190

Herrera, E. A., et al. (2008). "Carbon monoxide: a novel pulmonary artery vasodilator in neonatal llamas of the Andean altiplano." Cardiovascular Research 77(1): 197-201.

Aims: To study the nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide roles in the regulation of the pulmonary circulation in lowland and highland newborn sheep and llamas. Methods and results: We used neonatal sheep (Ovis aries) and llamas (Lama glama) whose gestation and delivery took place at low (580 m) or high (3600 m) altitude. In vivo, we measured the cardiopulmonary function basally and with a NO synthase (NOS) blockade and calculated the production of carbon monoxide by the lung. In vitro, we determined NOS and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) expression, NOS activity, and haemoxygenase (HO) expression in the lung. Pulmonary arterial pressure was elevated at high altitude in sheep but not in llamas. Sheep at high altitude relative to sea level had significantly greater total lung NOS activity and eNOS protein, but reduced sGC and HO expression and carbon monoxide production. In contrast, llamas showed no difference in NO function between altitudes, but a pronounced increase in pulmonary carbon monoxide production and HO expression at high altitude. Conclusions: In the llama, enhanced pulmonary carbon monoxide, rather than NO, protects against pulmonary hypertension in the newborn period at high altitude. This shift in pulmonary dilator strategy from NO to carbon monoxide has not been previously described, and it may give insight into new treatments for excessive pulmonary vasoconstriction.

Herrera, E. A., et al. (2002). "Use of fetal biometry to determine fetal age in late pregnancy in llamas." Animal Reproduction Science 74(1/2): 101-109.

Sixty-three pregnant llamas of known breeding date were used in this study. Forty-six of them were submitted to surgery between 186 and 320 days of gestation (52-91% of average gestation period, respectively). Under general anaesthesia their fetuses were exteriorized and fetal weight (W), biparietal diameter (BPD) and femoral (F), tarsus-hoof (T-H), tibial (T) and fronto-occipital (F-O) length were determined. Additionally, the same variables were determined on 16 newborn llamas. The weight was measured in kg and the length in cm. All the collected data was entered into a spreadsheet and different regression analyses as a function of gestational age (GA) were assessed. The best fit equations and their correlation for linear regression were the following: GA=169.448+16.66*W, r=0.99; GA=-51.713+44.77*BPD, r=0.88; GA=-72.139+39.48*F-O, r=0.71; GA=39.304+8.35*T-H, r=0.97; GA=91.276+8.23*T, r=0.86; GA=102.029+9.94*F, r=0.91. For multiple regression, the dependent variable GA can be predicted by the following equation: GA=67.462+11.163*W+20.297*BPD. Results of the present study indicated measured variables to be highly correlated with GA. This could be useful on daily basis in clinical examination of the neonates, in assessment of fetal growth and well being with caesarean sections, in the determination of GA in late gestation abortions, and in perinatal and reproductive research in the llama.

Hervas Ordoñez, T. (1994). "Llamas, llama production and llama nutrition in the Ecuador Highlands." Journal of arid environments 26(1): 67-71.

In 1988, there were approximately 10 000 camelids (mostly llamas) in Ecuador, representing &lt;5% of the world population of camelids. The lifespan of llamas is 8 years or more, and they are kept for milk, meat and fibre production. Details are given of body weight, carcass yield, milk yield, fleece weight, reproduction, diseases and nutrition.

Hewson, J. and C. K. Cebra (2001). "Peritonitis in a llama caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus." Canadian Veterinary Journal 42(6): 465-467.

Hick, M. V. H., et al. (2014). "Ethno-zootechnical characterization of the population of fiber bearing lamas from the province of Jujuy, Argentina." Archivos Latinoamericanos de Producción Animal 22(1/2): 1-8.

The objective was an ethno-zootechnical characterization of the populations of fiber-bearing lamas from Puna in Jujuy Province, establishing the degree of archaism and determining the quality of the fiber produced. A survey included 173 flocks and 17 022 animals from nine areas of production (CP) and described morphological and productive aspects, including a fiber sample. The degree of archaism was determined by index of primarity (IPNA) for each flock. The IPNA was calculated based on the characteristics morphotype, hoof, pigment pattern, type of white spot, type of fleece and fiber color, and their respective variants. The following criteria were evaluated in the laboratory as fiber quality characteristics: fiber color (CM), fleece type (TM), fineness (FM) and average diameter (DM). The IPNA values for the CP studied fell between 4.84 and 8.07, reflecting different primarity situations and in particular a CP (Cieneguillas) with a process of standardization. Significant variations were observed for all fiber quality criteria by CP. The total weighted relative frequencies for CM showed 40.88% of depigmented animals, for TM similar proportions of the different types and for FM 82.53% of fiber less than 25 microns with a mean of 22.44 microns. It was concluded that there are areas with different ethno-zootechnical situations in terms of their status of archaism and flocks with a high potential for fiber production, with important variations according to the geographic areas.

Higginbotham, M. L., et al. (2015). "Treatment of a maxillary fibrosarcoma in an adult alpaca." J Am Vet Med Assoc 246(6): 674-680 ST - Treatment of a maxillary fibrosarcoma in an adult alpaca.

An approximately 5-year-old sexually intact male alpaca was evaluated because of a right-sided maxillary mass that had recurred after previous surgical debulking.|Clinical, radiographic, and CT examination revealed an approximately 1.5-cm-diameter soft tissue mass associated with expansile osteolysis of the maxillary alveolar bone, beginning at the level of the right maxillary third premolar tooth extending caudally to the level of the rostral roots of the second molar tooth.|Right partial maxillectomy was performed, and histologic examination revealed an incompletely excised fibrosarcoma with osseous metaplasia. External beam radiation therapy to the tumor bed was initiated 1 month after surgery. Computerized planning was performed, and a total radiation dose of 48 Gy was prescribed in eleven 4.4-Gy fractions. Follow-up CT evaluations 6 and 58 weeks after radiation therapy was completed revealed no evidence of tumor recurrence. No clinical evidence of tumor recurrence was detected through 110 weeks after radiation therapy.|The oral fibrosarcoma in the alpaca described here was successfully treated with surgical excision and adjuvant radiation therapy, resulting in excellent quality of life of the treated animal. AN - 25719850

Hildebrand, S. V. and T. Hill, III (1991). Neuromuscular blockade by atracurium in llamas. 20: 153-154.

Hildebrand, S. V. and T. Hill (1993). "Neuromuscular blockade by use of atracurium in anesthetized llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 54(3): 429-433.

Anaesthesia was induced in 8 healthy llamas by administration of guaifenesin and ketamine, and was maintained with halothane in oxygen. On 2 separate experimental days, atracurium was given to induce 95 to 99% reduction of evoked hind limb digital extensor tension (twitch). For the first part of the study, atracurium was given i.v. as 5 repeat boluses, with muscle twitch strength being allowed to return without intervention to 75% of baseline after each bolus before the subsequent bolus was given. For the first bolus, 0.15 mg/kg of body weight i.v. and for subsequent boluses, 0.08 mg/kg, induced desired relaxation. Onset of relaxation was slightly more rapid for repeat, compared with initial, bolus. Duration of relaxation and recovery time were similar to initial and repeat doses. Maximal twitch reduction was observed in 4 ± 0.2 min (mean ± SEM). Duration from maximal twitch reduction to 10% recovery was 6.3 ± 0.4 min. Twitch recovery from 10 to 50% of baseline took 11.6 ± 0.6 min. Twitch recovery from 10 to 75% recovery took 19.5 ± 1.1 min. Recovery from 10% twitch to 50% fade took 12.8 ± 0.5 min. Fade at 50% recovery of twitch was 39 ± 0.02%. Significant animal-to-animal variation was observed in twitch recovery times. For the second part of the study, atracurium was initially given i.v. as 0.15 mg/kg bolus, followed by infusion for 1 to 2 h at 1.07 ± 0.07 ml/kg (0.4 mg of atracurium/ml of saline solution). Recovery of muscle twitch was similar to the first experiment. At the end of the study, edrophonium (0.5 mg/kg) with atropine (0.01 mg/kg, i.v.) was effective in antagonizing residual neuromuscular blockade by atracurium. All llamas recovered without injury from anaesthesia. It was concluded that atracurium can provide neuromuscular blockade by either repeat bolus administration or continuous infusion in llamas.

Hilton, C. D., et al. (1998). "How to determine and when to use body weight estimates and condition scores in llamas." Veterinary Medicine 93(11): 1015-1018.

Himsworth, C. G. (2008). "Polioencephalomalacia in a llama." Canadian Veterinary Journal 49(6): 598-600.

A 5-year-old, female llama (Lama glama) developed acute, progressive neurological disease, characterized by recumbency, muscle fasciculations, intermittent convulsions/opisthotonos, and absent menace responses. Postmortem histopathologic lesions, limited to the cerebral cortex, consisted of necrosis of the superficial and deep laminae. The clinical disease and microscopic lesions were consistent with polioencephalomalacia.

Hinderer, S. and W. v. Engelhardt (1975). "Urea metabolism in the llama." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, A 52(4): 619-622.

Three male castrated llamas (Llama glama) 4 to 6 years old and weighing 93 to 158 kg were in 3 groups fed on hay in amounts previously calculated to maintain bodyweight (40 g hay/kg W0.75 daily); a diet with 40% less hay; or the test diet with added sucrose to bring energy intake to maintenance. Feeding was once daily but the sucrose was given automatically every 20 min. When restrained the llamas were given intraperitoneally a single dose of urea-14C, 2.5 mu Ci/kg bodyweight and jugular vein blood and urine were collected for measurement of radioactivity.With 40% less hay body urea pool was increased, and urea turnover and urea transfer to the gut were decreased. The added sucrose reduced the body urea pool. The bulk of total urea turnover and transfer of urea to the gut had taken place within 10 h of feeding. It is suggested that endogenous urea clearance indicates a higher permeability of the gastrointestinal mucosa to urea with the higher energy intake. By comparison with sheep and goats renal urea excretion in the llama was lower.

Hinderer, S. and W. v. Engelhardt (1976). Entry of blood urea into the rumen of the llama. Vienna, International Atomic Energy Agency.: 59-60.

A solution, similar to rumen contents, was placed in temporarily isolated cleaned rumen of llamas given hay to appetite. The transfer of urea across the rumen wall was reduced by withdrawal of feed for 48 h and by omitting volatile fatty acids from the rumen solution and was increased by infusion of urea into a vein and by bubbling CO2 through the solution or by increasing its butyric acid concentration. The plasma urea clearance followed a similar pattern to the rumen transfer of urea, but was not altered by infusion of urea. The entry of blood urea by way of saliva and rumen was 8 and 38% of entry into total gastrointestinal tract as estimated by [14C]urea.

Hinrichs, K., et al. (1999). "XX/XY chimerism and freemartinism in a female llama co-twin to a male." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215(8): 1140-1141.

Hinrichs, K., et al. (1997). "X-chromosome monosomy in an infertile female llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210(10): 1503-1504.

A 3-year-old llama was examined because of a history of infertility and apparent anovulation. The llama had indifferent behaviour when paired with a male, but eventually would assume sternal recumbency for breeding. On examination, the llama was underweight and small in stature. The uterine horns and ovaries could not be identified during palpation or ultrasonography per rectum, and the cervix was dilated when examined with a speculum. Chromosomal preparations of lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts were performed; all cells examined had a 73, X karyotype (X-chromosome monosomy). This appears to be the first report of a chromosomal anomaly in a llama. Signs seen in this llama were similar to those seen in mares with X-chromosome monosomy. It is suggested that this condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infertility in llamas that fail to ovulate, especially if other abnormalities such as indifferent sexual behaviour and short stature are present.

Hochachka, P. W., et al. (1987). "Substrate and O2 fluxes during rest and exercise in a high-altitude-adapted animal, the llama." American Journal of Physiology 253(2(II)): R298-R305.

Hoffman, K. A. (1992). "Llamas: an overview." Veterinary Technician 13(2): 135-140, 142-143.

Hollister, N. (1918). "The Domestication of the Llama." Science 47(1219): 461.

Holmes, L. A., et al. (1999). "Suspected tremorgenic mycotoxicosis (ryegrass staggers) in alpacas (Llama pacos) in the UK." Veterinary record 145(16): 462-463.

Hong, C. B. and J. M. Donahue (1995). "Rhodococcus equi-associated necrotizing lymphadenitis in a llama." Journal of comparative pathology 113(1): 85-88.

Rhodococcusequi-associated caseous necrosis, resembling macroscopically that seen in ovine caseous lymphadenitis, was observed diffusely in the tracheobronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes, and in an extensive lesion in the lungs of a 2-year-old male llama. Necrosis was present to a lesser extent in the spleen and hepatic and gastric lymph nodes. Numerous bacteria-laden macrophages were present around the necrotic areas.

Hoogmoed, L. M. v., et al. (2004). "In vitro investigation of the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, prostaglandin E2, and prostaglandin F2α on contractile activity of the third compartment of the stomach of llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 65(2): 220-224.

Objective: To determine the in vitro effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGF2α and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indomethacin, ketoprofen and nabumetone on the contractile strength of the circular smooth muscle layer of the third compartment of the stomach of llamas. Sample Population: Specimens of the third compartment obtained from 5 healthy adult llamas. Procedure: Full-thickness tissue samples were collected from the third compartment immediately after euthanasia. Specimens were cut into strips oriented along the circular muscle layer and mounted in a tissue bath system. Incremental amounts of ketoprofen, nabumetone, indomethacin, PGE2 and PGF2α were added, and contractile strength (amplitude of contractions) was recorded. Results: Generally, PGE2 reduced contractile strength of the circular smooth layer of the third compartment, whereas PGF2α increased the strength of contractions. The activity of the NSAIDs was generally excitatory in a concentration-dependent manner, although significant changes were induced only by administration of indomethacin. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: On isolated smooth muscle strips of the third compartment of llamas, exogenous PGE2 and PGF2α had a variable effect on contractile strength. Administration of the NSAIDs did not inhibit contractility and would not be likely to induce stasis of the third compartment in the absence of an underlying disease process.

Hoogmoed, L. M. v., et al. (2003). "Microvascular anatomy of the third compartment of the stomach of llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 64(3): 346-350.

This study was conducted to characterize the vascular anatomy of the third compartment of the stomach of llamas. Seven adult llamas were used in the study. Immediately after each llama was euthanatized, vascular replicas of tissue from the third compartment were prepared using the methylmethacrylate monomer and catalyst. Following chemical removal of tissue, the casts were further prepared for examination via scanning electron microscopy. Using barium solution, microangiography was also performed on fixed tissue samples. The infused tissue was sectioned and imaged radiographically. Tissue samples were also collected for histological evaluation after fixation and H and E staining. The third compartment was supplied by 4 pairs of primary arteries and veins located around the circumference of the structure. From these vessels, smaller arteries and veins branched to supply the serosal surface and penetrated deeper through the tunica muscularis to supply the submucosal and mucosal layers. An extensive capillary network was arranged in a hexagonal array surrounding the gastric glands, such that the mucosal aspect of the replicas had a honeycomb-like appearance. Histologically, variably sized villous projections lined by a single layer of epithelial cells with an extensive glandular network were observed. It is concluded that the third compartment of the stomach of llamas is a highly vascular structure with an extensive anastomotic capillary network at the luminal surface. Branching vessels provide extensive collateral circulation, and it appears that surgical incisions should heal well. Incisions in the third compartment should be oriented parallel to the longitudinal plane.

Hoogmoed, L. v., et al. (1998). "Role of nitric oxide in in vitro contractile activity of the third compartment of the stomach in llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 59(9): 1166-1169.

The role of nitric oxide and an apamin-sensitive nonadrenergic-noncholinergic inhibitory transmitter on in vitro contractile activity of isolated strips of the third compartment of the stomach from 5 llamas mounted in tissue baths containing oxygenated Krebs buffer solution and connected to a polygraph chart recorder. Atropine, guanethidine, and indomethacin were added to tissue baths to inhibit muscarinic receptors, adrenoreceptors, and prostaglandin synthesis. Responses to electrical field stimulation following addition of the nitric oxide antagonist Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and apamin were examined. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) reduced the amplitude and frequency of contractile activity, followed by rebound contraction when EFS was stopped. Addition of L-NAME significantly reduced inhibition of contractile activity. Addition of apamin also resulted in a significant reduction in inhibitory contractile activity at most stimulation frequencies. The combination of L-NAME and apamin significantly reduced inhibition at all frequencies. Nitric oxide and a transmitter acting through an apamin-sensitive mechanism appear to be involved in inhibition of contractile activity of the third compartment in llamas. Results suggest that nitric oxide is important in mediating contractile activity of the third compartment in llamas. Use of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors may be useful in the therapeutic management of llamas with lesions of the third compartment.

Hoogmoed, L. v., et al. (1998). "Use of computed tomography to evaluate the intestinal tract of adult llamas." Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 39(2): 117-122.

Eighteen hours before computed tomography scans, 6 llamas were given barium sulfate (15%) by orogastric tube. Following induction of general anaesthesia, the llamas were positioned in sternal recumbency, and 10 mm contiguous slices were obtained from the diaphragm to the tuber ischiadicum. Structures that were consistently identified included the first, second, and third compartments (C1, 2, and 3), small intestine, spiral colon, and ascending colon. C1 was easily identified in the cranial aspect of the abdomen due to its large size relative to the other compartments and characteristic saccules. C2 was located cranial, ventral, and to the right of C1, while C3 was visualized as a tubular structure to the right and ventral to C1 and C2, C3 was traced caudally until it turned dorsally and continued cranially to a dilated ampulla in the right cranial abdomen delineating the entrance to the small intestine. The spiral colon was identified consistently in the left ventral caudal abdomen. Structures that could not be conclusively identified included the caecum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Computed tomography allowed a consistent examination of the major intestinal structures associated with colic in the llama. Thus, computed tomography is a potentially valuable noninvasive diagnostic tool to effectively examine the abdominal cavity and differentiate medical from surgical lesions in the llama.

Hoogmoed, L. v., et al. (1996). "In vitro biomechanical comparison of the strength of the linea alba of the llama, using two suture patterns." American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(6): 938-942.

Two incisions in the linea alba of 12 llamas were closed with a simple continuous or inverted cruciate pattern, and tissue was harvested after 10 days. In 6 llamas, the simple continuous line was intact; the inverted cruciate specimens contained 6 sutures. In 6 llamas, 1 knot was excised in the simple continuous pattern to simulate a failed line; the cruciate pattern contained 5 knots. Tissue sections were taken from cranial, between, and caudal to the linea alba incisions to compare fascial thickness. The sutured specimens were mounted in a mechanical testing system and tested to failure. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to evaluate the effects of suture pattern and incisional position on mechanical properties. Significant differences were not found between suture patterns or between location for yield force, failure force, or yield strain, whereas failure strain was lower for the intact simple continuous pattern than the inverted cruciate pattern. From histomorphometric analysis, the caudal tissue specimens were significantly thinner than the middle tissue specimen cranial to the umbilicus.

Hoogmoed, L. v., et al. (1998). "Surgical repair of patellar luxation in llamas: 7 cases (1980-1996)." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212(6): 860-865.

The anatomy of the stifle was examined in 6 llama cadavers. Medical records were reviewed to identify history, procedure, outcome and complications of llamas that underwent surgery. Five llamas with a history of trauma before onset of clinical signs, with lateral patellar luxation, one with bilateral luxations and another with medial patellar luxation were treated at the veterinary medical teaching hospital in Davis, California, between January 1980 and January 1996. Two llamas underwent tibial tuberosity transposition, but luxation recurred in both and 1 had problems with breakage of implants. The other 5 llamas underwent imbrication and release procedures; however, luxation recurred in 4 of the 5. Surgery was repeated in 2 llamas, with successful outcomes. It is suggested that imbrication and release procedures may be useful for correcting patellar luxation in llamas without other bony abnormalities. However, it is concluded that long (20-cm) imbrication and release incisions are needed for a successful outcome and that use of a sling after surgery, to allow a gradual return to weight bearing and exercise, may also be important.

Hoogoed, L. v., et al. (1997). "Unilateral nephrectomy in a juvenile llama." Veterinary Surgery 26(6): 497-501.

Hopkins, S. M., et al. (1991). "Surgical treatment of uterine torsion in a llama (Lama glama)." Cornell Veterinarian 81(4): 425-428.

Horstkotte, M. A., et al. (2001). "Mycobacterium microti llama- type infection presenting as pulmonary tuberculosis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient." Journal of clinical microbiology 39(1): 406-407.

House, J. A., et al. (1991). "Experimental equine herpesvirus-1 infection in llamas (Lama glama)." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 3(2): 137-143.

Three llamas were experimentally infected intranasally with an isolate of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) from the brain of an alpaca had an experienced severe neurological signs. Two of the 3 llamas developed severe neurological disorders following inoculation: 1 died, and 1 was killed in a moribund state. The third llama showed only mild neurologic signs. The slaughtered llama had preexisting antibodies to EHV-1, and the remaining 2 llamas were seronegative (virus neutralization titre &lt;6) at the time of inoculation. One of the seronegative llamas died acutely without production of detectable antibodies, and the other developed antibodies typical of a primary immune response. The EHV-1 virus was recovered only from a sample of the thalamus of the llama that died acutely. Histopathological lesions were observed in the brain and retina of the dead and slaughtered animals. This study verifies the pathogenic potential of EHV-1 for llamas.

Houten, D. v., et al. (1992). "Reference hematologic values and morphologic features of blood cells in healthy adult llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 53(10): 1773-1775.

Haematological values and cellular morphological features were evaluated for 38 healthy adult llamas. Reference ranges were determined for PCV, reticulocyte concn, leukocyte concn and leukocyte differential counts. Techniques and haematological parameters were studied that are readily available to the practicing veterinarian and nonveterinary laboratory. Unique cellular morphological features commonly observed and interpreted as normal included large granular lymphocytes, hyposegmented eosinophil nuclei, folded erythrocytes, and haemoglobin crystals.

Hovda, L., et al. (1990). "Total parenteral nutrition in a neonatal llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 196(2): 319.

Hovda, L. R., et al. (1990). "Total parenteral nutrition in a neonatal llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 196(2): 319-322.

Total parenteral nutrition reversed cachexia, dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities in newborn llama suffering from prolonged diarrhoea. Complications were not observed during the 8 days that intravenously administered fluids and nutritional support were provided.

Huanca, W., et al. (2009). "Ovarian response and embryo production in llamas treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin alone or with a progestin-releasing vaginal sponge at the time of follicular wave emergence." Theriogenology 72(6): 803-808.

The objective of the study was to compare the ovulatory response and embryo production in llamas (Lama glama) treated with a single dose of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) alone or combined with intravaginal medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) at the time of follicular wave emergence. Llamas with a growing follicle ≥7 mm in diameter were assigned to one of the following groups: (1) Control (n=28): Nonstimulated llamas were mated and embryos were collected 7 d after mating. (2) eCG (n=32): Llamas were given 5 mg luteinizing hormone (LH) (Day 0) to induce ovulation, 1000 IU eCG on Day 2, a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin F2α on Day 6, mating on Day 7, and embryo collection on Day 14. (3) eCG+MPA (n=34): Llamas were treated as those in the eCG group, but a sponge containing 60 mg MPA was placed intravaginally from Days 2 to 6. Llamas that did not respond to synchronization or superstimulation were excluded, leaving data from n=26, 26, and 27 in the control, eCG, and eCG+MPA groups, respectively, for statistical analysis. The mean (±SD) number of follicles &gt;7 mm at the time of mating was greatest in the eCG group, intermediate in the eCG+MPA group, and lowest in the control group (16.6±5.3, 12.9±3.7, and 1.0±0.0, respectively, P&lt;0.001). The number of corpora lutea was similar between eCG and eCG+MPA groups (10.1±2.9 and 8.6±3.7, respectively); both were higher (P&lt;0.001) than in controls (0.9±0.3). The number of embryos did not differ significantly between the eCG and eCG+MPA groups (4.8±2.8 and 3.5±3.0, respectively), but both were higher (P&lt;0.001) than in the controls (0.7±0.4). In conclusion, eCG, with or without MPA effectively induced a superovulatory response and multiple embryo production in llamas.

Huidobro Bellido, J., et al. (1994). La verdadera escritura aymara. La Paz, Asociacio\0301n Socio Econo\0301mica de Productores Indi\0301genas del Tawantinsuyo \201CA-Sepiita\201D.

Hultberg, A., et al. (2011). "Llama-derived single domain antibodies to build multivalent, superpotent and broadened neutralizing anti-viral molecules." PLoS One(No.April): e17665.

For efficient prevention of viral infections and cross protection, simultaneous targeting of multiple viral epitopes is a powerful strategy. Llama heavy chain antibody fragments (VHH) against the trimeric envelope proteins of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Fusion protein), Rabies virus (Glycoprotein) and H5N1 Influenza (Hemagglutinin 5) were selected from llama derived immune libraries by phage display. Neutralizing VHH recognizing different epitopes in the receptor binding sites on the spikes with affinities in the low nanomolar range were identified for all the three viruses by viral neutralization assays. By fusion of VHH with variable linker lengths, multimeric constructs were made that improved neutralization potencies up to 4,000-fold for RSV, 1,500-fold for Rabies virus and 75-fold for Influenza H5N1. The potencies of the VHH constructs were similar or better than best performing monoclonal antibodies. The cross protection capacity against different viral strains was also improved for all three viruses, both by multivalent (two or three identical VHH) and biparatopic (two different VHH) constructs. By combining a VHH neutralizing RSV subtype A, but not subtype B with a poorly neutralizing VHH with high affinity for subtype B, a biparatopic construct was made with low nanomolar neutralizing potency against both subtypes. Trivalent anti-H5N1 VHH neutralized both Influenza H5N1 clade1 and 2 in a pseudotype assay and was very potent in neutralizing the NIBRG-14 Influenza H5N1 strain with IC50 of 9 picomolar. Bivalent and biparatopic constructs against Rabies virus cross neutralized both 10 different Genotype 1 strains and Genotype 5. The results show that multimerization of VHH fragments targeting multiple epitopes on a viral trimeric spike protein is a powerful tool for anti-viral therapy to achieve "best-in-class" and broader neutralization capacity.

Hultberg, A., et al. (2007). "Lactobacilli expressing llama VHH fragments neutralise Lactococcus phages." BMC Biotechnology 7(58): (17 September 2007).

Background: Bacteriophages infecting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely acknowledged as the main cause of milk fermentation failures. In this study, we describe the surface-expression as well as the secretion of two functional llama heavy-chain antibody fragments, one binding to the major capsid protein (MCP) and the other to the receptor-binding proteins (RBP) of the lactococcal bacteriophage p2, by lactobacilli in order to neutralise lactococcal phages. Results: The antibody fragment VHH5 that is directed against the RBP, was fused to a c-myc tag and expressed in a secreted form by a Lactobacillus strain. The fragment VHH2 that is binding to the MCP, was fused to an E-tag and anchored on the surface of the lactobacilli. Surface expression of VHH2 was confirmed by flow cytometry using an anti-E-tag antibody. Efficient binding of both the VHH2 and the secreted VHH5 fragment to the phage antigens was shown in ELISA. Scanning electron microscopy showed that lactobacilli expressing VHH2 anchored at their surface were able to bind lactococcal phages. A neutralisation assay also confirmed that the secreted VHH5 and the anchored VHH2 fragments prevented the adsorption of lactococcal phages to their host cells. Conclusion: Lactobacilli were able to express functional VHH fragments in both a secreted and a cell surface form and reduced phage infection of lactococcal cells. Lactobacilli expressing llama heavy-chain antibody fragments represent a novel way to limit phage infection.

Hunter, B., et al. (2014). "Carpal valgus in llamas and alpacas: retrospective evaluation of patient characteristics, radiographic features and outcomes following surgical treatment." Canadian Veterinary Journal 55(12): 1153-1159.

This study evaluated outcomes of surgical treatment for carpal valgus in New World camelids and correlated successful outcome (absence of carpal valgus determined by a veterinarian) with patient characteristics and radiographic features. Univariable and multivariable analyses of retrospective case data in 19 camelids (33 limbs) treated for carpal valgus between 1987 and 2010 revealed that procedures incorporating a distal radial transphyseal bridge were more likely (P=0.03) to result in success after a single surgical procedure. A greater degree of angulation (&gt;19°, P=0.02) and younger age at surgery (&lt; 4 months, P=0.03) were associated with unsuccessful outcome. Overall, 74% of limbs straightened, 15% overcorrected, and 11% had persistent valgus following surgical intervention. To straighten, 22% of limbs required multiple procedures, not including implant removal. According to owners, valgus returned following implant removal in 4 limbs that had straightened after surgery.

Hunter, R. P., et al. (2004). "Moxidectin plasma concentrations following topical administration to llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos)." Small Ruminant Research 52(3): 275-279.

Producers and veterinarians commonly administer pharmaceuticals labelled for cattle, sheep, or goats to llamas and alpacas, yet little is known about the safety and efficacy of this extra-label usage. There are many species-related factors, such as bioavailability and metabolism, that could lead to variation in the pharmacokinetic parameters between species and possibly decrease the activity of a compound. This experiment investigated the absorption and disposition of topical (pour-on) moxidectin in llamas and alpacas. Seven llamas and seven alpacas were obtained from commercial sources and were not treated with an avermectin/milbemycin agent within 60 days prior to the start of the study. The animals were housed outdoors with water and hay available ad libitum. All animals received moxidectin at a dose of 500 µg/kg after being clipped along the dorsal midline. Serial blood samples were collected post dose. Samples were analysed for moxidectin using a validated liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy assay. Moxidectin administration was well tolerated with no adverse effects noted in either species following topical administration. Median Cmax values were highly variable in the llamas and alpacas with two alpacas having no detectable plasma concentrations of moxidectin. Due to the limited absorption of this compound in both species, appropriate pharmacokinetic parameters could not be determined. In these two species of South American camelids, moxidectin was not well absorbed following topical administration.

Hunter, R. P., et al. (2004). "The pharmacokinetics of topical doramectin in llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos)." Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 27(3): 187-189.

The pharmacokinetics of a single topical doramectin (0.5 mg/kg b.w.) administration in llamas and alpacas were studied. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a non-compartmental analysis. Parameters calculated for plasma were area under the plasma concentrations vs. time curve (AUC0-∞), area under the moment curve (AUMC0-∞), mean residence time (MRT). Maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), Tmax, rate constant (Λ) and half-life (t1/2). There were no significant differences in plasma pharmacokinetics between the two species in this study. Neither were there observable adverse effects in any of the treated animals.

Husáková, T., et al. (2015). "Recumbency in llama guanaco." Veterinářství 65(5): 383-387.

The study describes the clinical case of recumbency in llama guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in postpartum period. The llama became recumbent on the 3rd day after delivery of dead but fully mature foetus. The animal remained bright and alert and was eating well, however it was recumbent and did not attempt to rise even with assistance. The case description includes the therapeutic methods and results of haematological and biochemical blood testing. Amongst the most important findings there were hypophosphatemia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and anaemia. The article discusses possible differential diagnosis and describes the clinical status of the patient as well as changes in blood parameters during 4 weeks treatment that was successful with complete recovery of the patient. In this study the most likely cause of the recumbency was considered, due to findings in blood and the progress of the disease, to be phosphorus deficiency and malnutrition during pregnancy.

Hutchinson, J. M. (1992). "Immunodeficiency in juvenile llamas." Large Animal Veterinary Report 3(7): 49.

Hutchinson, J. M., et al. (1995). "Comparison of two commercially available single radial immunodiffusion kits for quantitation of llama immunoglobulin G." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 7(4): 515-519.

Immunoglobin G (IgG) quantitation was performed by a commercially available single radial immunodiffusion kit (SRID-A) of 528 plasma samples obtained from llamas. 50 samples encompassing the range of values obtained were selected for further evaluation. The IgG concentration of these samples was measured by a second commercially available single radial immunodiffusion kit (SRID-B) and a sodium sulfite precipitation (SSP) kit. γ-globulins also were measured. IgG values predicted by the single radial immunodiffusion kits were not in agreement. The IgG concentration predicted by SSP was always less than the γ-globulins concentration and IgG concentration predicted by SRID-A, but was more consistent with IgG results predicted by SRID-B. Failure to appreciate this lack of agreement could result in misinterpretation of a lama's IgG level derived from one kit when clinical guidelines established using the other kit are followed.

Hutchison, J., et al. (1997). "Evaluation of factors affecting the response of llamas to vaccination with Clostridium perfringens C toxoid." Épidémiologie et Santé Animale(No. 31/32): 08.06.01-08.06.02.

Hutchison, J. M. (1997). Measurable aspects of the immune response in llamas : an epidemiologic approach.

Hutchison, J. M., et al. (1993). "Acute renal failure in the llama (Lama glama)." Cornell Veterinarian 83(1): 39-46.

Hutchison, J. M. and F. Garry (1994). "Ill thrift and juvenile llama immunodeficiency syndrome." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 331-343.

Hutchison, J. M., et al. (1995). "Prospective characterization of the clinicopathologic and immunologic features of an immunodeficiency syndrome affecting juvenile llamas." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 49(3): 209-227.

The clinicopathological and immunological features of 15 llamas affected with juvenile llama immunodeficiency syndrome (JLIDS) are described. Healthy adult (n=10) and juvenile (n=10) llamas served as controls. JLIDS llamas were characterized by wasting, and clinically apparent, repeated infections were frequently observed. The median age at which a health problem was first perceived was 11.6 months. All 15 affected llamas died or were killed, and JLIDS was confirmed when the animals were examined. The median duration of illness was 3.5 months. Lymphocyte blastogenesis assays showed suppressed responses (particularly to Staphylococcus sp. Protein A) in JLIDS llamas. No evidence of retroviral infection was detected. Mild, normocytic, normochromic, non-regenerative anaemia, low serum albumin concentration and low to low-normal globulin concentrations were typically found on initial clinical evaluation. Lymph node biopsies showed areas of paracortical depletion. All llamas affected with JLIDS had low serum IgG concentrations, pre-vaccination titres against Clostridium perfringens C and D toxoids of ≤1 : 100, and no titre increase following vaccination.

Hutchison, J. M., et al. (1992). "Immunodeficiency syndrome associated with wasting and opportunistic infection in juvenile llamas: 12 cases (1988-1990)." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 201(7): 1070-1076.

Immunodeficiency was diagnosed as the cause of severe debilitating disease characterized by weight loss, failure to grow, and persistent infections that failed to respond to treatment in 12 young llamas. The llamas were affected after maternal-acquired immunity had decreased; failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins thus was not suspected. Areas of lymph nodes containing T lymphocytes were hypocellular, suggesting T-cell involvement. High serum immunoglobin concn were not found, despite the existence of infectious disease, suggesting at least secondary B-cell involvement. Results of lymphocyte blastogenesis assays were suggestive of B- and T-cell involvement. It was not possible to determine whether the condition was inherited or acquired.

Hutchison, J. M., et al. (1998). "Characterization of plasma immunoglobulin G concentrations of llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 59(4): 406-409.

Plasma IgG concentration was measured in 643 llamas from 5 farms by using a single radial immunodiffusion assay kit. The IgG concentration ranged between 127 and 3969 mg/dl. In llamas &lt;12-month-old, farm of origin accounted for 29% of variability for IgG concentration. Reference range for plasma IgG concentration in &lt;12-month-old llamas was 391 to 2357 mg/dl; for llamas between 12 and 28-month-old the range was 771 to 2796 mg/dl; and for llamas &gt;28-month-old the range was 570 to 3264 mg/dl. Determinants of IgG concentration are multifactorial, and their importance varies with age of the llamas. It is concluded that IgG concentrations vary widely and that age and farm may significantly affect IgG concentrations in healthy llamas.

Illanes Callejas, J. (2005). Bloques nutricionales en la suplementación de llamas (Lama glama) en el último tercio de gestación en el CEAC.

The present work consisted in the use of biochemical and molecular nutrition blocks (BMN) in llamas during the last third of the gestation period, at the Agricultural Experiment Center of Condori (CEAC), located 49 km north of the city of Oruro, and 12 km north of the Caracollo population, in the province of Cercado. For this research work, we used 20 pregnant llamas in the last third of their gestation period, between the ages of 2 and 3 years old, 10 of which belonged to the Khara breed, and 10 to the Thampulli breed. Two corrals of 7 x 7 m., with adobe walls of a height of 1.80 m., a soil floor, and a metallic door, were built for the placement of the animals. The following ingredients were used for the preparation of the BMN blocks: 100 L of molasses, 75 kg of barley flour, 18 kg of alfalfa flour, 12 kg of sorghum flour, 30kg of mineral salt, 30 kg of Urea to the 46%, and 30 kg, of clay. The following variables were considered: Final body weight of the mother (before birth), increment of live weight of the mother by date, body weight of the mother (after birth), body weight of the llama calf, body weight gain of the mother, mother's food consumption, and physical-chemical analysis of the feeding blocks. The variables of the study were analyzed under a completely randomized design test, and for the discrimination of variable averages we used the Duncan test to a 95% of reliability. We came to the following conclusions: The greater increment of live weight was reported by llamas that received the BMV block as a dietary supplement, the gain was of 107.91 Kg/Llama, and the least was reported by those who did not received the BMV blocks as a dietary supplement with and increment of 102.07 Kg/Llama. For the final live weight of the mothers, the greater number was reported by llamas that received the BMV blocks, reporting 112.0 Kg/Llama, the least was reported by those who did not received the supplement with an increase of 105.10 Kg/Llama. Post-partum Llamas that received supplementation reported a live weight increase of 97.43 Kg/Llama, whereas those who did not received the supplement reported an increase of 88.40 Kg/Llama. According to breed the Khara Llama reported an increase of 96.56 Kg/llama, while the Thampulli line reported an increase of 89.10 Kg/Llama. The greater live weight of the calf at birth was reported by those whose mothers were given the BMN supplements; reporting 11.50 Kg/Calf, while those whose mothers did not received the supplement reported 9.60 Kg/ Calf. Therefore, we recommend the supplementation of the diet with biochemical and molecular nutrition blocks in the feeding of llamas in the last third of the gestation period to obtain calves with higher body weight at birth.

Impey, R. a. and A. i. Pye (2013). Llama drama : in it to win it! London, Harper Collins Children's Books.

Impey, R. a. and A. i. Pye (2013). Llama drama : it's showtime! London, Harper Collins Children's.

Ingram, K. A. and R. L. Sigler (1983). Cataract removal in a young llama: 95-97.

Iñiguez, L. C., et al. (1998). "Fleece types, fiber characteristics and production system of an outstanding llama population from Southern Bolivia." Small Ruminant Research 30(1): 57-65.

The production system and fleece quality of a population of llamas (n = 164) from Southern Potosí, a region 3600-4600 m above sea level with a dry, cold climate, was studied. A mixed livestock-pastoral, zero cropping- and grazing-based system, rotating on swamps, plains and mountain slopes, was the dominant production system. The incidence of animals having woolly, heavier and finer fleeces, resembling those of alpaca, was higher in this region (47%) than in other, previously described, northern regions (8%) where most of the llama population is raised. Means of average fibre diameter and the incidence of medullated fibres, 21.2 µm and 38.9%, respectively, were the lowest reported for llamas. While continuous medullated fibres varied among fleece types (P&lt;0.01), average fibre diameter did not differ. Older animals tended to have fibres with larger means of average fiber diameter (P&lt;0.01). Continuous and fragmented medullated fibers, and average fiber diameters differed according to the colour of the coat (P&lt;0.01). Average staple strength was 46.4 N/ktex.

Isaac, P. (1999). "Understanding some of the needs and requirements of the llama." Veterinary Times 29(11): 31-32.

Isaza, R. (1999). Degenerative myelopathy as a cause of spinal ataxia in llamas.

Iturrizaga, D. M., et al. (2007). "The materno-fetal interface in llama (Lama guanicoe glama)." Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 27(6): 221-228.

Samples from 9 llamas (28 through 36 weeks of gestation) were collected and fixed in 4% buffered paraformaldehyde (light microscopy) and in 2.5% buffered glutaraldehyde (transmission and scanning electron microscopy). The material was processed in paraplast and slides (5ím) were stained with HE, PAS, Masson-Trichrome, acid phosphatase and Perl's. The uteroferrin was immunolocalized. The results show that llama placenta is chorioallantoic, diffuse, folded and epitheliochorial, and the fetus is covered with an epidermal membrane. The trophoblast cells have variable morphology: cubic, rounded and triangular cells, with cytoplasm containing PAS-positive granules. Binucleated cells with large cytoplasm and rounded nuclei, as well as giant trophoblastic cells with multiple nuclei were also observed. Numerous blood vessels were observed beneath the cells of the uterine epithelium and around the chorionic subdivided branches. Glandular activity was shown by PAS, Perl's, and acid phosphatase positive reactions in the cytoplasm and glandular lumen, and by immunolocalization of the uteroferrin in the glandular epithelium. The uterine glands open in spaces formed by the areoles, which are filled by PAS-positive material. The llama fetus was covered by the epidermal membrane, composed of strati-fied epithelium, with up to seven layers of mono-, bi- or trinucleated cells. The high level of maternal and fetal vascularization surfaces indicates an intense exchange of substances across both surfaces. The metabolic activity shown in the uterine glands suggests an adaptation of the gestation to the high altitudes of the natural habitat of this species.

Jain, N. C. and K. S. Keeton (1974). "Morphology of camel and llama erythrocytes as viewed with the scanning electron microscope." British Veterinary Journal 130(No.3): 288-291.

Erythrocytes from two camels and a llama were studied with the scanning electron microscope. The distinctive elliptical erythrocytes of both species appeared to be thin and wafer-like. Their surface was generally smooth and the cellular outline was regular. An occasional camel erythrocyte exhibited a shallow surface depression near the margin of the cell. A rare camel and llama erythrocyte appeared spatulate. The thin wafer-like form of the camel erythrocytes was congruous with their known resistance to osmotic lysis. [9 electron micrographs].

Jalali, A. R., et al. (2015). "Effects of forage type, animal characteristics and feed intake on faecal particle size in goat, sheep, llama and cattle." Animal Feed Science and Technology 208: 53-65.

The effect of forage maturity stage at harvest, animal characteristics and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake on mean particle size and particle size distribution in faeces from sheep and cattle fed grass silages was studied (Study I). Models for prediction of faeces characteristics from sheep and cattle and feed characteristics established from Study I were tested on faeces samples from goat, sheep, llama and cattle fed other types of forages (Study II). Study I included 112 faeces samples from 5 trials, and Study II included 90 faeces samples from 3 trials. Animals were fed ad libitum or restrictively with or without concentrate supplementation. The NDF content and acid detergent lignin (ADL) to NDF ratio of the forages ranged from 410 to 660 g/kg of dry matter (DM) and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively, in Study I, and from 320 to 810 g/kg of DM and from 0.05 to 0.18, respectively, in Study II. The faecal samples were washed in nylon bags with a pore size of 0.01 mm and freeze dried before being sorted into 5 sieving fractions with pore sizes of 2.4-0.1 mm; particles less than 0.1 mm were collected in bottom bowl. The faecal particles were characterized by the arithmetic and geometric mean sizes, most frequent, median and the 95 percentile values. In Study I, the mean faecal particle size increased, and the proportion of small particles (SP; &lt;0.2 mm) decreased with increasing body weight (BW), maturity of forage, ADL/NDF ratio, concentrate to forage ratio (C:F), and NDF intake (p&lt;0.05). The proportion of large particles (&gt;1 mm) increased with higher BW and NDF intake (p&lt;0.05). The mean particle size was higher and the proportion of SP was lower in faeces from cattle than from sheep (p&lt;0.05). In conclusion, increased lignification of forage NDF resulted in increased particle sizes in faeces and this effect was amplified in larger animals. The prediction model established from Study I, on the effect of BW, ADL/NDF in forage, C:F and forage NDF intake on particle size in faeces of grass silage-fed animals in Study I appeared to be valid to predict the geometric mean particle size in faeces from goat, sheep, llama and steers fed other forages e.g., lucerne, dried grass, grass seed straw and whole crop barley silage in Study II.

Jarvinen, J. A. (2008). "Infection of llamas with stored Eimeria macusaniensis oocysts obtained from guanaco and alpaca feces." Journal of parasitology 94(4): 969-972.

Oocysts obtained from a guanaco and an alpaca with natural infections were identified as Eimeria macusaniensis and evaluated for host specificity and infectivity over time. In 3 separate trials conducted over 4 yr, 4 adult llamas were fed 500-5,000 sporulated oocysts obtained from guanaco feces stored under laboratory conditions for 41- 84 mo. Infections with prepatent periods of 36-41 days and patent periods of 38-55 days developed in 4/4 llamas. In a fourth trial, 3 adult llamas and 1 alpaca were each fed 1,000 sporulated E. macusaniensis oocysts obtained from alpaca feces stored in the laboratory for 3 mo. Infections with prepatent periods of 33-34 days and patent periods of 14-20 days developed in 3/3 llamas. Infection in the alpaca had a prepatent period of 58 days and a patent period of 1 day. Clinical signs associated with infection, if any, were minimal and included increased fecal mucus and occasional soft feces. These results provide evidence that E. macusaniensis is a single species transmissible amongst alpacas, llamas, and guanacos and that oocysts of this species can remain infective for many years.

Jarvinen, J. A., et al. (1999). "Clinical and Serologic Evaluation of Two Llamas (Lama glama) Infected with Toxoplasma gondii during Gestation." The Journal of Parasitology 85(1): 142-144.

Two pregnant llamas (Lama glama) infected with Toxoplasma gondii and their offspring were evaluated clinically and serologically. Llama 1 was inoculated orally with 1,000 infective oocysts of the P89 strain of T. gondii at 82 days of gestation (DOG). Llama 2 became naturally infected with T. gondii between 26 and 119 DOG. Both llamas remained clinically normal and delivered healthy offspring. Sera collected from both llamas during pregnancy and from their offspring before and after colostral ingestion were evaluated for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT), latex agglutination test (LAT), indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), and the Sabin-Feldman dye test (DT). In llama 1, MAT antibody titers were <1:20, 1:320, 1:1,280, 1:640, and 1:80 at 82, 97, 109, 132, and 152 DOG, respectively. The MAT titers in naturally infected llama 2 were <1:32, 1:320-1:640, and 1:1,280 at 26, 119-200, and 346 DOG, respectively. In both llamas, antibody titers in the DT were of similar magnitude as the MAT, but titers in the LAT and IHAT were inconsistent. Antibodies to T. gondii were not detected in precolostral sera obtained from offspring of both llamas suggesting there was no fetal T. gondii infection.

Jarvinen, J. A., et al. (1999). "Clinical and serologic evaluation of two llamas (Lama glama) infected with Toxoplasma gondii during gestation." Journal of parasitology 85(1): 142-144.

Two pregnant llamas (Lama glama) infected with Toxoplasma gondii, and their offspring, were evaluated clinically and serologically. Llama 1 was inoculated orally with 1000 infective oocysts of the P89 strain of T. gondii at 82 days of gestation. Llama 2 became naturally infected with T. gondii between days 26 and 119 of gestation. Both llamas remained clinically normal and delivered healthy offspring. Sera collected from both llamas during pregnancy and from their offspring before and after colostral ingestion were evaluated for antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT), latex agglutination test (LAT), indirect haemagglutination test (IHAT), and the Sabin-Feldman dye test. In llama 1, MAT antibody titres were &lt;1:20, 1:320, 1:1280, 1:640 and 1:80 at days 82, 97, 109, 132 and 152 of gestation, respectively. The MAT titres in naturally infected llama 2 were &lt;1:32, 1:320-1:640, and 1:1280 at days 26, 119-200 and 346 of gestation, respectively. In both llamas, antibody titres in the dye test were of similar magnitude to those by MAT, but titres in LAT and IHAT were inconsistent. Antibodies to T. gondii were not detected in precolostral sera obtained from offspring of both llamas, suggesting there was no fetal T. gondii infection.

Jarvinen, J. A. and J. M. Kinyon (2010). "Preputial microflora of llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos)." Small Ruminant Research 90(1/3): 156-160.

To characterize the normal preputial microflora of healthy male New World camelids (NWC), samples were swabbed from the preputial mucosa of 23 intact and 7 castrated males including 17 llamas and 13 alpacas ranging from 1 day to 16 years of age. The swabs were streaked onto tryptose blood agar with 5% bovine blood, MacConkey's agar, Karmali Campylobacter selective agar and Saboraud's dextrose agar and cultured under aerobic, micro-aerophilic and/or anaerobic conditions. Bacteria but not fungi or Campylobacter were isolated from all 30 animals. The mean numbers of bacterial isolates obtained per male were 3.4 for alpacas (range 2-6), 4.0 for llamas (range 1-7) and 3.7 for both species combined. Of 22 bacterial genera identified from a total of 112 isolates, five were aerobes, 11 were facultative anaerobes and six were obligate anaerobes. Nine isolates failed to subculture and could not be identified. The most frequently isolated genera in descending order of frequency were Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Bacteroides, Corynebacterium, Arcanobacterium and Actinomyces. This is the first description of the microflora present on the preputial mucosa of healthy llamas and alpacas. Most of the bacteria isolated from the prepuce are considered commensal organisms, but several could be opportunistic pathogens under appropriate conditions.

Jarvinen, J. A., et al. (2002). "Pharmacokinetics of ivermectin in llamas (Lama glama)." Veterinary record 150(11): 344-346.

The pharmacokinetic behaviour of ivermectin was investigated in adult llamas (Lama glama) by using high performance liquid chromatography with a lower limit of quantification of 2 ng/ml to measure its concentration in serum. Llamas were treated with one of three commercial formulations (injectable, pour-on or oral paste) at dosages recommended by the manufacturer, or with an experimental injectable sustained-release formulation. In five llamas given 1% ivermectin subcutaneously at 200 µg/kg, the median peak serum concentration (Cmax) was 3 ng/ml and the area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) was 13.5 ng.day/ml. In six llamas treated topically with 0.5% ivermectin pour-on at 500 µg/kg, Cmax was 2.5 ng/ml or less and the AUC was 7.75 ng.day/ml or less. In seven llamas with measurable concentrations of ivermectin, the median times to peak serum concentration (tmax) were six days after subcutaneous injection and seven days after treatment with the pour-on formulation. In six llamas, the serum concentration of ivermectin remained less than 2 ng/ml for 124 h after treatment with a 1.87% oral paste at 200 µg/kg. In five llamas treated subcutaneously with 25% ivermectin sustained-release microspheres at 1500 µg/kg, the median Cmax was 5 ng/ml and the median AUC was 224 ng.day/ml.

Jarvinen, J. A. C., et al. (2014). "Identification of Lamanema chavezi Becklund 1963 infection in a llama (Lama glama) in the United States." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 26(1): 178-183.

Infection with Lamanema chavezi, a parasitic nematode of New World camelids, was diagnosed by examination of feces and formalin-fixed liver from a 14-month-old female llama (Lama glama) that died after a 6-week illness. Infection with L. chavezi was initially suspected when a granuloma containing an unidentified nematode was detected microscopically in the hepatic parenchyma from a necropsy specimen. The subsequent diagnosis of L. chavezi infection was based on the morphologic features of 2 immature nematodes dissected from individual hepatic granulomas, characteristics of eggs detected in feces of the llama by centrifugal flotation in sugar solution (specific gravity: 1.30), development of third-stage larvae within the eggs after incubation of the llama feces at room temperature for ≥30 days, and the morphology of third-stage larvae released from the embryonated eggs. Collectively, these findings indicate that the llama, born and raised in Oregon, harbored an autochthonous L. chavezi infection. Eggs identified as L. chavezi were also detected by centrifugal flotation of pelleted feces from 3 of 7 herd mates of the llama indicating this parasite is endemic in the Oregon herd. The findings reported herein serve to alert diagnosticians and veterinary practitioners to the occurrence of L. chavezi in New World camelids in the United States and describe diagnostic features of this potential pathogen.

Jayathangaraj, M. G., et al. (1999). "Pyloric obstruction in a llama (Lama glama) - a case report." International Journal of Animal Sciences 14(2): 249-250.

Postmortem examination showed that the obstruction was caused by a polythene bag having been ingested.

Jean, G. S., et al. (1989). "Repair of fracture of the proximal portion of the radius and ulna in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 194(9): 1309-1311.

John of the Cross, S., et al. (1993). Poesi\0301as : Llama de amor viva. Madrid J2 - Poems. Selections, Taurus Ediciones.

Johnson, C. R., et al. (2000). "Long-bone fractures in llamas: six cases (1993-1998)." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 216(8): 1291-1293.

Medical records of 6 llamas admitted to a US veterinary medical teaching hospital because of long bone fractures were reviewed. Data collected included age, sex, type of fracture, method of fracture repair and postoperative complications. The Fisher exact test was used to compare age and sex of the llamas with long-bone fractures with those of the hospital population of llamas. All owners were contacted by telephone to determine perceived postoperative problems and whether the llamas were able to perform as expected. Mean age was 160.8 days (range, 23 to 365 days). There was 1 male and 5 females. Fractures were more likely to occur in young llamas (≤1 year old) than in adults. Five of the fractures were attributed to traumatic episodes. Long bones affected included the tibia (n=2), radius (n=2), femur (n=1), and humerus (n=1). Internal fixation with lag screws, plating, or both was performed on fractures of all llamas except one; that llama was treated by use of confinement to a stall. None of the llamas had intraoperative complications, but postoperative complications were reported in 2 llamas. All fractures healed eventually and clients were pleased with outcomes.

Johnson, C. T., et al. (1993). "Mycobacterium kansasii infection in a llama." Veterinary record 133(10): 243-244.

In 1991, within 3 weeks of becoming slow to move and inappetent, a 2.5 year-old homebred female llama was severely emaciated with gut stasis, atriple heart beat and infected mucous membranes. Blood chemistry showed a slight elevation of serum urea. PM examination of the llama which died a week later revealed an excess of clear peritoneal fluid, greatly enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes with irregular outlines and caseous lesions with some calcification, multiple irregularly shaped pale caseous lesions in the liver and 4 small lesions in the lungs. Routine bacteriological cultures were negative but many acid-fast bacilli were seen in stained smears from lymph nodes, liver and lungs. A slow growing photochromogenic mycobacterium was isolated in pure culture from lymphoid tissue cultured in the same way as routine samples from cattle; it was identified as M. kansasii. Histologically the lesions resembled tuberculosis. 15 months after the llamas death none of the other 44 llamas on the farm had been affected. The source of the infection was not identified but a lake fed by a small river which was used for drinking water by the animals was a possible source.

Johnson, L. R. W. (1994). "Llama herd health." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 248-258.

Herd health procedures including breeding, nutrition, immunization and parasite control are reviewed.

Johnson, L. W. (1989). "Eperythrozoonosis (EPE) in llamas: a new disease?" Proceedings - Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 93: 240.

Anaemia accompanied by a blood parasite resembling Eperythrozoon has been reported in llamas in various parts of USA. Serological testing of 222 llamas on 22 premises in 7 States was positive for eperythrozoonosis in 54 cases. The results of tetracycline therapy were encouraging, though relapses occurred. The exact nature of the causal agent was not yet known.

Johnson, L. W. (1989). Llama medicine. Philadelphia, Pa., Saunders.

Johnson, L. W. (1989). "Llama reproduction." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 5(1): 159-182.

The reproductive anatomy, physiology and reproductive disorders of the llama are reviewed. Puberty in ♀♀ is reached at an av. age of 12 months, but often not until 3 yr of age in ♂♂. Maximum reproductive performance is dependent on good management. Pregnancy is indicated by the rejection of the ♂, and can be confirmed by progesterone assay, rectal palpation, or ultrasound techniques. The postpartum ♀ quickly regains high fertility. Both ♂♂ and ♀♀ contribute to infertility and show anatomical abnormalities. Principal causes of infertility are anoestrus, trauma, infection, neoplasia, hormonal imbalances and management. Resorption between 30 and 60 days of gestation and stess-related abortions occur regularly, as well as stillbirth. Some abortions are due to Leptospira, Toxoplasma and Chlamydia, and Ponderosa pine-related abortions are suspected.

Johnson, L. W. (1990). Female llama infertility. Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University, College of Veterinary Medicine: 6-13.

Johnson, L. W. (1993). Abortion in llamas. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Company: 541-544.

Johnson, L. W. (1993). Infertility evaluation in llamas and alpacas. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Company: 536-540.

Johnson, L. W. (1994). "Llama nutrition." Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 10(2): 187-201.

Johnson, L. W. (1994). "Llama nutrition." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 187-201.

Nutrient requirements of llamas are discussed. Neonate nutrition and growth as well as the adult are considered. It is concluded that it is easy to overfeed with maximum intake and concentrated supplements; the challenge is to fine tune intake of quality forage to meet nutrient requirements of different llamas within a herd.

Johnson, L. W. (2005). Neonatology of llamas and alpacas. Gainesville, Eastern States Veterinary Association: 306-308.

Johnson, L. W., et al. (1990). Experimental eperythrozoonosis in llamas. Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University, College of Veterinary Medicine: 17-19.

Johnson, L. W. and E. J. Gentz (1990). "Multiple non lethal congenital anomalies in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 196(4): 630-631.

Johnson, L. W., et al. (1991). "Experimental eperythrozoonosis in llamas." Proceedings - Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 95: 135-137.

Clinical cases of eperythrozoonosis among llamas kept in North America were first noticed in 1988. Few survived, even after tetracycline therapy. Two adult (splenectomized) and 4 young llamas were inoculated with infective blood, but only one young llama developed parasitaemia. Reinfection succeeded after immunosuppression with dexamethasone. One died, and three recovered after prolonged treatment with arsanilic acid. 70% of 'hundreds' of blood samples obtained throughout N. America were positive to an ELISA. The haemagglutination test for E. suis was unreliable in llamas.

Johnson, L. W., et al. (1989). "Diagnostic procedures for detecting llamas exposed to mycobacteria." Proceedings - Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association 93: 241-244.

Following reports that injection of tuberculin into the neck was unreliable for detecting tuberculous llamas, the authors found that the axilla was the best site for injecting avian and bovine tuberculins. An indirect ELISA on serum, using M. bovis and M. avium antigens, was positive for M. bovis in 2 llamas sensitized with the same mycobacterium.

Johnson, R. (1974). "Una virgen llama a tu puerta, Ram&#xf3;n J. Sender." Books Abroad 48(4): 746-746.

Jones, M. L., et al. (2007). "Use of grid keratotomy for the treatment of indolent corneal ulcer in a llama." Canadian Veterinary Journal 48(4): 416-419.

A case of indolent corneal ulcer in a llama (Llama glama) is described. Diagnostic testing included a complete ophthalmic examination with corneal cytologic and histopathologic examination. Successful management involved grid keratotomy and topical application of neomycin-polymixin-bacitracin and atropine 1% ointments. Weekly follow-up examinations are described until healing was considered complete.

Jonsson, N. N. and M. Rozmanec (1997). "Tick paralysis and hepatic lipidosis in a llama." Australian Veterinary Journal 75(4): 250-253.

A case of paralysis caused by Ixodes holocyclus is described in a 2- to 3-year-old male llama (Lama glama). The llama was transported from Victoria via New South Wales to Queensland, Australia, 3 weeks before presentation. A typical tick lesion was identified on the face and another lesion was found on one carpus. Other clinical findings were consistent with tick paralysis. The animal was killed after unsuccessful treatment with Ixodes hyperimmune dog serum and ivermectin. PM examination revealed a periacinar hepatocyte lipid accumulation.

Joosten, V. (2005). Production of bifunctional proteins by Aspergillus awamori : llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHS) coupled to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP).

Jovcevska, I. (2015). Llama heavy-chain antibody-derived nanobodies as tools to identify protein markers for human glioma : [doctoral dissertation]. Ljubljana.

Juarez Iglesias, M., et al. (1978). "Determination of calcium in milk by flame photometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy." Anales de Bromatologia 30(1): 13-20.

4 methods for estimation of Ca in milk were compared: (i) precipitation by ammonium oxalate and titration with KMnO4 (International Standard (1966) FIL-IDF 36, reference method); (ii) flame photometry of deproteinized serum, used in France as standard method, (Norme II-22); (iii) flame photometry with removal of phosphate interference by ammonium molybdate [Fetisov, DSA 37, 1418]; (iv) AAS with added La. All 4 methods were applied to dried whole milk, UHT sterilized milk, sterilized milk and sterilized skim milk. Tabulated results showed that methods (i) and (iv) gave similar results; method (iii) also gave correct results but each series of determinations must be contrasted with the reference method; method (ii) gave very low results in every case.

Juneja, R. K., et al. (1989). "Two-dimensional electrophoresis of the plasma proteins of alpacas and llamas: genetic polymorphism of α1B-glycoprotein and three other proteins." Animal Genetics 19(4): 395-406.

Plasma samples from alpacas and llamas were analysed by 2-dimensional agarose gel-horizontal polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by general protein staining of gels. Genetic polymorphism is described in both species for α1B-glycoprotein (α1B) and 3 other, unidentified proteins, designated prealbumin (Pr), postalbumin 1 and postalbumin 2 (Pa1 and Pa2). Protein α1B was identified by cross-reactivity with antisera for human and pig α1B. Two alleles of Pr, 2 of Pa1, 5 of α1B and 3 of Pa2 are described. Most of the alleles were present in alpacas and llamas. Alpacas showed a high degree of polymorphism at all 4 loci. Llamas showed considerable polymorphism at the Pa1 and Pa2 loci. The theoretical probability of exclusion of an incorrectly assigned parent was estimated to be about 80% in each species, by typing for the 6 polymorphic plasma proteins reported so far in these species.

Junge, R. E. and L. Thornburg (1989). "Copper poisoning in four llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 195(7): 987-989.

Copper poisoning developed in 1 adult and 3 juvenile llamas after excessive dietary intake of Cu resulted in an incorrect Cu:Mo ratio. Total dietary Cu was 36 mg/kg of feed, with a Cu:Mo ratio of 16.6:1. Clinical signs associated with the toxicosis included acute onset of anorexia and lethargy. Liver enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase) and serum Cu concentration were high in specimens obtained within 48 h before death. Gross PM findings were limited to mild hepatomegaly. Histologically, hepatic lesions included acute massive necrosis of hepatocytes with and without bile duct proliferation, double hepatic plates with loss of orientation, anisocytosis, anisokaryosis, and an intralobular mosaic pattern of necrosis involving half of the hepatocytes. Analysis of hepatic Cu concentrations suggested that juvenile llamas develop signs of poisoning at lower hepatic Cu concentrations than adults.

Junkins, K., et al. (2003). "Disposition of sulfadimethoxine in male llamas (Llama glama) after single intravenous and oral administrations." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(1): 9-15.

This study determined the disposition of sulfadimethoxine in 6 healthy, adult, gelded male llamas (Lama glama) using a non-randomized crossover design with intravenous (i.v.) dosing (58.8±3.0 mg/kg based on metabolic scaling) followed by oral dosing (59.3 mg/kg±8.3). Blood samples were collected intermittently for a 72-h period, and serum sulfadimethoxine concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Serum sulfadimethoxine concentrations across time were subjected to standard pharmacokinetic analysis based on linear regression. Mean maximum serum concentration after oral dosing was 23.6±14.9 µg/ml and extrapolated peak concentration after i.v. administration was 246.6±15.8 µg/ml. Total clearance of sulfadimethoxine was 45.4±13.9 l/kg. Half lives after i.v. and oral administration were 541±111 min and 642.4±204.8 min, respectively. Oral bioavailability was 52.6±15%. These data suggest that the oral dose administered to llamas in this study, based on metabolic scaling from cattle, may be inadequate when compared with the reported minimum inhibitory concentration (512 µg/ml) breakpoint for sulfadimethoxine.

Junkins, K., et al. (2003). "Disposition of Sulfadimethoxine in Male Llamas (Llama glama) after Single Intravenous and Oral Administrations." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(1): 9-15.

This study determined the disposition of sulfadimethoxine in six, healthy, adult, gelded male llamas (Llama glama) by using a nonrandomized crossover design with i.v. dosing (58.8 &#xb1; 3.0 mg/kg based on metabolic scaling) followed by oral dosing (59.3 mg/kg &#xb1; 8.3). Blood samples were collected intermittently for a 72-hr period, and serum sulfadimethoxine concentrations were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum sulfadimethoxine concentrations across time were subjected to standard pharmacokinetic analysis based on linear regression. Mean maximum serum concentration after oral dosing was 23.6 &#xb1; 14.9 &#x3bc;g/ml, and extrapolated peak concentration after i.v. administration was 246.6 &#xb1; 15.8 &#x3bc;g/ml. Total clearance of sulfadimethoxine was 45.4 &#xb1; 13.9 L/kg. Half-lives after i.v. and oral administration were 541 &#xb1; 111 min and 642.4 &#xb1; 204.8 min, respectively. Oral bioavailability was 52.6 &#xb1; 15%. These data suggest that the oral dose administered to llamas in this study, based on metabolic scaling from cattle, may be inadequate when compared with the reported minimum inhibitory concentration (512 &#x3bc;g/ml) breakpoint for sulfadimethoxine.

Kadwell, M., et al. (2001). "Genetic Analysis Reveals the Wild Ancestors of the Llama and the Alpaca." Proceedings: Biological Sciences 268(1485): 2575-2584.

The origins of South America's domestic alpaca and llama remain controversial due to hybridization, near extirpation during the Spanish conquest and difficulties in archaeological interpretation. Traditionally, the ancestry of both forms is attributed to the guanaco, while the vicu&#xf1;a is assumed never to have been domesticated. Recent research has, however, linked the alpaca to the vicu&#xf1;a, dating domestication to 6000-7000 years before present in the Peruvian Andes. Here, we examine in detail the genetic relationships between the South American camelids in order to determine the origins of the domestic forms, using mitochondrial (mt) and microsatellite DNA. MtDNA analysis places 80% of llama and alpaca sequences in the guanaco lineage, with those possessing vicu&#xf1;a mtDNA being nearly all alpaca or alpaca-vicu&#xf1;a hybrids. We also examined four microsatellites in wild known-provenance vicu&#xf1;a and guanaco, including two loci with non-overlapping allele size ranges in the wild species. In contrast to the mtDNA, these markers show high genetic similarity between alpaca and vicu&#xf1;a, and between llama and guanaco, although bidirectional hybridization is also revealed. Finally, combined marker analysis on a subset of samples confirms the microsatellite interpretation and suggests that the alpaca is descended from the vicu&#xf1;a, and should be reclassified as Vicugna pacos. This result has major implications for the future management of wild and domestic camelids in South America.

Kadwell, M., et al. (2001). "Genetic analysis reveals the wild ancestors of the llama and the alpaca." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 268(1485): 2575-2584.

The origins of South America's domestic alpaca and llama remain controversial due to hybridization, near extirpation during the Spanish conquest and difficulties in archaeological interpretation. Traditionally, the ancestry of both forms is attributed to the guanaco, while the vicuña is assumed never to have been domesticated. Recent research has, however, linked the alpaca to the vicuña, dating domestication to 6000-7000 years before present in the Peruvian Andes. Here, we examine in detail the genetic relationships between the South American camelids in order to determine the origins of the domestic forms, using mitochondrial (mt) and microsatellite DNA. MtDNA analysis places 80% of llama and alpaca sequences in the guanaco lineage, with those possessing vicuña mtDNA being nearly all alpaca or alpaca-vicuña hybrids. We also examined four microsatellites in wild known-provenance vicuña and guanaco, including two loci with non-overlapping allele size ranges in the wild species. In contrast to the mtDNA, these markers show high genetic similarity between alpaca and vicuña, and between llama and guanaco, although bidirectional hybridization is also revealed. Finally, combined marker analysis on a subset of samples confirms the microsatellite interpretation and suggests that the alpaca is descended from the vicuña, and should be reclassified as Vicugna pacos. This result has major implications for the future management of wild and domestic camelids in South America.

Kaneps, A. J. (1996). "Orthopedic conditions of small ruminants. Llama, sheep, goat and deer." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 12(1): 211-231.

Kaneps, A. J., et al. (1999). "Comparison of autogenous cancellous bone grafts obtained from the sternum and proximal portion of the tibia of llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215(3): 362-365.

Radiographs of the sternum and left tibia were obtained from 12 llamas, 3 to 19 years old, submitted to the Oregon State University, USA, for PM examination. Measurements of the sternum were determined from the radiographs and adjusted for magnification. Sternebrae volumes were estimated from these measurements. Anatomic dissections to the centre of the fourth sternebra and the proximal portion of the tibia were made, and a surgical approach to the sternum was developed. Cancellous graft tissue was obtained from each site and submitted for histological evaluation. Sternebrae 3, 4 and 5 were significantly larger in volume than the other sternebrae. The ventral aspect of the fourth sternebra was readily accessed for removal of graft tissue by making a 6-cm long ventral midline incision centred 17 cm cranial to the xiphoid. Mean soft tissue thickness overlying the ventral aspect of the fourth sternebra was 3.1 cm. More tissue was obtained from the sternal (mean, 9.11 g) than from the tibial (mean, 5.16 g) sites. Sternal graft tissue consisted of trabecular bone spicules with predominantly haematopoietic marrow, whereas tibial tissue consisted of trabecular bone spicules with only fatty marrow. It is concluded that the fourth sternebra in llamas is readily accessible for obtaining autogenous cancellous bone graft tissue that consists of predominantly haematopoietic marrow.

Kaneps, A. J., et al. (1989). "Surgical correction of congenital medial patellar luxation in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 194(4): 547-548.

Unilateral congenital medial patellar luxation in a young llama was corrected by medial joint capsule release, tibial crest transposition, trochleoplasty, and lateral joint capsule imbrication. The techniques used were the same as described for the dog. One year after surgery, the llama was not lame, but had a valgus deformity originating at the stifle, most likely caused by lateral femoral condyle hypoplasia.

Kaneps, A. J., et al. (1989). "Fracture repair with transfixation pins and fiberglass cast in llamas and small ruminants." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 195(9): 1257-1261.

Transfixation pinning with fibreglass casting was found to be an effective and adaptable method of longbone fracture fixation in llamas and small ruminants. Treatment of fractures in 7 limbs of 4 llamas and 2 small ruminants with this technique are described. Steinmann pins were placed trancortically proximal, and when necessary, distal to the fracture. The pin ends and limb were encased in fibreglass cast material. The cast was strong enough in animals of this size to eliminate the need for external frames or connecting bars. Severely comminuted fractures and fractures near joints were especially suited to fixation with this technique. Complications encountered in these cases included loosening of pins and one delayed union. All fractures healed to permit full use of the limb.

Kapil, S., et al. (2009). "Viral diseases of new world camelids." Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 25(2): 323-337.

Karesh, W. B., et al. (1998). "Health Evaluation of Free-Ranging Guanaco (Lama guanicoe)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 29(2): 134-141.

Twenty free-ranging guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in Chubut Province, Argentina, were immobilized for health evaluations. All but two animals appeared to be in good condition. Hematology, serum chemistry, and vitamin and mineral levels were measured, and feces were evaluated for parasites. Serology tests included bluetongue, brucellosis, bovine respiratory syncitial virus, bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease, equine herpesvirus 1, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Johne's disease (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis), foot and mouth disease, leptospirosis (17 serovars), parainfluenza-3, and vesicular stomatitis. Blood samples from 20 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) maintained in the same reserve with the guanaco were also collected at the same time for serology tests. No guanaco had positive serologic tests. Sheep were found to have antibody titers to bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Johne's disease, leptospirosis, and parainfluenza-3. There was no apparent difference in external appearance or condition, or statistical difference in blood test values, between the animals that were positive or negative for parasite ova.

Kasiwong, S. (1997). Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, and omeprazole in llamas.

Kastelic, D., et al. (2009). "A single-step procedure of recombinant library construction for the selection of efficiently produced llama VH binders directed against cancer markers." Journal of Immunological Methods 350(1/2): 54-62.

Heavy chain antibodies are naturally occurring in camelidae (camels and llamas). Their variable domain (VHH) can be efficiently produced as a recombinant protein in E. coli with a large range of applications in the fields of diagnostics and immunotherapy. Standard cloning approach involves resolution of VHH from the heavy chain variable domain of conventional antibodies (VH) by a nested PCR amplification followed by a phage display based selection. Present work illustrates that in contrast to usual finding, specific, good affinity and efficiently expressed VH domain of conventional antibodies can be selected from the co-amplification products of VH and VHH cDNAs. Sequence analysis illustrated that following the two first rounds of selection against cancer markers, similar number of VH and VHH binders were observed. However, after a third round, the more specific binders directed against p53, VEGF, BCL-2 proteins surprisingly contain only VH specific hallmarks. Characterisation of the specificity, affinity and productivity of selected VH binders is described. Because llama VHs show higher sequence and structural homology with the human VH III group than llama VHHs (Vu et al., 1997), they constitute very interesting agents in therapeutic applications, especially in human immunotherapy and cancer treatment.

Kayouli, C., et al. (1993). "Comparative study of the muralytic activity of rumen microbes measured in situ in llamas and sheep." Annales de Zootechnie 42(2): 184.

Keleman Saxena, A., et al. (2016). "Indigenous Food Systems and Climate Change: Impacts of Climatic Shifts on the Production and Processing of Native and Traditional Crops in the Bolivian Andes." Front Public Health 4: 20.

Inhabitants of the high-mountain Andes have already begun to experience changes in the timing, severity, and patterning of annual weather cycles. These changes have important implications for agriculture, for human health, and for the conservation of biodiversity in the region. This paper examines the implications of climate-driven changes for native and traditional crops in the municipality of Colomi, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Data were collected between 2012 and 2014 via mixed methods, qualitative fieldwork, including participatory workshops with female farmers and food preparers, semi-structured interviews with local agronomists, and participant observation. Drawing from this data, the paper describes (a) the observed impacts of changing weather patterns on agricultural production in the municipality of Colomi, Bolivia and (b) the role of local environmental resources and conditions, including clean running water, temperature, and humidity, in the household processing techniques used to conserve and sometimes detoxify native crop and animal species, including potato (Solanum sp.), oca (Oxalis tuberosa), tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis), papalisa (Ullucus tuberosus), and charke (llama or sheep jerky). Analysis suggests that the effects of climatic changes on agriculture go beyond reductions in yield, also influencing how farmers make choices about the timing of planting, soil management, and the use and spatial distribution of particular crop varieties. Furthermore, household processing techniques to preserve and detoxify native foods rely on key environmental and climatic resources, which may be vulnerable to climatic shifts. Although these findings are drawn from a single case study, we suggest that Colomi agriculture characterizes larger patterns in what might be termed, "indigenous food systems." Such systems are underrepresented in aggregate models of the impacts of climate change on world agriculture and may be under different, more direct, and more immediate threat from climate change. As such, the health of the food production and processing environments in such systems merits immediate attention in research and practice. AN - 26973824

Kennel, A. J. (2001). Llama medical research of South American camelids in North America. Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 274-277.

Kessler, M. (1997). Studies on the geneology of New-World camelids (llama, alpaca and guanaco) by means of mitochondrial DNA. Structure and composition of the New-World camelid population of Germany, Fachbereich Veterinärmedizin, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Giessen: 176 pp.

Kiani, A., et al. (2015). "Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets." Domestic Animal Endocrinology 53: 9-16.

This study aimed to elucidate whether distinct endocrine and metabolic adaptations provide llamas superior ability to adapt to low protein content grass-based diets as compared with the true ruminants. Eighteen adult, nonpregnant females (6 llamas, 6 goats, and 6 sheep) were fed either green grass hay with (HP) or grass seed straw (LP) in a cross-over design experiment over 2 periods of 21 d. Blood samples were taken on day 21 in each period at -30, 60, 150, and 240 min after feeding the morning meal and analyzed for plasma contents of glucose, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxy butyrate (BOHB), urea, creatinine, insulin, and leptin. Results showed that llamas vs sheep and goats had higher plasma concentrations of glucose (7.1 vs 3.5 and 3.6±0.18 mmol/L), creatinine (209 vs 110 and 103±10 µmol/L), and urea (6.7 vs 5.6 and 4.9±0.5 mmol/L) but lower leptin (0.33 vs 1.49 and 1.05±0.1 ng/mL) and BOHB (0.05 vs 0.26 and 0.12±0.02 mmol/L), respectively. BOHB in llamas was extremely low for a ruminating animal. Llamas showed that hyperglycemia coexisted with hyperinsulinemia (in general on the HP diet; postprandially on the LP diet). Llamas were clearly hypercreatinemic compared with the true ruminants, which became further exacerbated on the LP diet, where they also sustained plasma urea at markedly higher concentrations. However, llamas had markedly lower leptin concentrations than the true ruminants. In conclusion, llamas appear to have an intrinsic insulin resistant phenotype. Augmentation of creatinine and sustenance of elevated plasma urea concentrations in llamas when fed the LP diet must reflect distinct metabolic adaptations of intermediary protein and/or nitrogen metabolism, not observed in the true ruminants. These features can contribute to explain lower metabolic rates in llamas compared with the true ruminants, which must improve the chances of survival on low protein content diets.

Kiani, A., et al. (2015). "Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets." Domest Anim Endocrinol 53: 9-16 ST - Differential metabolic and endocrine adaptations in llamas, sheep, and goats fed high- and low-protein grass-based diets.

This study aimed to elucidate whether distinct endocrine and metabolic adaptations provide llamas superior ability to adapt to low protein content grass-based diets as compared with the true ruminants. Eighteen adult, nonpregnant females (6 llamas, 6 goats, and 6 sheep) were fed either green grass hay with (HP) or grass seed straw (LP) in a cross-over design experiment over 2 periods of 21 d. Blood samples were taken on day 21 in each period at -30, 60, 150, and 240 min after feeding the morning meal and analyzed for plasma contents of glucose, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxy butyrate (BOHB), urea, creatinine, insulin, and leptin. Results showed that llamas vs sheep and goats had higher plasma concentrations of glucose (7.1 vs 3.5 and 3.6 ± 0.18 mmol/L), creatinine (209 vs 110 and 103 ± 10 μmol/L), and urea (6.7 vs 5.6 and 4.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but lower leptin (0.33 vs 1.49 and 1.05 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and BOHB (0.05 vs 0.26 and 0.12 ± 0.02 mmol/L), respectively. BOHB in llamas was extremely low for a ruminating animal. Llamas showed that hyperglycemia coexisted with hyperinsulinemia (in general on the HP diet; postprandially on the LP diet). Llamas were clearly hypercreatinemic compared with the true ruminants, which became further exacerbated on the LP diet, where they also sustained plasma urea at markedly higher concentrations. However, llamas had markedly lower leptin concentrations than the true ruminants. In conclusion, llamas appear to have an intrinsic insulin resistant phenotype. Augmentation of creatinine and sustenance of elevated plasma urea concentrations in llamas when fed the LP diet must reflect distinct metabolic adaptations of intermediary protein and/or nitrogen metabolism, not observed in the true ruminants. These features can contribute to explain lower metabolic rates in llamas compared with the true ruminants, which must improve the chances of survival on low protein content diets. AN - 26073222

Kik, M. J. L. and M. H. v. d. Hage (1999). "Cecal impaction due to dysautonomia in a llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 30(3): 435-438.

Kik, M. J. L. and M. H. van der Hage (1999). "Cecal Impaction Due to Dysautonomia in a Llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 30(3): 435-438.

A llama (Lama glama) died after 1 wk of obstipation, lethargy, and rolling. Necropsy showed that the stomach and small intestine were distended with gas and fluid. The cecum was impacted with dry contents and the colon was empty. No gross lesions were found in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract or other organs. Histologic changes consisted of chromatolysis of neurons of autonomic ganglia, enteric plexi, and the accessory cuneate nucleus, consistent with lesions associated with dysautonomia in other domestic animals.

Kilburn, J. J., et al. (2011). "Vaccination of llamas, Llama glama, with an experimental killed encephalomyocarditis virus vaccine." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 42(1): 65-68.

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a pandemic virus that has caused mortality in numerous captive wildlife species worldwide. An experimental killed vaccine was created from two EMCV isolates associated with zoo animal mortality in the southern United States. The vaccine was tested for safety and efficacy in eleven llamas (Llama glama). All animals received an initial vaccination and a second booster vaccination 4 wk later. Serum antibody responses were monitored at initial vaccination and at 4 wks, 8 wk, 6 mo, and 12 mo postvaccination. Eight of the 11 llamas vaccinated experienced at least a 4-fold increase in serum antibody titers to EMCV. Antibody titers of those eight animals remained elevated above prevaccination levels when measured at 12 mo. The experimental killed EMCV vaccine tested may be a useful tool to prevent EMCV infection in llamas when given in 2 doses 4 wk apart, and then revaccinated or with antibody levels monitored annually thereafter.

Kimberling, C. V. (1993). "An overview of the drug needs and present lack of approved drugs for sheep, goats, llamas, deer and bison." Veterinary and Human Toxicology 35(SUPP 2): 2-3.

King, J. S., et al. (2015). "Serological evidence of Neospora caninum in alpacas from eastern Australia." Aust Vet J 93(7): 259-261 ST - Serological evidence of Neospora caninum in alpacas from eastern Australia.

The aim of this study was to investigate if there was any serological evidence of Neospora caninum in alpaca populations in south-eastern Australia.|Serum samples from 100 alpacas were collected from four farms. All serum samples were screened for N. caninum antibodies using a commercially available competitive ELISA. Of the 100 alpacas sampled, 3 were suspect seropositive for N. caninum.|There is natural N. caninum seroprevalence in alpacas in south-eastern Australia; however, it remains undetermined whether or not this infection is currently contributing to reproductive failure in alpacas in Australia. AN - 26113353

King, M. R., et al. (1998). "Laparoscopic ovariectomy in two standing llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 213(4): 523-525.

Kingston, J. K. and H. R. Stäempfli (1995). "Silica urolithiasis in a male llama." Canadian Veterinary Journal 36(12): 767-768.

Kingston, L. a. (2015). Silver llama. Cambridge, England, Vanguard Press.

Kiorpes, A. L., et al. (1987). "Isolation of Giardia from a llama and from sheep." Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 51(2): 277-280.

Giardia cysts were detected in the faeces of a domestic Lama glama and in four 7-month-old lambs in Wisconsin, USA. All the lambs had histories of poor condition and passing unformed or semiformed, pale stools. Cysts from both hosts produced infection in Meriones unguiculatus. The finding of Giardia in the llama represents a new host record and is the first report of Giardia in sheep in the Western Hemisphere.

Kiorpes, A. L., et al. (1986). "Repair of complete choanal atresia in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189(9): 1169-1171.

Kiupel, M., et al. (2003). "Gross and Microscopic Lesions of Polioencephalomalacia in a Llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(3): 309-313.

A 14-wk-old female llama (Lama glama) developed progressive neurologic disease characterized by stiff gait, circling, decreased mentation, and seizures. At necropsy, lesions were limited to the brain and consisted of bilateral necrosis of the cortical gray matter of the occipital lobes of the cerebral cortex. The primary microscopic alteration was bilateral laminar cerebrocortical necrosis, affecting mainly the deep laminae. Clinical disease, and gross and microscopic lesions were consistent with those of polioencephalomalacia.

Kiupel, M., et al. (2003). "Gross and microscopic lesions of polioencephalomalacia in a llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(3): 309-313.

A 14-wk-old female llama (Lama glama) developed progressive neurologic disease characterized by stiff gait, circling, decreased mentation, and seizures. At necropsy, lesions were limited to the brain and consisted of bilateral necrosis of the cortical gray matter of the occipital lobes of the cerebral cortex. The primary microscopic alteration was bilateral laminar cerebrocortical necrosis, affecting mainly the deep laminae. Clinical disease, and gross and microscopic lesions were consistent with those of polioencephalomalacia.

Klarenbeek, A., et al. (2016). "Combining somatic mutations present in different in vivo affinity-matured antibodies isolated from immunized Lama glama yields ultra-potent antibody therapeutics." Protein Eng Des Sel 29(4): 123-133.

Highly potent human antibodies are required to therapeutically neutralize cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) that is involved in many inflammatory diseases and malignancies. Although a number of mutagenesis approaches exist to perform antibody affinity maturation, these may cause antibody instability and production issues. Thus, a robust and easy antibody affinity maturation strategy to increase antibody potency remains highly desirable. By immunizing llama, cloning the 'immune' antibody repertoire and using phage display, we selected a diverse set of IL-6 antagonistic Fabs. Heavy chain shuffling was performed on the Fab with lowest off-rate, resulting in a panel of variants with even lower off-rate. Structural analysis of the Fab:IL-6 complex suggests that the increased affinity was partly due to a serine to tyrosine switch in HCDR2. This translated into neutralizing capacity in an in vivo model of IL-6 induced SAA production. Finally, a novel Fab library was designed, encoding all variations found in the natural repertoire of VH genes identified after heavy chain shuffling. High stringency selections resulted in identification of a Fab with 250-fold increased potency when re-formatted into IgG1. Compared with a heavily engineered anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody currently in clinical development, this IgG was at least equally potent, showing the engineering process to have had led to a highly potent anti-IL-6 antibody. AN - 26945588

Klarenbeek, A., et al. (2015). "Camelid Ig V genes reveal significant human homology not seen in therapeutic target genes, providing for a powerful therapeutic antibody platform." MAbs 7(4): 693-706 ST - Camelid Ig V genes reveal significant human homology not seen in therapeutic target genes, providing for a powerful therapeutic antibody platform.

Camelid immunoglobulin variable (IGV) regions were found homologous to their human counterparts; however, the germline V repertoires of camelid heavy and light chains are still incomplete and their therapeutic potential is only beginning to be appreciated. We therefore leveraged the publicly available HTG and WGS databases of Lama pacos and Camelus ferus to retrieve the germline repertoire of V genes using human IGV genes as reference. In addition, we amplified IGKV and IGLV genes to uncover the V germline repertoire of Lama glama and sequenced BAC clones covering part of the Lama pacos IGK and IGL loci. Our in silico analysis showed that camelid counterparts of all human IGKV and IGLV families and most IGHV families could be identified, based on canonical structure and sequence homology. Interestingly, this sequence homology seemed largely restricted to the Ig V genes and was far less apparent in other genes: 6 therapeutically relevant target genes differed significantly from their human orthologs. This contributed to efficient immunization of llamas with the human proteins CD70, MET, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, resulting in large panels of functional antibodies. The in silico predicted human-homologous canonical folds of camelid-derived antibodies were confirmed by X-ray crystallography solving the structure of 2 selected camelid anti-CD70 and anti-MET antibodies. These antibodies showed identical fold combinations as found in the corresponding human germline V families, yielding binding site structures closely similar to those occurring in human antibodies. In conclusion, our results indicate that active immunization of camelids can be a powerful therapeutic antibody platform. AN - 26018625

Klein, D., et al. (2007). "Esophageal dilatation in a llama - a case report." Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift 94(11/12): 304-308.

A 6 year old male llama was admitted to the Clinic for Ruminants at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna with a history of 'vomiting' and loss of body mass despite eating well. Physical examination did not allow a diagnosis but the history presumed a defect of the oesophagus. Ultrasonography showed signs of a dilatation of the caudal part of the pars cervicalis of the oesophagus. These changes of the oesophagus could be approved by radiography especially contrast radiography and oesophagoscopy. Subsequent pathological and pathohistological examinations confirmed the diagnosis of a dilatation of the caudal part of the pars cervicalis and the pars thoracica of the esophagus.

Klopfleisch, R., et al. (2009). "Metastatic uterine adenocarcinoma and hepatic lipomatosis in a llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 21(2): 280-282.

A 6-year-old, female llama (Lama glama) presented with progressive anorexia and ascites. Postmortem examination revealed an infiltrative uterine adenocarcinoma with widespread metastases. The neoplasm completely replaced and infiltrated the myometrium of the uterine body and cervix and metastasized largely to the serosal surfaces of the peritoneal cavity. Histopathology identified a highly invasive growth of neoplastic cells in solid packets or tubular arrangements and marked fibroplasia. No bovine or llama papillomavirus DNA was detected intralesionally by polymerase chain reaction.

Kobatake, M., et al. (1973). "[A new red-pigmented, radioresistant Micrococcus isolated from the faeces of a llama, and its use as a microbiological indicator of radiosterilisation]." Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie 167(No.10): 1506-1510.

Kock, M. D. (1984). "Canine tooth extraction and pulpotomy in the adult male llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 185(11): 1304-1306.

Kock, M. D. and M. E. Fowler (1982). "Urolithiasis in a three-month-old llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 181(11): 1411.

Koenig, J. B., et al. (2001). "Otitis media in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218(10): 1619-1623.

Kofler, J., et al. (2016). "Surgical treatment of scapulohumeral subluxation in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) using osteotomy of the acromion, open reduction and extracapsular tension sutures." N Z Vet J 64(3): 193-197.

A 3.3-year-old male alpaca, weighing 60 kg was referred for investigation of a severe left forelimb lameness of 4 weeks duration. A scapulohumeral subluxation had been diagnosed radiographically by the referring veterinarian.|Based on clinical, ultrasonographic and radiographic findings the diagnosis of cranio-lateral subluxation of the left humeral head was confirmed. In addition, a full thickness lesion (approximately 1×1 cm) of the articular cartilage on the caudomedial aspect of the humeral head was diagnosed by arthroscopy.|Treatment included open reduction with internal fixation. Severe muscle contraction and local tissue fibrosis around the scapulohumeral joint (SHJ) required osteotomy of the acromion 3 cm proximal to the distal acromial edge, to allow adequate access. Internal stabilisation was achieved by placing tension band sutures between one cortical screw in the scapular neck and two cortical screws, with washers, craniolaterally on the greater tubercle of the humerus. Post-surgery, a carpal flexion sling was applied with the carpus maintained in 70° flexion for 4 weeks to avoid postoperative weight-bearing. An exercise programme was started 8 days after surgery and continued for 12 weeks. The alpaca had an uneventful postsurgical recovery and showed no lameness after 8 weeks. The long-term outcome was excellent; 21 months after surgery the alpaca was sound and the range of movement of the left SHJ was equal to the right SHJ.|Even in this chronic case of subluxation of the SHJ of 4 weeks duration, surgical treatment using osteotomy of the acromion, open reduction and internal fixation with extracapsular scapulohumeral tension sutures resulted in an excellent long-term outcome in this alpaca, despite the presence of a cartilage lesion. AN - 26667785

Kofler, J., et al. (2002). "Footpad abscessation caused by a metallic foreign body penetration in the sole cushion of a llama." Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift 89(5): 131-135.

Koh, W. W. L. a. (2009). Characterisation of subtype C HIV-I envelope glycoproteins and their recognition by llama antibody fragments, University College London (University of London).

Kotorri, S., et al. (2016). "Enterotoxemia in Albanian zoo-Park llama (Lama glama): Clostridium perfringens-type C was the causative agent." Journal of International Environmental Application & Science 11(1): 42-46.

Clostridium perfringens causes enteric diseases in mammals, usually called enterotoxemia. C. perfringens was isolated from ileum and jejunum of dead llamas in one of zoo-parks in Tirana. Diagnosis of the disease was based on clinical sings, pathologically and also in isolation of the causes. Isolates colonies in agar blood were like dewdrops, smooth, gray, shiny and convex. In microscopic preparations colored and prepared with Gram technique were visible small bacillus, in sticks shape and Gram positive. Biochemical identification with API 20A kit valued isolates catalase and lecithinase positive, with hemolytic activity in agarblood from sheep with a dual zone of hemolysis. Isolates fermented producing gas and acid toward glucose, fructose lactose, sucrose and mannitol. Biological test of neutralization in white mice with antitoxins α and β, determined type C of C. perfringens as cause of llamas death, a result that was confirmed by ELISA kit. Besides treatment with drugs for pre-protection of llamas was used bivalent killed vaccine with types C and D of Clostridium perfringens.

Kovàcs, B. Z., et al. (1999). "Synaptonemal complex investigations on llamas (Lama glama) with differing fertility recordings." Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 116(3): 235-242.

Three males were studied. Mitotic preparations were obtained from fibroblast culture, synaptonemal complexes were studied by electron microscopy. Special attention was paid to the morphology and behaviour of zygotene and pachytene chromosomes at prophase I in primary spermatocytes. Analysis of mitotic preparations showed diploid and triploid cells, with a relatively high frequency of polyploidy. Analyses of synaptonemal complexes in primary spermatocytes were carried out in 89 cells. Pairing abnormalities were recorded in an average of 63% of the cells of one of the animals, which was sterile; no abnormalities were found in remaining 2 animals. In the sterile animal there were degenerating primary spermatocytes in synaptonemal complex preparations and in testicular sections, and there were no spermatozoa in the ejaculate.

Koziol, J. H., et al. (2015). "Successful resolution of a preputial prolapse in an alpaca using medical therapy." Can Vet J 56(7): 753-755 ST - Successful resolution of a preputial prolapse in an alpaca using medical therapy.

A 2-year-old intact male alpaca was presented for a post-breeding preputial prolapse of 5 days duration. The internal lamina of the prepuce was prolapsed approximately 6 cm and the exposed preputial epithelium was edematous and necrotic. Following 7 days of medical treatment, resolution of the preputial prolapse was achieved. AN - 26130840

Krahn, N., et al. (2017). "Inhibition of glycosylation on a camelid antibody uniquely affects its FcγRI binding activity." Eur J Pharm Sci 96: 428-439.

Glycoengineering of mAbs has become common practice in attempts to generate the ideal mAb candidate for a wide range of therapeutic applications. The effects of these glycan modifications on the binding affinity of IgG mAbs for FcγRIIIa and their cytotoxicity are well known. However, little is understood about the effect that these modifications have on binding to the high affinity FcγRI receptor. This study analyzed the effect of variable N-glycosylation on a human-llama hybrid mAb (EG2-hFc, 80kDa) binding to FcγRI including a comparison to a full-sized IgG1 (DP-12, 150kDa). This was achieved by the addition of three glycosylation inhibitors (swainsonine, castanospermine, and kifunensine) independently to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures to generate hybrid and high mannose glycan structures. Biophysical analysis by circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and analytical ultra-centrifugation confirmed that the solution-behaviour of the mAbs remained constant over multiple concentrations and glycan treatments. However, changes were observed when studying the interaction of FcγRI with variously glycosylated mAbs. Both mAbs were observed to have a decreased binding affinity upon treatment with swainsonine which produced hybrid glycans. Following de-glycosylation the binding affinity for EG2-hFc was only marginally reduced (6-fold) compared to a drastic (118-fold) decrease for DP-12. In summary, our data suggest that the relatively low molecular weight of chimeric EG2-hFc may contribute to its enhanced stability against glycan changes making it a highly suitable mAb candidate for therapeutic applications. AN - 27721040

Kramer, J. W., et al. (1994). "What is your diagnosis? [Idiopathic fungal pleocytosis in a llama.]." Veterinary Clinical Pathology 23(2): 37, 46.

Kraus, M. S., et al. (2004). "Determination of electrocardiographic parameters in healthy llamas and alpacas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 65(12): 1719-1723.

Objective - To determine electrocardiographic parameters in healthy llamas and alpacas. Animals - 23 llamas and 12 alpacas. Procedure - Electrocardiography was performed in nonsedated standing llamas and alpacas by use of multiple simultaneous lead recording (bipolar limb, unipolar augmented limb, and unipolar precordial leads). Results - Common features of ECGs of llamas and alpacas included low voltage of QRS complexes, variable morphology of QRS complexes among camelids, and mean depolarization vectors (mean electrical axes) that were directed dorsocranially and to the right. Durations of the QT interval and ST segment were negatively correlated with heart rate. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - ECGs of acceptable quality can be consistently recorded in nonsedated standing llamas and alpacas. Features of ECGs in llamas and alpacas are similar to those of other ruminants. Changes in the morphology of the QRS complexes and mean electrical axis are unlikely to be sensitive indicators of ventricular enlargement in llamas and alpacas.

Kreil, V., et al. (2001). "Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in llamas (Lama glama)." InVet - Investigación Veterinaria 3(1/2): 55-61.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral doses in llamas. Six llamas received enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg) by each route of administration. Blood samples were collected in predetermined times after drug administration. Mean total body clearance (Clt) and mean apparent volume of distribution at the steady state (Vdss) for the i.v. route were 12.6 mL/kg/min and 4.0 litre/kg, respectively. Mean terminal half-life (t1/2λ) was 236.6, 414.8 and 620.8 min for the i.v., i.m. and oral routes, respectively. Mean peak serum concentration (Cmax) was 3.72 and 0.76 µg/mL, and mean time to reach Cmax (tmax) was 84.0 and 67.5 min for the i.m. and oral routes, respectively. Mean residence time (MRT) was 303.6, 685.8 and 979.8 min for the i.v., i.m. and oral routes, respectively. Bioavailability was 107.2 and 32.5% for the i.m. and oral routes, respectively. Statistically significant differences were determined in Cmax, MRT and t1/2λ of orally administered enrofloxacin when compared with the i.v. and i.m. routes. It is concluded that enrofloxacin may be a therapeutic alternative for treating infectious diseases in llamas.

Kreil, V., et al. (2014). "Comparative pharmacokinetics of a single dose of ampicillin following intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration to llamas." Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 46(2): 271-276.

Six healthy, adult llamas (Lama glama) received a single intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of ampicillin at a dosage of 20.0 mg/kg body weight. Venous blood samples were collected, and ampicillin plasma concentrations were determined by microbiological assay. Kinetic calculations were done using noncompartmental analysis. The period of time that plasma concentrations spent above the minimum inhibitory concentration (T &gt; MIC) was graphically determined. Following the i.v. administration, mean pharmacokinetic parameters (±SD) were as follows: terminal elimination half-life (t1/2λ) 0.52±0.1 h, total body clearance (Clt) 10.3±1.3 ml/kg.min, volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) 0.35±0.07 l/kg. Following the i.m. and the s.c. administration, significant differences were determined for peak concentrations (34.1±6.2 and 18.6±6.3 µg/ml, respectively), time to peak concentrations (0.26±0.08 and 0.6±0.2 h, respectively); t1/2λ (0.83±0.17 and 1.66±0.6 h, respectively); mean residence time (1.3±0.3 and 2.7±1.0 h, respectively), and mean absorption time (0.72±0.2 and 2.1±0.9 h, respectively). T &gt; MIC values suggest that different ampicillin s.c. and i.m. dosing should be used in llamas, as s.c. injection provides therapeutically effective plasma concentrations for a longer duration.

Krieger, R. and M. Krieger (1994). In Search of the Ideal Llama: Assessing Conformational Traits in Llamas : the Field Guide, Saltspring Island Llamas and Alpacas.

Krogdahl, D. W., et al. (1987). "Ataxia and hypermetria caused by Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 190(2): 191-193.

P. tenuis was recovered from the spinal cord of a pregnant llama that developed ataxia and hypermetria soon after transfer of 7 llamas from Virginia to northern New Mexico, USA. 2 other llamas also became ataxic. The pathological findings are discussed. It was concluded that P. tenuis infection should be considered in cases of neurological diseases in sheep, goats and llamas when these animals have been grazing pastures inhabited by Odocoileus virginianus. If other pastures are unavailable prophylactic treatment with ivermectin (given on this occasion to the entire llama herd at 200 µg/kg bwt once a month for 6 months) at 2-monthly intervals should be considered.

Kubus, K., et al. (2015). "[Nonsurgical and surgical treatment of an urachal fistula in an alpaca cria. A case report]." Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 43(6): 368-373 ST - [Nonsurgical and surgical treatment of an urachal fistula in an alpaca cria. A case report].

Urachal fistula is a neonatal condition. There are two reported forms: a congenital and an acquired form. We describe the case of a 6-hour-old female alpaca cria that was presented with a damp umbilicus and a meconium impaction. Conservative treatment of the urachal fistula with local and systemic medication was unsuccessful after 6 days; therefore, a resection of the umbilicus under general anaesthesia was performed. Reconvalescence was uneventful. AN - 26395385

Kuntze, A. (1991). "Arthritis et periarthritis tuberculosa. Some aspects of diagnosis of tuberculosis in zoo ruminants (Cervidae, llama, goat). (Brief communication)." Monatshefte für Veterinärmedizin 46(10): 362-365.

Kwok, K., et al. (2016). "Children Can Learn New Facts Equally Well From Interactive Media Versus Face to Face Instruction." Front Psychol 7: 1603.

Today's children have more opportunities than ever before to learn from interactive technology, yet experimental research assessing the efficacy of children's learning from interactive media in comparison to traditional learning approaches is still quite scarce. Moreover, little work has examined the efficacy of using touch-screen devices for research purposes. The current study compared children's rate of learning factual information about animals during a face-to-face instruction from an adult female researcher versus an analogous instruction from an interactive device. Eighty-six children ages 4 through 8 years (64% male) completed the learning task in either the Face-to-Face condition (n = 43) or the Interactive Media condition (n = 43). In the Learning Phase of the experiment, which was presented as a game, children were taught novel facts about animals without being told that their memory of the facts would be tested. The facts were taught to the children either by an adult female researcher (Face-to-Face condition) or from a pre-recorded female voice represented by a cartoon Llama (Interactive Media condition). In the Testing Phase of the experiment that immediately followed, children's memory for the taught facts was tested using a 4-option forced-choice paradigm. Children's rate of learning was significantly above chance in both conditions and a comparison of the rates of learning across the two conditions revealed no significant differences. Learning significantly improved from age 4 to age 8, however, even the preschool-aged children performed significantly above chance, and their performance did not differ between conditions. These results suggest that, interactive media can be equally as effective as one-on-one instruction, at least under certain conditions. Moreover, these results offer support for the validity of using interactive technology to collect data for research purposes. We discuss the implications of these results for children's learning from interactive media, parental attitudes about interactive technology, and research methods. AN - 27826263

Lackey, M. N., et al. (1996). "Single intravenous and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in healthy llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 57(8): 1193-1199.

19 healthy male llamas were given gentamicin (5 mg/kg of body weight, i.v.) as a single bolus, and serum gentamicin concentration was monitored over the next 48 h. Two months later, 10 of these llamas were given gentamicin (2.5 mg/kg) i.v. for the first day, then i.m. every 8 h for 7 days. Serum gentamicin concentration and indices of renal function and damage were monitored during the 7 days. There were no significant dose- or time-related differences in clearance of the drug, volume of distribution, apparent coefficients of the distribution and elimination phases, mean residence time, or distribution (t0.5α) and elimination phase (t0.5β) half-lives. The 5 mg/kg i.v. kinetic study revealed t0.5α of 14.5 ± 5.06 min and t0.5β of 166 ± 20.5 min. The 2.5 mg/kg i.v. kinetic study revealed t0.5α of 17.7 ± 6.59 min and t0.5β of 165 ± 40.3 min. Peak serum gentamicin concentration averaged 10.10 µg/ml in the multiple-dose trial, and trough concentration averaged 1.50 µg/ml. There was no evidence of renal impairment in the llamas. It is concluded that gentamicin pharmacokinetic variables in llamas resemble those in other ruminant species.

Lackey, M. N., et al. (1995). "Urinary indices in llamas fed different diets." American Journal of Veterinary Research 56(7): 859-865.

Urine samples were collected at 6, 12, and 24 hours from 12 male llamas fed a diet of mixed alfalfa/grass hay (mixed hay) and water ad libitum. Serum samples were obtained concurrently to determine endogenous creatinine clearance (CL), total (TE) and fractional excretion (FE) of electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, P), electrolyte CL, urine and serum osmolality, urine enzyme activities, and urine protein concentration. Three months later, 10 of the 12 llamas were fed a grass hay diet and similar samples were obtained. Urine production, median creatinine CL and median urine osmolality were higher when the llamas were fed the mixed hay diet. Clearances for K and Cl varied significantly among the periods, but median CL for Na and P did not vary for either diet. The FE rate of Na, and the TE rate of K varied over time for both diets. Urine γ-glutamyltransferase activity changed significantly over time and urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity was influenced by an interaction between diet and time. Results of this study indicate that urinary indices in llamas differ from reference ranges established in other species, including other ruminants.

Laime Huarcaya, F. d. M., et al. (2016). "Technological traits of the Chaku llama fibre before and after dehairing." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 27(2): 209-217.

Five technological characteristics of llama fiber were evaluated: average fibre diameter (AFD), the coefficient of fibre diameter (CVD), the comfort factor (CF), the fibre curvature (FC) and the spinning fineness (SF) before and after dehairing. Fibre samples (10 g) were collected from fleece of 227 llamas Chaku from the Apurimac region of Peru. Fiber samples before and after dehairing were analyzed with the OFDA 2000 (Optical Fibre Diameter Analyser). Sex and age (1-2 years and &gt;2 years old) were considered as variables and the data was analyzed in a randomized complete design with a factorial arrangement. The results showed that dehaired llama fibre showed better quality, less AFD (0.70 µm), CVD (1.8%) and SF (1.06 µm) and better CF (2.74%) and FC (4.66°/mm). Sex had no significant effect on the technological characteristics of the fibre but younger animals had better quality fibre. It is concluded that dehairing and age have significant effects on lama fibre in relation to fineness and its variation, comfort factor, fibre curvature and spinning fineness.

Lakritz, J., et al. (2006). "Pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered caffeine in healthy alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama)." American Journal of Veterinary Research 67(6): 1063-1069.

Objective - To determine the pharmacokinetic disposition of IV administered caffeine in healthy Lama spp. camelids. Animals - 4 adult male alpacas and 4 adult female llamas. Procedures - Caffeine (3 mg/kg) was administered as an IV bolus. Plasma caffeine concentrations were determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography in 6 animals and by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in 2 llamas. Results - Median elimination half-life was 11 hours (range, 9.3 to 29.8 hours) in alpacas and 16 hours (range, 5.4 to 17 hours) in llamas. The volume of distribution at steady state was 0.60 L/kg (range, 0.45 to 0.93 L/kg) in alpacas and 0.75 L/kg (range, 0.68 to 1.15 L/kg) in llamas. Total plasma clearance was 44 mL/h/kg (range, 24 to 56 mL/h/kg) in alpacas and 42 mL/h/kg (range, 30 to 109 mL/h/kg) in llamas. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were suitable methods for determination of plasma caffeine concentrations in alpacas and llamas. Plasma caffeine concentration-time curves were best described by a 2-compartment model. Elimination half-lives, plasma clearance, volume of distribution at steady state, and mean residence time were not significantly different between alpacas and llamas. Intravenous administration of caffeine at a dose of 3 mg/kg did not induce clinical signs of excitement.

Lam, C.-H. (1978). The physical properties and processing behaviour of llama fibres. Leeds.

Lamigeon, M. (1985). My friend the Llama : travels in the Andes. Twickenham (Middlesex), Hamlyn.

Lang, K. D. M., et al. (1996). "Fifteen polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellites in llamas and alpacas." Animal Genetics 27(4): 293.

A llama genomic DNA library was screened with a poly(dA-dC).poly(dT-dG) probe, positive clones were sequenced and primers were designed for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Polymorphism was detected for 15 microsatellites in 30 unrelated llamas and 20 alpacas; the number of alleles ranged from 3 to 13 and the polymorphic information content from 0.35 to 0.82. Mendelian inheritance of the alleles was shown in 10 families with 1-2 offspring per family.

Larrieu, E., et al. (1982). "A contribution to the study of gastrointestinal parasitism in guanacos and llamas." Gaceta Veterinaria 44(374): 958-960.

A study by lavage of the digestive tract was made of 3 guanacos from the Province of Rio Negro and of 3 llamas from the Province of Jujuy, Argentina. In the stomach of the guanacos Ostertagia ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei were found, in the small intestine Nematodirus spathiger, N. lanceolatus, N. filicollis, N. battus, Cooperia oncophora, C. mcmasteri, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Capillaria sp. and in the large intestine of one guanaco a few Trichuris ovis and Skrjabinema ovis. In the stomach of the llamas, Haemonchus sp., Trichostrongylus axei and Ostertagia ostertagi were found, in the small intestine T. colubriformis and Cooperia oncophora and in the large intestine of one llama. Trichuris ovis and Oesophagostomum venulosum. No parasites were found in the livers and lungs.

Lascola, K. M., et al. (2007). "Respiratory mechanics in sedated and nonsedated adult llamas." American Journal of Veterinary Research 68(6): 676-684.

Objective - To validate the use of noninvasive pulmonary function testing in sedated and nonsedated llamas and establish reference range parameters of respiratory mechanical function. Animals - 10 healthy adult llamas. Procedures - Pulmonary function testing in llamas included the following: measurement of functional residual capacity (FRC) via helium dilution, respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) to assess breathing pattern and flow limitations, esophageal-balloon pneumotachography, and a monofrequency forced oscillatory technique (FOT; 1 to 7 Hz) before and after IM administration of xylazine (0.2 mg/kg). Results - The following mean±SD measurements of respiratory function were obtained in nonsedated llamas: FRC (5.60±1.24 L), tidal volume (1.03±0.3 L), dynamic compliance (0.83±0.4 L/cm H2O), pulmonary resistance (RL; 1.42±0.54 cm H2O/L/s), and respiratory system resistance (2.4±0.9, 2.3±0.7, 2.2±0.6, 2.7±0.7, and 2.5±0.5 cm H2O/L/s at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 Hz, respectively) by use of FOT. Measurements of flow limitations via RIP were comparable to other species. Sedation with xylazine induced significant increases in RL and maximum change in transpulmonary pressure. Following sedation, a mean 127% increase in RL and mean 116% increase in respiratory system resistance were observed across 1 to 7 Hz. The magnitude of change in respiratory system resistance increased with decreasing impulse frequency, suggesting bronchoconstriction. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Noninvasive pulmonary function testing is well tolerated in untrained unsedated llamas. These techniques have clinical applications in the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract disease, although testing should not be performed after sedation with xylazine.

Lassen, E. D., et al. (1986). "Clinical biochemical values of llamas: reference values." American Journal of Veterinary Research 47(10): 2278-2280.

Serum samples collected from 64 healthy llamas (26 males) had the following mean (± standard deviation) values: albumin, 3.5 ±0.4 g/dl; alkaline phosphatase, 34 ± 17 IU/l; aspartate transaminase, 110 ± 28 IU/l; total bilirubin, 0.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl; calcium, 8.8 ± 0.5 mg/dl; chloride, 116 ± 4 mEq/l; creatinine, 2.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, 20 ± 5 IU/l; glucose 125 ± 28 mg/dl; magnesium, 1.9 ± 0.2 mEq/l; phosphorus, 5.5 ± 1.9 mg/dl; potassium, 6.0 ± 1.2 mEq/l; total protein, 5.9 ± 0.4 g/dl; sodium, 152 ± 4 mEq/l; urea-nitrogen, 27 ± 6 mg/dl. Mean concentrations of calcium, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, phosphorus and potassium were higher in females than in males, and total bilirubin was higher in males.

Laube, L. (2002). Llama for lunch. Kent Town, S. Aust., Wakefield Press.

León Titichoca, G. A. (2004). Determinación del nivel nutricional de minerales Ca y P en llamas (Lama glama) en dos épocas en el centro experimental agropecuario Condoriri.

The concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined in 12 llamas from the Condoriri Agricultural Experiment Center (Oruro Technical University) of Oruro, Bolivia during two seasons (wet and dry) and at three ages (newborn, juvenile, and adult). Samples of flesh were taken from the arm, leg, back, rib, and neck. Pasture samples (grassland and prairie) were used to determine the rate of biting of each animal studied. The blood samples were taken by extracting blood from a jugular vein. The minerals (Ca and P) in the flesh are highest in the wet season, 113.78 mg/100 g. The newborns were found to have the highest concentrations of minerals during the wet and dry season, 113.78 and 93.98 mg/100 g. The mineral concentrations of calcium and phosphorus for the newborns and adults were 120.58 and 144.5 mg/100 g. The lower concentration of juveniles had 7.52 mg/100 g of calcium in the meat and reported a 9.59 mg/100 g concentration during the wet season and 6.78 mg/100 g for the dry season. The juveniles and adults recorded higher concentrations of calcium with 9.2 and 8.78 mg/100 g with the newborns having a lower value of 6.58 mg/100 g. The phosphorus in the flesh was reported to be 9.59 mg/100 g for the wet season and 6.78 mg/100 g for the dry season. The concentration of the calcium and phosphorus in the grazed pasture during the wet and dry seasons was 0.56 and 0.12 % respectively. The females recorded higher concentrations of calcium and phosphorus with 0.38% while the males recorded only a 0.30% concentration. The calcium content is higher in the pasture (0.55%) than the phosphorus (0.13%). In the wet season the biomass contains 0.91% calcium and 0.22% phosphorus. During the dry season the high calcium content was 0.19% and for phosphorus it was 0.04%. The calcium and phosphorus exist in smaller quantities in the blood during the wet season (7.25 mg/dl) and greater quantities during the dry season (9.88 mg/dl). Juvenile females have a higher quantity of calcium (10.15 mg/dl) while newborns and adults have a lower quantity (9.52 and 7.2 mg/dl).

Ledeboer, A. M., et al. (2002). "Preventing phage lysis of Lactococcus lactis in cheese production using a neutralizing heavy-chain antibody fragment from llama." Journal of Dairy Science 85(6): 1376-1382.

Bacteriophage infection is still a persistent problem in large dairy processes despite extensive studies over the last decades. Consequently, new methods are constantly sought to prevent phage infection. In this paper, we show that phage neutralizing heavy-chain antibody fragments, obtained from Camelidae and produced at a large scale in the generally regarded as safe microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, can effectively be used to impede phage induced lysis during a cheese process. The growth inhibition of the cheese starter culture by 105 pfu/ml cheese-milk of the small isometric-headed 936-type phage p2 was prevented by the addition of only 0.1 µg/ml (7 nM) of the neutralizing antibody fragment. The use of such antibody fragments in cheese manufacturing are a realistic and interesting option because of the small amount of antibody fragments that are needed. Moreover the antibodies are produced in a food grade microorganism and can easily be isolated from the fermentation liquid in a pure and DNA free form.

Leguía, G. (1991). "The epidemiology and economic impact of llama parasites." Parasitology Today 7(2): 54-56.

The effects that parasitic infections have on llamas (alpacas, llamas, vicuñas and guanacos) in South America are discussed under the headings: parasitic pneumogastroenteritis (Graphinema aucheniae, Spiculopteragia peruviana, Nematodirus lamae, Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Lamanema chavezi, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum and Dictyocaulus); fascioliasis; sarcocystosis (Sarcocystis aucheniae, S. lamacenis); coccidiosis (Eimeria lamae, E. alpacae, E. punoensis, E. macusaniensis, E. peruviana); toxoplasmosis; ectoparasites (Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes aucheniae, Microthoracius, Damalinea).

Leichner, T. L., et al. (2001). "Cutaneous metastases of a mammary carcinoma in a llama." Canadian Veterinary Journal 42(3): 204-206.

Leichty, M. D. and I. A. Davis (1992). "Llama failure to thrive syndrome." Iowa State University Veterinarian 54(2): 78-81.

Leipold, H. W., et al. (1994). "Congenital defects in the llama." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 401-420.

Leite, R. C., et al. (1975). "Corynebacterium equi infection in a llama." Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Serie Veterinaria 10(8): 57-59.

Lemosquet, S., et al. (1996). "Voluntary intake and gastric digestion of two hays by llamas and sheep: influence of concentrate supplementation." Journal of Agricultural Science 127(4): 539-548.

The efficiency with which llamas and sheep digest various roughages was compared in France from March to July 1993 according to a split-plot design (2 species, 6 individuals/species, 3 diets and 3 periods of 6 weeks). Six llamas (3 of which were rumen-cannulated) and 6 rumen-cannulated sheep were fed on diets containing grass hay low in N content (HLN), the same hay with barley, representing 25% of the total DM (HLN + B), and a cocksfoot grass hay rich in nitrogen (HRN). Daily forage DM intake was slightly, but not significantly, lower in llamas (55.9 vs. 60.3 g/kg0.75 in sheep). Intake behaviour was similar for both species except that the number of rumination periods was lower with llamas (P&lt;0.05). Digestibility of organic matter and cell walls (estimated from NDF) was higher in llamas (+ 5.6 and + 6.5 units respectively, P&lt;0.001). The higher digestibility in llamas may be related to the slightly lower level of intake and to the lower DM turnover rate in the forestomachs compared with sheep (3.9 vs. 5.3%/h, P&lt;0.01). However, in sacco degradation of both hay types was higher in forestomachs of llamas after 24 and 48 h of incubation (+ 6.5%, P&lt;0.01 and + 4.3%, P&lt;0.05, respectively) compared with sheep. The high microbial efficiency of the llamas can be ascribed to the physical and chemical characteristics of their forestomach contents, which had a higher liquid turnover rate (+ 1.4%/h, P&lt;0.05), a lower volatile fatty acid concentration (P&lt;0.01), a higher and more constant pH (P&lt;0.01) than in sheep and a greater buffering capacity when pH was close to neutral. The results suggest that llamas have a greater ability to control the physico-chemical conditions of their forestomach contents to digest cell walls efficiently and minimize the negative effects of concentrate supplementation.

Leon, J. B. (1989). Reproductive endocrinology and vaginal cytology of the female llama (lama glama).

Leon, J. B., et al. (1989). "Growth characteristics of the llama (Lama glama) from birth to 12 months old." Veterinary record 125(26/27): 644-645.

The growth patterns of the llama (Lama glama) are described from birth to 12 months old. As a means of predicting body weight, equations were developed which correlated body weight with specific body measurements. Regression analysis revealed a strong positive correlation of the log-transformed measurements of thoracic circumference and height with body weight. Thoracic circumference (measured in cm) was a good predictor of body weight from the equation: body weight (kg) = (8.7 × 10-4) × circumference2.46.

Leon, J. B., et al. (1990). "Endocrine changes during pregnancy, parturition and the early post-partum period in the llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 88(2): 503-511.

Pregnancy length for 14 llamas averaged 350±4.5 days. Plasma progesterone concentration increased by 5 days after mating, and remained elevated (&gt;2.0 ng/ml) throughout most of pregnancy. About 2 wk before parturition, plasma progesterone concentration began to decline, dropped markedly during the final 24 h before parturition, and returned to basal level (&lt;0.5 ng/ml) by the day of parturition. Oestrone + oestradiol-17β and oestradiol-17β concentrations varied between 6 and 274 pg/ml and 4 and 114 pg/ml resp., during the first 9 months of pregnancy. Concentrations increased between 9 months after mating and the end of pregnancy, with peak mean concentrations of 827±58 pg/ml for oestrone + oestradiol-17β (range = 65-1658) and 196±10 pg/ml for oestradiol-17β (31-294) during the last week of pregnancy. Concentrations then declined to 87±14 pg/ml for oestrone + oestradiol-17β (7-488) and 25 + 5 pg/ml for oestradiol-17β (2.5-142) during the 1st wk post partum. Plasma cortisol concentration varied between 2.6 and 51.9 ng/ml (average = 14.0±0.5) from mating until 2 wk before parturition, when the concentration began to decline. Only a slight increase in plasma cortisol concentration was observed in association with parturition. Plasma triiodothyronine concentration varied between 0.5 and 4.5 ng/ml (1.9±0.1) throughout pregnancy and the periparturient period. Plasma thyroxine concentration varied between 21.3 and 91.5 ng/ml (56.5±0.8) from mating until about 39 wk of pregnancy, when it began to decline; it averaged 43.0±5.3 ng/ml 15 days before parturition and 23.5±5.5 ng/ml immediately before parturition, but then increased to 52.8±3.9 ng/ml by 1 day post partum.

León M, E., et al. (2011). "Macroscopic anatomy, irrigation and venous drainage of female reproductive apparatus of llama (Lama glama)." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 22(1): 1-8.

The anatomical description of the reproductive tract of the female llama was studied in four animals. Macroscopically, the reproductive system is morphologically similar to the cow. However, the difference is the absence of intercornual ligament and cotyledons, and the presence of an intercornual septum, as in the alpaca. The distribution of the arteries and veins that irrigated and drained the blood to and from the pelvic cavity and reproductive system presented a vascular distribution almost equal to the ruminant's pattern and then, they followed a pattern similar to that on the equine. At the reproductive system level, blood vessels adopted a totally different pattern from those described for domestic species. Some arteries had never been described such as the caudal vaginal artery, medium vesical artery, cranial vaginal artery, dorsal uterine artery with its lateral and medial branches, and the arch cervical artery. Each artery had the corresponding satellite vein. The left uterine horn presented a better irrigation as the right uterine artery send its medial right branch to the left side of the reproductive system; moreover, the arch cervical artery established communication between the left and right uterine arteries through the cervix ventral surface. This artery could emerge from the uterine artery itself as well as from its medial branch.

Leroy, J., et al. (2003). "Severe Sarcoptes scabiei mange in llamas." Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 72(5): 359-363.

This case report describes a severe Sarcoptes scabiei infection in llamas (Belgium, date not given). Sarcoptic mange is common in small camelids, but is often detected too late. In this case, the llamas showed severe signs of pruritus, hyperkeratinization, alopecia and pyoderma. Psoroptes mites were found in the ear and an otitis was present. One llama died and showed abscesses in the ear base. Treatment was achieved using doramectin (0.2 mg/kg bodyweight s.c.) in combination with a topical acaricide made of triamcinolone acetonide 1 mg, neomycin sulfate 4.5 mg, nystatin 20.1 mg, lidocaine 20 mg and lindane 5 mg/1 g, applied seven times. Llamas, which are newly introduced in the herd, have to be inspected and treated thoroughly in order to prevent transmission of the infection to other animals.

Leroy, J. L., et al. (2004). "The reproduction in llama and alpaca mares." Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift 73(5): 310-316.

For centuries, small camelids were only kept in South-America, but nowadays the interest in llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos) is increasing in Europe. This phenomenon results in a demand for expert veterinarian support in breeding these animals. Their physiology of reproduction differs at certain points from that of the more currently kept domestic animals. In this paper a practical outline of the reproductive cycle, gestation, diagnosis of gestation and birth in llamas and alpacas is presented. The possibilities of the assisted reproductive techniques are also reviewed. Characteristic reproductive features are the induced ovulation, the prolonged dominance phase of the dominant follicle and the 'embryo-toxic' environment in the right uterine horn. Blood progesterone analysis and transabdominal ultrasound are the most reliable techniques for making the pregnancy diagnosis. Although several artificial reproductive techniques can be applied, in Belgium they are rarely used in practice.

Lette, K. (1992). The llama parlour, Bloomsbury.

Lette, K.-M. a. (2010). The llama parlour. London, Bloomsbury.

Lette, K. M. a. (1993). The llama parlour., Picador.

Levine, S. A., et al. (1987). "The use of a silicone T-tube to treat tracheal stenosis in a llama." Veterinary Surgery 16(3): 241-244.

Lewis, W. J. K. (2007). Novel llama antibody fusion proteins as deposition aids for particles containing encapsulated actives for use in industrial applications.

Lichtenwalner, A. (1995). Mechanism of oviductal transport in the mare and reproductive behavior, ejaculatory pattern and seminal parameters in the male llama.

Lichtenwalner, A. B., et al. (1996). "Ejaculatory pattern of llamas during copulation." Theriogenology 46(2): 285-291.

This study, using transrectal digital palpation, examined urethral pulses during copulation to define the ejaculatory pattern in llamas. Five male llamas were palpated during 5 or 6 copulations each (28 copulations). The time to mounting from the first exposure of a male to a female was 0.7±1.1 min (mean±standard deviation), time to the first intromission was 1.7±1.4 min, and time from initial mounting to final dismounting (copulation duration) was 21.7±7.8 min. A total of 121.9±61.0 urethral pulses per copulation (5.6±1.7 pulses per min) was palpated. During the first 3.9±3.7 min of copulation, urethral pulses (11.0±10.1 pulses at 3.5±2.5 pulses per min) occurred randomly and were not associated with whole-body strains. After the first 4 min of copulation, urethral pulses occurred in a pattern of clusters of frequent urethral pulses associated with whole body strains, alternating with intercluster intervals of infrequent urethral pulses without whole-body strains. Individual clusters were characterized by 4.3±2.7 urethral pulses at 16.7±4.5 pulses per min during strains, and intercluster intervals were characterized by 1.7±2.3 urethral pulses at 2.2±1.8 pulses per min. Each cluster of urethral pulses during a strain was preceded by 2.3±1.8 repositions of the male's hindlegs and by 38.1±20.8 pelvic thrusts. There were 18.5±10.6 clusters of urethral pulses per copulation. The 18-19 clusters of urethral pulses appeared to be individual ejaculations. It is suggested that a llama ejaculates 18-19 times during a 22-min copulation.

Lichtenwalner, A. B., et al. (1996). "Seminal collection, seminal characteristics and pattern of ejaculation in llamas." Theriogenology 46(2): 293-305.

Semen was collected from 10 of 10 llamas during 26 of 30 (87%) collection attempts using an artificial vagina mounted inside a dummy female. For the 26 semen collections, the duration of copulation (mounting to dismounting) with the artificial vagina was 31.7±12.0 min (mean±standard deviation). Seminal plasma pH was 8.1±1.1 and semen volume per collection was 3.0±1.9 ml. Sperm concentration was 1.0±0.8 × 106 per ml, total number of spermatozoa per collection 2.9±3.1 × 106, sperm motility 23.7±20.0% and the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa 39.7±18.5%. Morphologically abnormal spermatozoa were categorized according to abnormal heads (20.1±19.9%), tail-less heads (8.7±8.9%), abnormal acrosomes (12.9±12.4%), abnormal midpieces (1.0±3.7%), cytoplasmic droplets (11.1±12.4%) and abnormal tails (6.6±12.0%). There were 0.3±0.3 million morphologically normal, motile spermatozoa per collection; less than 1000 spermatozoa during the first 5 min of copulation, 0.01±0.01 × 106 between 5 and 10 min of copulation, 0.04±0.08 × 106 between 10 and 15 min of copulation, 0.09±0.21 × 106 between 15 and 20 min of copulation, and 0.15±0.28 × 106 between 20 min and the end of copulation.

Lichtenwalner, A. B., et al. (1998). "Male llama choice between receptive and nonreceptive females." Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59(4): 349-356.

Male llamas were allowed indirect (9 males, 3 trials; n = 27) or direct (7 males, 1 trial) contact with a receptive and a non-receptive female. In the indirect contact test, males were allowed 15 min to choose between a receptive and a non-receptive female by means of visual, auditory and olfactory signals only. The male was placed in a pen between 2 pens, each containing a receptive or a non-receptive female. In the direct contact test, males were allowed to indicate choice during 2 h of full contact. In these trials, the male was placed in a pen containing both a receptive and a non-receptive female. When allowed indirect contact, males did not spend more total time with receptive than non-receptive females (4.9±0.6 and 5.0±0.7 min respectively). However, males spent more total time (44.4±11.1 min) in direct contact with receptive females than with non-receptive females (20.9±3.6 min; P = 0.03), although the number and duration of mounts did not differ (16.6±7.9 vs. 15.1±3.9 mounts lasting 39.4±8.9 and 18.1±5.4 min respectively).

Lieven, C. (1985). Utilization of the meat of llama, alpaca and capybara in tropical South America, Tierärztliche Fakultät der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München: 136pp.

Lillich, J. D. and D. E. Anderson (1997). "Facilitated ankylosis for treatment of septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in a llama." Australian Veterinary Journal 75(9): 636-638.

Limon, G., et al. (2009). "A note on the slaughter of llamas in Bolivia by the puntilla method." Meat science 82(3): 405-406.

Slaughter by puntilla followed by neck sticking was examined in 20 recumbent llamas. Repeat stabbing was needed to penetrate the foramen ovale in 45% of the llamas, and two animals attempted to stand after the first stab. Puntilla was found to be ineffective, as all animals showed rhythmic breathing movements at the flank following puntilla and before sticking, and 95% had a positive palpebral reflex at the same time. The findings indicated that it is difficult in practice to penetrate the spinal cord with a single puntilla stab.

Limsakun, T. (1994). Disposition of C<sub>2</sub>--H<sub>2</sub><sub>2</sub>N<sub>4</sub>O<sub>3</sub>S in rats and three antiulcer agents in llamas.

Lin, T. Y., et al. (2010). "Mast cell tumors in a llama (Lama glama)." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22(5): 808-811.

A 9-year-old female llama (Lama glama) that served as a blood donor at The Ohio State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital developed multiple small, raised, firm, non-haired cutaneous masses on the right hip, left cheek, and right and left shoulders. Cytological evaluation of fine-needle aspirates from the cutaneous mass from the left shoulder and right hip comprised many well-differentiated, highly granulated mast cells with moderate numbers of eosinophils. Occasional mast cells exhibited erythrophagocytosis and contained a small amount of hemosiderin or several variably sized vacuoles. A cytologic diagnosis of mast cell tumor with evidence of prior hemorrhage was made, and the masses were surgically removed. Microscopically, each mass consisted of sheets of neoplastic round cells that formed nonencapsulated nodules in the dermis and infiltrated into the adjacent dermal collagen. Eosinophils were scattered among the mast cells at the periphery of the nodules. Neoplastic mast cells, but not eosinophils, exhibited positive membrane KIT expression and cytoplasmic vimentin staining. A final diagnosis of mast cell tumor was made based on cytology, histology, and immunohistochemistry.

Linden, D. R. (2004). Apparent digestibility of chelated and non-chelated forms of zinc in Llama (Lama glama) and Alpaca (Lama pacos).

Linden, D. R., et al. (2007). "Apparent digestibility of organic zinc forms in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos)." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 14(2): 181-185.

There is little information available regarding nutrient digestibility in llamas and alpacas. This study compared the apparent digestibility of organic and inorganic zinc in the diets of llamas and alpacas by comparing an inorganic form of zinc, zinc sulfate (ZnSulf), with 2 organic forms, zinc methionine (ZnMeth) and zinc proteinate (ZnProt). This study hypothesised that organic, or chelated, zinc forms would have greater apparent digestibility than the inorganic zinc form. Nineteen camelids which included llamas (10) and alpacas (9) were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups. Group 1 consisted of llamas (3) and alpacas (3) and were fed ZnSulf feed. Group 2 consisted of llamas (3) and alpacas (3) and were fed ZnProt feed. Group 3 consisted of llamas (4) and alpacas (3) and were fed ZnMeth feed. Apparent digestibilities were obtained during two sampling periods. Mean apparent digestibility of ZnSulf, ZnProt and ZnMeth was 0.675, 0.567 and 0.868, respectively. ZnMeth had a greater apparent digestibility than ZnSulf (P=0.027). Apparent digestibilities for ZnProt were statistically similar to that of ZnSulf (P=0.25). Differences between ZnProt and ZnMeth were statistically significant (P=0.03). It was concluded that zinc methionine is more efficiently assimilated by llamas and alpacas than either zinc sulfate or zinc proteinate.

Linden, D. R., et al. (2006). "Seasonal variation in water intake in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) species." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 13(2): 201-205.

Water consumption was recorded during selected periods throughout the year to determine the variation that occurs with climactic changes and between species for llamas (L. glama) and alpacas (L. pacos) housed in North America (Ohio, USA). Llamas had mean water consumption of 46.1 ml/kg during summer, 34.1 ml/kg during autumn, 25.0 ml/kg during winter and 33.2 ml/kg during spring. Alpacas had mean water consumption of 69.0 ml/kg during summer, 50.2 ml/kg during autumn, 40.6 ml/kg during winter and 46.1 ml/kg during spring. On a metabolic body weight basis, llamas and alpacas had mean water consumptions of 117.2 and 101.1 ml kg (0.75)-1, respectively, during spring, 157.1 ml kg (0.75)-1 and 194.8 ml kg (0.75)-1, respectively during summer, 116.2 ml kg (0.75)-1 and 141.6 ml kg (0.75)-1, respectively, during autumn and 86.7 ml kg (0.75)-1 and 114.9 ml kg (0.75)-1, respectively, during winter. Mean daily ambient temperature during summer, autumn, winter and spring sample periods were 25.4, 24.6, 4.4 and 21.0°C, respectively. Mean relative humidity during the summer, autumn, winter and spring sample periods were 69.6, 64.2, 82.5 and 87.2%, respectively. This study showed that seasonal environmental variations correlated with variations in water consumption in llamas and alpacas (P&lt;0.05). This study determined that alpacas consume greater amounts of water per kg body weight than llamas in any given season under the same temperature and humidity (P&lt;0.05).

Linden, R. v. d. (1999). Unique characteristics of llama heavy chain antibody fragments, s.n.].

Liu, L., et al. (2016). "The Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Variable Region of Llama Heavy Chain-Only Antibody JM4 Efficiently Blocks both Cell-Free and T Cell-T Cell Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1." J Virol 90(23 LA - eng): 10642-10659.

The variable regions (VHHs) of two heavy chain-only antibodies, JM2 and JM4, from llamas that have been immunized with a trimeric gp140 bound to a CD4 mimic have been recently isolated (here referred to as VHH JM2 and VHH JM4, respectively). JM2 binds the CD4-binding site of gp120 and neutralizes HIV-1 strains from subtypes B, C, and G. JM4 binds gp120 and neutralizes HIV-1 strains from subtypes A, B, C, A/E, and G in a CD4-dependent manner. In the present study, we constructed glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored VHH JM2 and JM4 along with an E4 control and transduced them into human CD4(+) cell lines and primary CD4 T cells. We report that by genetically linking the VHHs with a GPI attachment signal, VHHs are targeted to the lipid rafts of the plasma membranes. Expression of GPI-VHH JM4, but not GPI-VHH E4 and JM2, on the surface of transduced TZM.bl cells potently neutralizes multiple subtypes of HIV-1 isolates, including tier 2 or 3 strains, transmitted founders, quasispecies, and soluble single domain antibody (sdAb) JM4-resistant viruses. Moreover, transduction of CEMss-CCR5 cells with GPI-VHH JM4, but not with GPI-VHH E4, confers resistance to both cell-free and T cell-T cell transmission of HIV-1 and HIV-1 envelope-mediated fusion. Finally, GPI-VHH JM4-transduced human primary CD4 T cells efficiently resist both cell-free and T cell-T cell transmission of HIV-1. Thus, we conclude that VHH JM4, when targeted to the lipid rafts of the plasma membrane, efficiently neutralizes HIV-1 infection via both cell-free and T cell-T cell transmission. Our findings should have important implications for GPI-anchored antibody-based therapy against HIV-1.|Lipid rafts are specialized dynamic microdomains of the plasma membrane and have been shown to be gateways for HIV-1 budding as well as entry into T cells and macrophages. In nature, many glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins localize in the lipid rafts. In the present study, we developed GPI-anchored variable regions (VHHs) of two heavy chain-only antibodies, JM2 and JM4, from immunized llamas. We show that by genetically linking the VHHs with a GPI attachment signal, VHHs are targeted to the lipid rafts of the plasma membranes. GPI-VHH JM4, but not GPI-VHH JM2, in transduced CD4(+) cell lines and human primary CD4 T cells not only efficiently blocks diverse HIV-1 strains, including tier 2 or 3 strains, transmitted founders, quasispecies, and soluble sdAb JM4-resistant strains, but also efficiently interferes T cell-T cell transmissions of HIV-1 and HIV-1 envelope-mediated fusion. Our findings should have important implications in GPI-anchored antibody-based therapy against HIV-1. AN - 27654286

Lizama, J. (1985). Llama salida de la muerte. [Chile], Analogi\0301a.

Llanos, A. J., et al. (1995). "Cardiovascular responses to graded degrees of hypoxaemia for the llama fetus." Reproduction, Fertility and Development 7(3): 549-552.

The fetal llama exposed to an intense degree of hypoxaemia did not increase cerebral blood flow, but showed a pronounced peripheral vasoconstriction. The same cardiovascular response is observed in fetal sheep submitted to extremely severe hypoxaemia, when the initial compensatory vasodilatory mechanisms in brain and heart fail. To investigate whether the fetal llama response to acute hypoxaemia are adaptive, or whether they are the result of a breakdown of mechanisms of blood flow redistribution that favours the central nervous system, 7 fetal llamas (0.6-0.7 of gestation) chronically-catheterized during 1 h of graded and progressive hypoxaemia were studied. Fetal ascending aorta blood gases and fetal cardiac output and its distribution (radiolabelled-microspheres) were measured after 60 min of normoxaemia (B) and at the end of 20 min (H20), 40 min (H40) and 60 min (H60) of hypoxaemia. Data were analysed by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls tests. Each treatment resulted in a lower percentage of haemoglobin saturation than hypoxaemia; H40 was lower than H20, and H60 was lower than H20 and H40. No statistical difference was observed among treatments for cardiac output or cerebral blood flow. These results demonstrate that fetal cardiac output and brain blood flow are maintained at all degrees of hypoxaemia, indicating that these cardiovascular responses are an adaptive response in the llama fetus, rather than an index of cardiorespiratory decompensation.

Llanos, A. J., et al. (2002). "Regional brain blood flow and cerebral hemispheric oxygen consumption during acute hypoxaemia in the llama fetus." Journal of Physiology 538(3): 975-983.

Unlike fetal animals of lowland species, the llama fetus does not increase its cerebral blood flow during an episode of acute hypoxaemia. This study tested the hypothesis that the fetal llama brain maintains cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption by increasing cerebral O2 extraction rather than decreasing cerebral oxygen utilization during acute hypoxaemia. Six llama fetuses were surgically instrumented under general anaesthesia at 217 days of gestation (term ca 350 days) with vascular and amniotic catheters in order to carry out cardiorespiratory studies. Following a control period of 1 h, the llama fetuses underwent 3×20 min episodes of progressive hypoxaemia, induced by maternal inhalational hypoxia. During basal conditions and during each of the 20 min of hypoxaemia, fetal cerebral blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres, cerebral oxygen extraction was calculated, and fetal cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption was determined by the modified Fick principle. During hypoxaemia, fetal arterial O2 tension and fetal pH decreased progressively from 24±1 to 20±1 Torr and from 7.36±0.01 to 7.33±0.01, respectively, during the first 20 min episode, to 16±1 Torr and 7.25±0.05 during the second 20 min episode and to 14±1 Torr and 7.21±0.04 during the final 20 min episode. Fetal arterial partial pressure of CO2 (Pa,CO2, 42±2 Torr) remained unaltered from baseline throughout the experiment. Fetal cerebral hemispheric blood flow and cerebral hemispheric oxygen extraction were unaltered from baseline during progressive hypoxaemia. In contrast, a progressive fall in fetal cerebral hemispheric oxygen consumption occurred during the hypoxaemic challenge. These data do not support the hypothesis that the fetal llama brain maintains cerebral hemispheric O2 consumption by increasing cerebral hemispheric O2 extraction. Rather, the data show that in the llama fetus, a reduction in cerebral hemispheric metabolism occurs during acute hypoxaemia.

Llanos Pérez, M. J. (2005). Digestibilidad in vivo en llamas (Lama glama), alimentadas con heno de cebadilla y paja brava en el C.E.A.C.

The Highlands of Bolivia present a great diversity of native botanical species with strong forage characteristics, providing them with a considerable potential for usage as a resource in the feeding of cattle. The following work was performed with the idea of taking advantage of the zone's native species as a source for the feeding of llama cattle. In order to accomplish it, we took into consideration the following variables: food consumption, water consumption, amount of fecal excretions, urine volume, body weight, and the digestibility of the nutrients found in the food prepared with paja brava and barley (ash, protein, fiber, and total digestibles). The experiments were conducted in metabolic cages for 30 days; with 4 llamas of the K'ara breeds, between the ages of 4 and 5 years old, and an average weight in between 105 and 125 kg of life weight. The statistical analysis was conducted using a completely random cross test. We concluded barley and paja brava in their natural state are forage species which nutrient composition does not allow optimal development in llamas.

Loayza M, E., et al. (2011). "Evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii in female llamas from two peasant communities in Puno." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 22(3): 239-243.

The objective the study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxopasma gondii in adult female llamas from two peasant communities from the province of Melgar, Puno. Blood samples were collected in 30 and 77 llamas from Huaycho and Huataywasi communities. Samples were analyzed by the indirect immunofluorescent test. The seroprevalence to T. gondii was 36.7% in Huaycho and 6.5% in Huataywasi. Both communities showed different conditions and management systems, which can explain the high differences in seroprevalence.

Long, P. (1989). "Llama herd health." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 5(1): 227-232.

Long, P. (1999). "A practitioner approach to llama and alpaca nutrition." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 6(2): 275-277.

Long, P. (2004). A practitioner approach to llama and alpaca nutrition. Bikaner, The Camelid Publishers: 747-749.

Long, P. O. (1997). "The birth of a healthy llama." Equine Practice 19(1): 14-15.

Longo, F., et al. (2016). "Bovine xenograft application for treatment of a metatarsal nonunion fracture in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)." N Z Vet J 64(3): 188-192.

A 15-year-old female huacaya alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was referred because of a non-weight-bearing lameness (4/4) in the left pelvic limb caused by a grade three open metatarsal fracture. The referring veterinarian treated the fracture with conservative management using bandages, but it progressively evolved to a non-union.|Clinical examination revealed external wounds on the medial and lateral surfaces of the metatarsus. Radiographs confirmed an open, nonarticular, displaced, diaphyseal fracture of the left metatarsus.|Cancellous bone was sourced from bovine proximal and distal femur epiphyses, followed by a thermal shock procedure to achieve decellularisation, to produce a xenograft. Open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture using locking plates was performed. Alignment of the fracture fragments was corrected and the xenograft was placed at the debrided fracture site to stimulate and harness osteogenesis in situ. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed up to 40 weeks postoperatively. Clinical evaluations revealed that the alpaca gradually increased weight bearing following bandage removal 10 days after surgery. Serial radiographs showed correct alignment of the left metatarsus, progressive bone modelling and, complete bone union at 12 weeks. Ten months postoperatively the alpaca showed no signs of lameness and resumed normal activity.|For management of a metatarsal non-union, a combination of bovine xenograft application and angular stable internal fixation progressed toward an excellent long-term recovery. AN - 26617346

Lopez, A., et al. (2000). "Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama). I. Alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) and wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) at different proportions." Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 32(2): 201-208.

A random block design was used to run a classical total collection digestion trial, in which eight llamas were used to study the utilization of three different diets: 1) 100% lucerne hay (Diet 100); 2) 75% lucerne hay plus 25% wheat straw (Diet 75/25) and 3) 50% lucerne hay plus 50% wheat straw (Diet 50/50). The digestibility coefficients for dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and for the components of the cell walls were obtained. The digestibility coefficients of the main nutrients for Diets 100, 75/25 and 50/50 were 76.7a, 73.5a, 64.8b% (P&lt;0.05) for crude protein, respectively; 42.8, 42.3, 46.5% for NDF; 39.9, 35.6, 40.9 for ADF; 51.1a, 60.4b, 60.7b (P&lt;0.05) for hemicellulose and 52.6, 49.5, 55.6% for cellulose. While crude protein digestibility decreased when the quality of diets decreased, the digestibility of the different cell wall constituents remained constant or increased. These facts agree with the general information concerning the greater ability of these animals to utilize fibrous feeds.

López, A. and L. A. Raggi (1992). "Nutritional requirements of South American Camelidae: llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos)." Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 24(2): 121-130.

Data from the literature on the nutritional requirements of llamas and alpacas are reviewed. Values for digestible energy, crude protein, calcium and phosphorus requirements during growth, pregnancy and lactation are tabulated. Where information is inadequate data from other small ruminant species have been provisionally adapted.

López C, Á. M., et al. (2015). "Analysis of cocaine in different samples by gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID)." Revista Colombiana de Química 44(1): 19-22.

In this study validate the methods established by the UNODC for quantification and extraction benzometilecgonina (cocaine) in the leaves of Erythhroxylum coca, coca tea and cocaine hydrochloride. The first extraction method recommended by the UNODC is a solid-liquid extraction (ESL), however, the results indicate that this is not efficient enough to achieve analyte signal distinguishable from the signal to noise ratio (S/N) for samples Erythhroxylum coca leaves and coca tea. The second proposed method is soxhlet extraction, the results indicate that this is more efficient to isolate and quantify the analyte of interest by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). After submitting the samples to the soxhlet extraction process and quantification by GC-FID it found that tea leaf has 7.66×102 mg of cocaine/kg sample, coca leaves 17.15 mg of cocaine/kg sample and cocaine hydrochloride concentration corresponded to 7.15×105 mg of cocaine/kg sample. The chosen analysis method is characterized by low detection limits shed (1.69 mg/L) and possessing ideal chromatographic and statistical parameters.

Lopez Lopez, L. C. (2008). Hair, feces and breath isotope fractionation in alpacas (llama pacos), llamas (llama glama) and guanacos (llama guanacoe) from Bolivia and Chile.

This study was conducted to determinate carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation in Bolivian and Chilean alpaca, llama and guanaco, hair, breath, plasma and feces. We also wanted to determine forage selection for these camelids using stable isotope technology. From the data, niche feeding and diet selection habits will determinate based on fecal composition. Bolivian sites were located near the high snow Altiplano Mountains at Tomarapi, Sajama, and at the Technical University Oruro's research center at Condoriri, Bolivia. Chilean samples were collected at INIA's (Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria) Kampenaike Research Station, Punta Arenas, Chile. Bolivian alpacas and llamas were 3 to 5 years of age from producer herds and the Oruro University's camelid herd. Chilean animals were selected from INIA- Kampenaike's camelid herd. The alpacas, llamas and guanacos were selected based on heath status: no conformation defects, illness, genetic abnormalities or apparent nutrition problems. Samples were taken of fiber, feces, and blood from alpacas, llamas, and guanacos. Forage samples from pastures and grazing areas were taken. Forage species that were collected came from the asteraceae, berberidaceae, gramineae, caryophyllaceae, leguminoseae, plantaginaceae, gentianiaceae and the chenopodaceae families and ranged from -15.5% to -33.9%?13C and -3.0% to 6.4%?15N. Isotope values for feces and fiber were similar for the two Bolivian sites, but the Chilean values were significantly more depleted. This was attributed to the forage isotopic values being significantly more depleted than those found in Bolivia. Forage selection, based on fecal and forage isotopic signatures supported the observation that alpacas, llamas and guanacos eat different forages. This is dependent on forage source and time of year (dry versus wet season). Stable isotope technology will be a useful tool in determining forage selection and species competition or interactions in South American Camelids.

Lopez, M. J., et al. (1998). "Urinary obstruction in a hermaphroditic Llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 212(5): 710-712.

Lopez, M. J. and J. R. Snyder (1995). "Tetanus in a llama." Equine Practice 17(4): 26-28,30-31.

López V, A., et al. (2001). "Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama). II. Clover hay (Trifolium pratense), riegrass hay (Lolium multiflorum), beans straw (Phaseolus vulgaris) and oat straw (Avena sativa)." Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 33(2): 145-153.

A 4×4 Latin square design was used to run a total collection digestion trial in which eight llamas were used to study the utilization of four different diets: (1) red clover hay, (2) ryegrass hay, (3) bean straw and (4) oat straw. Dry matter intake was affected by diet quality (P&lt;0.05) and reached 38.8, 29.2, 28.8 and 20.9 g/kg0.75/day, respectively. The apparent digestibility (%) of the main nutrients differed significantly between diets (P&lt;0.05) and were 55.3, 37.9, 35.0 and -1.4 for crude protein; 44.1, 46.9, 54.0, and 57.1; for NDF; 36.0, 38.2, 52.2 and 51.8 for ADF; 62.8, 65.9, 60.0 and 67.6 for hemicellulose and 55.8, 55.7, 66.0 and 66.0 for cellulose, respectively. While crude protein digestibility decreased as protein intake decreased, the digestibility of most cell wall constituents increased when the quality of diets decreased as a result of the increased percentage of these dietary components. These facts confirm the greater ability of llamas to utilize fibrous feeds.

Lorant, S. (1940). Chamberlain and The Beautiful Llama. [S.l.], Hulton Press.

Loupal, G. (1982). "Gastric phytobezoariasis in a llama." Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 95(1): 14-16.

Lowe-Phelps, K. (2010). Yama, the Llama: Off to Bethlehem, Tate Publishing & Enterprises.

Lubroch, J. and R. J. Yedloutschnig (1987). "Foot-and-mouth disease studies in the llama (Lama glama)." Proceedings of the United States Animal Health Association 91: 313-316.

In experimental studies using six llamas and aphthovirus serotype A24 Cruzeiro and O1 Campos, it was confirmed that llamas are susceptible by direct inoculation and by contact with infected pigs, cattle or llamas. Neutralizing antibody titres were detected for over 200 days and virus-infection-associated antigen for over 350 days after clinically affected llamas. Virus was detected in oesophageal-pharayngeal fluid for not more than 14 days after exposure.

Lubroth, J., et al. (1990). "Foot-and-mouth disease virus in the llama (Lama glama): diagnosis, transmission, and susceptibility." J Vet Diagn Invest 2(3): 197-203.

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was shown to be transmitted from either cattle to llamas, llamas to swine (interspecies), or llamas to llamas (intraspecies). Response to FMDV varied greatly in the 6 llamas studied; 3 llamas developed generalized clinical disease with mild pyrexia, 2 after intradermolingual inoculation, and 1 after exposure to a calf infected with FMDV serotype A24. Another contact llama developed vesicular lesions on all 4 extremities but no oral lesions. Two contact llamas, in separate study groups, did not seroconvert or develop clinical signs of FMDV infection. All 4 llamas showing clinical disease developed virus-neutralizing antibodies against FMDV A24 and antibodies against the virus-infection-associated antigen. Virus-neutralizing antibody titers remained elevated for over 200 days postinoculation or exposure. Antibodies to virus-infection-associated antigen were detected several days after virus-neutralizing antibody appeared and became weaker 100-125 days post-FMDV exposure in 3 of the 4 clinically affected llamas. One inoculated llama was still positive for virus-infection-associated antigen at 360 days after inoculation. Foot-and-mouth disease virus A24 was not detected from esophageal-pharyngeal fluid specimens beyond 8 days postexposure using in vitro techniques.

Lubroth, J., et al. (1990). "Foot-and-mouth disease virus in the llama (Lama glama): diagnosis, transmission, and susceptibility." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 2(3): 197-203.

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was shown to be transmitted from either cattle to llamas, llamas to swine (interspecies), or llamas to llamas (intraspecies). Response to FMDV varied greatly in the 6 llamas studied; 3 llamas developed generalized clinical disease with mild pyrexia, 2 after intradermolingual inoculation, and 1 after exposure to a calf infected with FMDV serotype A24. Another contact llama developed vesicular lesions on all 4 extremities but no oral lesions. Two contact llamas, in separate study groups, did not seroconvert or develop clinical signs of FMDV infection. All 4 llamas showing clinical disease developed virus-neutralizing antibodies against FMDV A24 and antibodies against the virus-infection-associated antigen. Virus-neutralizing antibody titres remained elevated for over 200 days postinoculation or exposure. Antibodies to virus-infection-associated antigen were detected several days after virus-neutralizing antibody appeared and became weaker 100-125 days post-FMDV exposure in 3 of the 4 clinically affected llamas. One inoculated llama was positive for virus-infection-associated antigen at 360 days after inoculation. Foot-and-mouth disease virus A24 was not detected from oesophageal-pharyngeal fluid specimens beyond 8 days postexposure using in vitro techniques.

Luciano, L., et al. (1980). "The fine structure of the stomach mucosa of the llama (Llama guanacoe). II. The fundic region of the stomach." Cell and Tissue Research 208(2): 207-228.

The ultrastructure of the epithelium in the gastric mucosa of the hind stomach of the llama and the location of some mucosubstances are described. The endocrine cells are compared with those of the stomach of monogastric mammals [26 photomicrographs.]

Luciano, L., et al. (1979). "Structure of the gastric mucosa in llama (Lama guanacoe and Lama lamae). I. Forestomachs." Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch 125(4): 519-549.

The mucosa of the first and second compartments (ventral regions) and of the third compartment of the stomach of both species shows tubular glands opening into pits. Beneath the surface epithelium, blood capillaries of the fenestrated type form a regular network, each mesh of which surrounds a gastric pit. Morphologically (thin section and freeze-fracture) the columnar cells of the surface epithelium and of the pits closest to the capillaries are largely similar to the epithelial cells of the rabbit gallbladder. This similarity suggests that, at the level of the columnar cells, sodium-dependent reabsorption of water occurs. This reabsorption has already been demonstrated physiologically. The surface and foveolar epithelial cells as well as some cells of the tubular glands have a secretory function. Their secretory granules originate from the Golgi complex, which shows a positive histochemical reaction in its innermost sacculi. Endocrine cells are rare. The mucosa of each muscular lip separating the glandular sacs in the first compartment shows a stratified, non-keratinized, squamous epithelium.

Lugo, S. (1949). Ronda de la llama verde. Poemas. Puerto Rico, San Juan.

Luis, A. and S. Raggi (2000). "Adaptation to a mountain environment, with reference to South American camelids (alpacas and llamas)." Monografías de Medicina Veterinaria 20(1): 56-67.

Lunn, D. P. and K. W. Hinchcliff (1989). "Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia and ataxia in five llamas." Veterinary record 124(12): 302-305.

Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia was associated with ataxia in five llamas. A presumptive diagnosis of cerebrospinal parasitism was made, and a response to combined anthelmintic and antiinflammatory therapy was seen in each animal. The results demonstrate the value of an examination of cerebrospinal fluid in the evaluation of neurological disease in llamas.

Luppi, M. M., et al. (2010). "Cutaneous angiomatosis in a llama (Lama glama)." Journal of comparative pathology 142(2/3): 223-227.

Cutaneous angiomatosis was diagnosed in an adult female llama (Lama glama). Lesions were raised or plaque-like, erythematous, firm to soft in consistency and were observed on the face and skin of the axillary, abdominal, perineal and inguinal regions. The lesions were not painful or pruritic. Microscopical examination revealed an irregular parakeratotic lamellar hyperkeratosis associated with diffuse proliferation of arterioles and venules in the superficial dermis. Immunohistochemical analysis determined that the cells forming these vessels and perivascular cells expressed factor VIII-related antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31 and smooth-muscle alpha-actin. These studies confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous angiomatosis.

Lusat, J. (2011). Importance and management of mange mites and gastrointestinal parasites in alpaca and llama populations in the UK.

Lusat, J., et al. (2009). "Mange in alpacas, llamas and goats in the UK: incidence and risk." Veterinary Parasitology 163(1/2): 179-184.

A retrospective postal questionnaire was used to obtain information about the prevalence of mange and its association with husbandry-related risk factors, in alpaca, llama and goat herds in the UK. In total 1797 questionnaires were sent out to members of the British Alpaca Society, the British Llama Society and the British Goat Society, giving response rates of 40.4%, 29.3% and 22.8% from the three groups, respectively. Between January and December 2007, mange was reported in 52.2% (151 of 292), 14% (9 of 66) and 21% (41 of 194) alpaca, llama and goat herds, respectively. However, these figures must be treated with some caution as only 37-51% of the farmers had their diagnosis of mange confirmed by a veterinarian or animal health laboratory. In herds where the causal agent was confirmed: psoroptic, sarcoptic, chorioptic and mixed infections were all reported, with chorioptic mange reported most frequently. Risk analysis showed that the prevalence of reported cases mange in alpacas was significantly associated with herd size and the country from which the animals were imported. Alpaca farmers who had larger herds were more likely to report mange and farmers who imported their animals from Peru were 1.5 times more likely to report mange than farmers who imported animals from elsewhere or who did not import. There was no significant confounding between these two risk factors. The results show that mange continues to be a major problem for camelids and goats in the UK, and suggests that inadequate control on farms and lack of control when in quarantine are two factors that contribute to ongoing problems with mange. However, given the relatively low contribution of imported animals to the national herd each year, it is likely that poor on-farm control may be of greatest importance.

Lyashchenko, K., et al. (2007). "Antibody responses in New World camelids with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti." Veterinary microbiology 125(3): 265-273.

M.A., M. and S. D.K. (2016). "Termination of unwanted pregnancy in a llama with cloprostenol and subsequent pregnancy: a case report." Theriogenology.

Macaldowie, C., et al. (2005). "Louping ill in llamas (Lama glama) in the Hebrides." Veterinary record 156(13): 420-421.

Mach, R. (1992). LLAMA : a multitasking mobile robot control language designed and optimized for intersystem communication to an expert system.

Madrid Vicente, R. and A. R. Garciá Fernández (1981). "Interferences produced by BaCl2-TEA in the joint determination of sodium and potassium by flame photometry." Anales de Edafología y Agrobiología 40(3/4): 537-544.

Interference by triethanolamine (TEA) and BaCl2 in the determination of Na and K by flame photometry was greater for Na than for K, and increased in the order TEA &lt; BaCl2-TEA &lt; BaCl2. Na and, to a greater extent, K also interfere with the determination of each other. A series of curves was constructed, relating apparent Na and K concentrations to true concentrations, to enable correction of the experimental results.

Malkus, A. S. (1939). The Silver Llama. Story and pictures. Philadelphia, J. C. Winston Co.

Malone, E., et al. (1996). "Anaplastic sarcoma of the mandible in a llama." Canadian Veterinary Journal 37(7): 426-428.

Mama, K. R., et al. (1999). "Determination of the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in llamas." Veterinary Surgery 28(2): 121-125.

The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane (ISO) was investigated 8 adult neutered male llamas (9 ± 1 years; 177 ± 29 kg). Anaesthesia was induced and maintained in otherwise untreated llamas with a mixture of ISO in oxygen administered through a standard small-animal, semi-closed circle system using an out-of-circle, agent-specific vaporizer. The time from mask placement to intubation was recorded. Inspired and end-tidal (ET) ISO was sampled continuously. At each anaesthetic concentration, a constant ET ISO was maintained for at least 20 minutes before application of a noxious electrical stimulus (50 volts, 5 Hz, 10 ms for up to 1 minute). A positive or negative response to the stimulus was recorded, and ET ISO then increased (if positive response) or decreased (if negative response) by 10% to 20%. Body temperature was maintained at 37 ± 1°C. Selected cardiopulmonary variables (heart rate [HR], respiratory rate [RR], arterial blood pressure [ABP]) and ET ISO were recorded hourly from first ISO. Arterial blood was collected for pH, PCO2, PO2 analysis and measurement of packed cell volume (PCV) and total protein (TP) at 2 h intervals. Following MAC determination, the anaesthetic was discontinued and llamas were allowed to recover. Duration and quality of recovery were noted. The time from start of induction by mask to completion of intubation took 19.1 ± 4.8 minutes. The MAC of ISO corrected to one atmosphere at sea level (barometric pressure 760 mm Hg) in these llamas was 1.05 ± 0.17%. Mean ABP increased from 70 ± 26 mm Hg at the end of the first hour of anaesthesia to 102 ± 7 mm Hg measured at the end of the sixth hour of anesthesia. ET ISO decreased from 2.06 ± 0.10% to 1.27 ± 0.07% over the same time period, but MAC did not change with time. The duration from first ISO to discontinuation of ISO averaged 6.19 ± 0.9 h. Animals were able to support their heads in a sternal posture at 23 ± 10 minutes, and stood 62 ± 26 minutes following discontinuation of the anaesthetic. The MAC for ISO is similar to, but slightly lower than, values reported for other species.

Mama, K. R., et al. (2001). "Circulatory, respiratory and behavioral responses in isoflurane anesthetized llamas." Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 28(1): 12-17.

Six adult, neutered male llamas (10±1 years [mean±SD], 179±32 kg) were anaesthetized with isoflurane (ISO) in oxygen. Inspired and end-tidal (ET) ISO were sampled continuously. Arterial blood pH, respiratory and circulatory variables, and clinical signs of anaesthesia were also recorded at three doses (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times the animal's minimum alveolar concentration (MAC); mean MAC value 1.13%) of ISO during spontaneous and controlled ventilation. Controlled ventilation (CV) (target PaCO2 38±5 mm Hg [5.0±0.6 kPa]) preceded spontaneous ventilation (SV) at each dose. Body temperature was maintained at 37±0.6°C. Circulatory and respiratory data were analysed with a mixed model, least squares analysis of variance, for repeated measures taken at equally spaced intervals (P&lt;0.05). Dose and mode of ventilation had significant influences on the variables measured. Heart rate increased as dose of ISO increased. Conversely, mean arterial pressure decreased with increasing dose of ISO. Arterial CO2 increased with increasing dose during SV. Reflex activity (e.g. palpebral reflex) and muscle tone (e.g. jaw tone) decreased while eyelid aperture increased with increasing anaesthetic dose. The influence of ISO dose and mode of ventilation on circulatory and respiratory variables in llamas is qualitatively similar to that reported in other species. Changes in reflex activity and muscle tone may be used to guide appropriate anaesthetic delivery in ISO-induced llamas.

Mamani C, R., et al. (2013). "Ovulation rate using gonadotropin releasing hormone and seminal plasma in alpacas and llamas." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 24(2): 194-198.

The aim of the present study was to determine the ovulation rate using GnRH (buserelin) and seminal plasma of alpaca as ovulation inductors in alpacas and llamas. For this, 93 alpacas and 92 llamas were distributed in two groups: a group treated with buserelin (42 µg) IM, and a group treated with 1 ml of seminal plasma IM (50/50% seminal plasma of alpaca and PBS+antibiotics). The ovulation rate was 78.7 and 88.9% in alpacas and 80.6 and 70.0% in llamas using buserelin and seminal plasma respectively; and without statistical differences due to type of ovulation inductor, ovary carrying the preovulatory follicle or species.

Mamani-Linares, L. W., et al. (2013). "Effect of season on proximate composition and fatty acids profile of llama meat in extensive rearing." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 24(4): 417-424.

This study compared the proximate composition and fatty acids profile of llamas slaughtered in two seasons. Twenty 18-24 month old llamas reared in native pastures were used, of which 10 were slaughtered in the dry season and 10 in the rainy season under standard procedures. Carcasses were stored for 24 h in a cold room (4 to 6°C). Samples of the Longissimus lumborum muscle were collected and moisture, crude protein, lipids and ashes were analysed. Llama meat slaughtered in the rainy season had higher intramuscular fat content (p&lt;0.10) and higher levels of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (p&lt;0.05), but lower levels of saturated fatty acids (p&lt;0.05) as compared to llama meat slaughtered in the dry season. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and linoleic conjugated content was higher in llama meat of the rainy season. However, meat of both seasons showed an n-6/n-3 ratio within recommended levels (4) and good levels of desirable fatty acids (DFA). In conclusion, the meat of young llamas of both seasons has favorable fat characteristics for consumption.

Mamani-Linares, L. W., et al. (2013). "Technological quality of twelve muscles from young llamas (Lama Glama) reared under an extensive production system." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 24(2): 168-175.

This study compared the technological quality of twelve muscles of llama that were raised in a grazing system. The llamas (n=10) were slaughtered using Bolivian standard procedures. Carcasses were stored for 24 h in a cold room (4°C). Muscles were removed from the left side of each carcass in the slaughter house. Five steaks (2.54 cm thick) were cut from each muscle. In each muscle was determined pH, colour (L*, a*, b*), water holding capacity (WHC) and Warner-Bratzler shear-force (WBSF). No statistical difference was found in pH between muscles. Values of L* (lightness) and b* (tenor of yellow) in L. thoracis, L. lumborum and Semimembranosus were higher than those in Triceps brachii and Psoas major (p&lt;0.05). The cooking loss percentage was lower in Infraspinatus and Longissimus thoracis (p&lt;0.05). The WBSF value in the Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, Quadriceps femoris and Biceps femoris muscles was higher (p&lt;0.05) and in Infraspinatus was the lowest (p&lt;0.05). Tenderness (WBSF), colour, and water holding capacity varied between muscles.

Mamani-Linares, L. W., et al. (2014). "Carcass characteristics, quality of meat and chemical composition of meat llama: a review." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 25(2): 123-150.

Llama meat has a high protein level and low cholesterol and lipid levels. The amino acids profile is similar to other ruminants. The fatty acid profile is characterized by moderate levels of saturated fatty acids and high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and low levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The carcass of animals from 36 to 44 months of age is the most suitable for commercial cuts, while meat from older animals, based on their technological characteristics, is more suitable for the manufacture of meat products. Carcasses of young llamas are characterized by low weight, poor conformation and little fat cover. Feed supplementation in young animals helps improve carcass quality and performance of commercial cuts, as well as meat quality.

Mamani-Linares, L. W. and C. B. Gallo (2014). "Meat quality, proximate composition and muscle fatty acid profile of young llamas (Lama glama) supplemented with hay or concentrate during the dry season." Meat science 96(1): 394-399.

Thirty llamas were used to study the effect of a 90 day feed supplementation on meat quality, chemical composition and muscle fatty acid profile. Treatments were: GR=llama on native pasture until slaughter; GR+SH=like GR, but with overnight free access to barley/alfalfa hay; and GR+SC=like GR, but with overnight free access to a wheat bran/sorghum grain concentrate. The supplementation had no effect on postmortem pH and temperature decline in the Longissimus lumborum muscle (LLM), cooking losses nor Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P&gt;0.05). Meat from GR+SC llama had higher fat content in LLM (P&lt;0.05) compared to GR and GR+SH llama. Intramuscular fat from GR+SH llama showed higher (P&lt;0.01) proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids, higher (P&lt;0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids and desirable fatty acids ratio, lower (P&lt;0.05) omega-6/omega-3 (n-6/n-3) ratio, and higher (P&lt;0.01) conjugated linoleic acid.

Mannerová, S., et al. (2003). "Macrococcus brunensis sp. nov., Macrococcus hajekii sp. nov. and Macrococcus lamae sp. nov., from the skin of llamas." International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53(5): 1647-1654.

Eight strains of Gram-positive, catalase- and oxidase-positive cocci were isolated from the skin of llamas (Lama glama L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. These strains were assigned to the genus Macrococcus on the basis of their phenotypic properties (resistance to bacitracin and sensitivity to furazolidone) and DNA base content (40-42 mol% G+C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA confirmed that the strains are members of the genus Macrococcus. They differed from all hitherto described macrococcal species in their production of phosphatase and reduction of nitrate (most strains) and the inability to produce acid from glycerol or to grow in 7.5% NaCl. Ribotyping (EcoRI), macrorestriction analysis (Xbal) and fatty acid methyl ester analysis divided the strains from llamas into three stable clusters. Moreover, ribotyping differentiated the strains analysed not only from previously described macrococcal species but also from oxidase-positive staphylococci. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the three clusters represent separate genomic groups (similarity values &lt;54%). All the results showed that the strains represent three novel species, for which the names Macrococcus hajekii sp. nov. (type strain CCM 4809T=LMG 21711T), Macrococcus brunensis sp. nov. (type strain CCM 4811T=LMG 21712T) and Macrococcus lamae sp. nov. (type strain CCM 4815T=LMG 21713T) are proposed.

Mantero, M. M. a. (2007). Poesía : como llama en el diamante (1954-2004) SE - Obras completas 1. Sevilla, R D Editores.

Marcoppido, G., et al. (2013). "Haemonchus-induced anemia in llamas (Lama glama) from Argentina." International Journal of Veterinary Science 2(3): 111-114.

This report documents clinical manifestation of anemia associated with Haemonchus spp. in naturally infected llamas from Argentina. Infected animals presented conjunctival pallor, discolored coat, edema in the submandibular area, weakness, lack of exercise tolerance, sternal recumbence and emaciation. The range of hematocrit values was between 4 to 16% with marked erythrocyte pleomorphism. Haemonchus spp. were recovered from the C3 compartment during a necropsy performed on a weak and recumbent pregnant female llama that was euthanized. Stressful conditions derived from farming management, production stress, long-term treatment with suboptimal doses of anthelmintics drugs and climatic conditions were concomitant causes that favored the herd infestation.

Marcoppido, G. and B. Vila (2013). "Management of extra-Andean llamas. Comments that contribute to their welfare in non-originating context." Revista Argentina de Producción Animal 33(2): 139-154.

The use of South American Camelids (SAC) dates back to 12,000 years ago, when the first human populations began hunting guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and vicuna (Vicugna vicugna), wild species of SAC, to feed. Five thousand years ago, the process of domestication of these camelids began, emerging domesticated species, llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The lamas presented the main habitat distribution in Argentina in the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Catamarca and La Rioja. Currently, llamas and alpacas, in addition to its traditional role in native Andean grazing, are being used for multiple tasks in extra-Andean distribution with a global environment. This camelid livestock production in non-traditional locations, has led to the existence of certain diseases, associated to stress, incorrect operations, which may put at risk the survival of the animals and their production efficiency. Some guidelines for behavior, nutrition, health, management and prophylaxis are presented in this paper, in order to bring knowledge about lamas in extra-Andean productions with the improvement of handling events, reducing animal stress and increasing welfare and production.

Marín, J. C., et al. (2007). "Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence." Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 80(2): 121-140.

Four camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the vicuña (Vicugna vicugna), and two domestic, the alpaca (Lama pacos) and the llama (Lama glama). However, the origin of the domestic species has been a matter of debate. In the present study, variations in chromosome G banding patterns and in two mitochondrial gene sequences have been used to study the origin and classification of the llama and alpaca. Similar patterns in chromosome G band structure were observed in all four Lamini species, and these in turn were similar to the bands described for camels, Camelus bactrianus. However, fine and consistent differences were found in the short arms of chromosome 1, separating camels, guanacos and llamas from vicuñas and alpacas. This pattern was consistent even in a hybrid guanaco × alpaca. Equivalent relationship showed the complete cytochrome b gene sequences, and the minimum expansion tree of the partial control region sequence, grouping guanaco with llama and vicuña with alpaca. Phylogenetic analyses showed V. vicugna and L. guanicoe as monophyletic groups. Analysis of both gene sequences revealed two clades within vicuña, concordant with the two described subspecies, but the results for guanaco did not confirm existence of the four previously proposed subspecies. The combined analysis of chromosomal and molecular variation showed close genetic similarity between alpacas and vicuñas, as well as between llamas and guanacos. Although directional hybridization was revealed, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the llama would have derived from L. guanicoe and the alpaca from V. vicugna, supporting reclassification as V. pacos.

Markemann, A., et al. (2009). "Stated preferences of llama keeping functions in Bolivia." Livestock Science 124(1/3): 119-125.

Bolivia accounts for approximately 63% of the South American llama population. Llamas keep playing an important role in the subsistence of smallholdings in the Andean regions fulfilling various functions in the productive, social and cultural life of the people. The present study evaluates functions of llama keeping as a prerequisite to the formulation of a community-driven breeding programme. A ranking approach was applied with 75 farmers in 6 villages. Sampling considered the factors gender and central versus remote communities. The different functions were presented visually. Each farmer was asked to arrange the illustrations according to his preference order. In total, 10 functions were suggested, covering the categories transport, sale or use of products, integration of animals in cultural events and herd size as capital asset. Ranking frequencies of stated preferences were calculated. A rank-based t-test was applied for multiple pair-wise comparisons within ranking groups gender and community provenance, respectively. Between-group comparison was performed by non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The capital function was most important (14.6% of total ranking frequency) followed by the transport function to cultivated areas (13.7%) and the transport function for other purposes in third place (10.8%). All pair-wise comparison analysis indicated a significant difference for the two highest ranked functions. Functions ranked from 3rd to 9th position showed poor separation due to similar means with high variance. Bottom ranked function with significant separation for all ranking groups was the 'Integration of animals in cultural events or rituals'. Women appreciated the dung of the animals more than men (p=0.0376), whereas men put higher value on the sale of live animals for cash generation in case of emergency (p=0.0006) and for cash availability (p=0.0371). It is concluded that traditionally important functions of llamas like wealth accumulation and the close integration of the animals in mixed farming systems prevail. Breeding policies and breeding decisions will be more suitable when taking into account farmers' preferences and gender-specific perceptions.

Markemann, A. and A. V. Zárate (2010). "Traditional llama husbandry and breeding management in the Ayopaya region, Bolivia." Tropical Animal Health and Production 42(1): 79-87.

The llama claims the largest population of the domestic South American camelids, most of which are raised in Bolivia. More than 53,000 rural families are dedicated to llama husbandry as part of their livelihood strategy. Contemporary Andean societies deliberately select animals for specific traits and employ substantial livestock management to secure subsistence. This study presents traditional llama husbandry and breeding management activities in the Ayopaya region, Bolivia. Traditional selection traits for male and female llamas are documented and assessed by a ranking and a ratio-scaled evaluation. Husbandry and management parameters are in concordance with other studies conducted in the region, but show a high variation. Average llama herd sizes are rather small (µ=45.6). In some herds, breeding males are utilized for a long time and mix with other herds, causing concerns about inbreeding. Preferred trait groups for llama males according to farmers' responses were body conformation, fibre, testicle conformation, fleece colour and height at withers. Traditional selection criteria generally relate to the phenotype, but also include the commercially interesting fibre trait. The presented results should be considered in breeding and management programmes for the respective llama population to ensure sustainable use of this genetically and culturally valuable resource.

Markemann, A. D.-z.-w. D.-h. w. o. L.-E. (2010). "Functions and selection criteria for a llama population in the Bolivian Andes."

Markowitz, L. (1990). American Anthropologist 92(4): 1047-1048.

MartÃnez Pastur, G., et al. (2016). "Effectiveness of fencing and hunting to control Lama guanicoe browsing damage: Implications for Nothofagus pumilio regeneration in harvested forests." J Environ Manage 168: 165-174.

Browsing damage by native ungulates is often to be considered one of the reasons of regeneration failure in Nothofagus pumilio silvicultural systems. Fencing and hunting in forests at regeneration phase have been proposed to mitigate browsing effects. This study aims to determine effectiveness of these control methods in harvested forests, evaluating browsing damage over regeneration, as well as climate-related constraints (freezing or desiccation). Forest structure and regeneration plots were established in two exclosures against native ungulates (Lama guanicoe) by wire fences in the Chilean portion of Tierra del Fuego island, where tree regeneration density, growth, abiotic damage and quality (multi-stems and base/stem deformation) were assessed. Exclosures did not influence regeneration density (at the initial stage with < 1.3 m high, and at the advanced stage with >1.3 m high). However, sapling height at 10-years old was significantly lower outside (40-50 cm high) than inside exclosures (80-100 cm), and also increased their annual height growth, probably as a hunting effect. Likewise, quality was better inside exclosures. Alongside browsing, abiotic conditions negatively influenced sapling quality in the regeneration phase (20%-28% of all seedlings), but greatly to taller plants (as those from inside exclosure). This highlights the importance of considering climatic factors when analysing browsing effects. For best results, control of guanaco in recently harvested areas by fencing should be applied in combination with a reduction of guanaco density through continuous hunting. The benefits of mitigation actions (fencing and hunting) on regeneration growth may shorten the regeneration phase period in shelterwood cutting forests (30-50% less time), but incremental costs must be analysed in the framework of management planning by means of long-term studies. AN - 26708647

Martí-Herrero, J., et al. (2015). "Cow, sheep and llama manure at psychrophilic anaerobic co-digestion with low cost tubular digesters in cold climate and high altitude." Bioresource Technology 181: 238-246.

The aim of this research is to evaluate the co-digestion of cow and llama manure combined with sheep manure, in psychrophilic conditions and real field low cost tubular digesters adapted to cold climate. Four digesters were monitored in cold climate conditions; one fed with cow manure, a second one with llama manure, the third one with co-digestion of cow-sheep manure and the fourth one was fed with llama-sheep manure. The slurry had a mean temperature of 16.6°C, the organic load rate was 0.44 kgvs m-3 d-1 and the hydraulic retention time was 80 days. After one hundred days biogas production was stable, as was the methane content and the pH of the effluent. The co-digestion of cow-sheep manure results in a biogas production increase of 100% compared to the mono-digestion of cow manure, while co-digestion of llama-sheep manure results in a decrease of 50% in biogas production with respect to mono-digestion of llama manure.

Martin, F. S. and F. C. Bryant (1989). "Nutrition of domesticated South American llamas and alpacas." Small Ruminant Research 2(3): 191-216.

A review of the existing literature on the nutrition of llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (L. pacos) indicated that they are better adapted to the harsh environment of the Andean region than are advanced ruminants. Llamas and alpacas differ from advanced ruminants in stomach morphology, digestion, diet selectivity, and intake. Available data indicate that stocking rates should be 1.0:1.0 for alpacas:sheep and 1.5:1.0 for llamas:sheep. Further research is recommended in digestive physiology, foraging behaviour and nutritional requirements of South American camelids.

Martin, J. M., et al. (2010). "Clinical, ultrasonographic, and laboratory findings in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors." Canadian Veterinary Journal 51(12): 1379-1382.

Clinical signs, duration of illness, clinicopathologic findings, and ultrasonographic findings were evaluated in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors (MRCT). All but 1 animal died or was euthanized. Common clinical findings were anorexia, recumbency or weakness, and weight loss or poor growth. Peripheral lymphadenomegaly occurred in only 7 animals and was detected more often at necropsy than during physical examination. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia, acidosis, azotemia, anemia, hyperglycemia, and neutrophilia. Ultrasonography detected tumors in 4/6 animals. Cytologic evaluation of fluid or tissue aspirates or histopathology of biopsy tissue was diagnostic in 5/6 cases. A clinical course of 2 wk or less prior to death or euthanasia was more common in animals ≤2 y of age (9/11) than in older animals (6/13). Regular examination of camelids to include clinical pathology and evaluation of peripheral lymph nodes may result in early detection of MCRT.

Martin, J. M., et al. (2009). "Malignant round cell neoplasia in llamas and alpacas." Veterinary Pathology 46(2): 288-298.

Malignant round cell neoplasia was identified in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas aged 0-23 years. Mean age of affected alpacas (3.1 years) was significantly less than that of affected llamas (8.0 years). Tumor cell morphology varied from large and often pleomorphic (11 tumors) to small and often homogeneous (13 tumors). Neoplastic lesions were multicentric in 12 cases. Other sites were gastric (5 cases), intra-abdominal (perirenal; 4 cases), intrathoracic (2 cases), and cervical (1 case). Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to CD79α, BLA36, and CD3 identified B-cell lymphoma (12 cases) and T-cell lymphoma (6 cases). Six tumors did not express any lymphoid marker and were further immunostained for neuron-specific enolase (NSE), synaptophysin, S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and chromogranin A. All 6 of these tumors were negative for GFAP and chromogranin A but expressed 1 or more of the neural markers NSE, synaptophysin, and S-100 and were classified as primitive malignant round cell tumors (PMRCT). Tumor types could not be distinguished on the basis of animal age, gross pathologic appearance, tumor morphology, or tumor location. All animals with lymphoma and 5 with PMRCT died or were euthanatized. One alpaca with a focal cervical PMRCT lived for at least 20 months after diagnosis. Results of this study indicate that malignant round cell tumors in llamas and alpacas are a heterogeneous group that cannot be distinguished on the basis of signalment, postmortem findings, or routine light microscopic findings. Immunohistochemistry is a valuable diagnostic procedure when evaluating malignant round cell neoplasia in llamas and alpacas.

Martin, M., et al. (2016). "Molecular detection of Sarcocystis aucheniae in the blood of llamas from Argentina." Rev Argent Microbiol 48(3 LA - eng): 200-205.

Sarcocystis aucheniae are apicomplexan protozoa that infect South American camelids (SACs), giving rise to macroscopic cysts similar to rice grains in skeletal muscles. Visual detection of macrocysts in slaughtered animals hampers commercialization of SAC meat, a highly relevant economic exploitation for Andean rural families. Importantly, the consumption of undercooked S. aucheniae-infested meat causes gastroenteritis. A carnivore definitive host, possibly the dog, acquires the parasite when feeding on infected SAC meat, and later eliminates infective oocysts in its feces. The parasite cycle is completed when SACs ingest contaminated water or pastures. We hypothesized that parasite DNA can be detected in SAC blood using molecular methods. In order to test this hypothesis, a seminested PCR format was specifically designed to target the hypervariable 18S rRNA gene region of S. aucheniae. PCR conditions were optimized using genomic DNA extracted from macrocyst bradyzoites. A detection limit of up to 1 parasite in 10μl of llama blood was established based on DNA samples extracted from aliquots of S. aucheniae bradyzoite-spiked non-infected llama blood. The seminested PCR allowed to detect natural infections of S. aucheniae in llama blood samples originating in the Andean flatlands of Argentina. Specific amplification of S. aucheniae DNA was corroborated by amplicon sequencing. This is the first report of S. aucheniae detection in llama blood, which provides a valuable diagnostic tool for epidemiological studies and for the evaluation of the efficacy of control measures for this parasitosis. AN - 27615713

Martin, M., et al. (2016). "Molecular detection of Sarcocystis aucheniae in the blood of llamas from Argentina." Revista Argentina de microbiologia 48(3): 200-205.

Sarcocystis aucheniae are apicomplexan protozoa that infect South American camelids (SACs), giving rise to macroscopic cysts similar to rice grains in skeletal muscles. Visual detection of macrocysts in slaughtered animals hampers commercialization of SAC meat, a highly relevant economic exploitation for Andean rural families. Importantly, the consumption of undercooked S. aucheniae-infested meat causes gastroenteritis. A carnivore definitive host, possibly the dog, acquires the parasite when feeding on infected SAC meat, and later eliminates infective oocysts in its feces. The parasite cycle is completed when SACs ingest contaminated water or pastures. We hypothesized that parasite DNA can be detected in SAC blood using molecular methods. In order to test this hypothesis, a seminested PCR format was specifically designed to target the hypervariable 18S rRNA gene region of S. aucheniae. PCR conditions were optimized using genomic DNA extracted from macrocyst bradyzoites. A detection limit of up to 1 parasite in 10 µl of llama blood was established based on DNA samples extracted from aliquots of S. aucheniae bradyzoite-spiked non-infected llama blood. The seminested PCR allowed to detect natural infections of S. aucheniae in llama blood samples originating in the Andean flatlands of Argentina. Specific amplification of S. aucheniae DNA was corroborated by amplicon sequencing. This is the first report of S. aucheniae detection in llama blood, which provides a valuable diagnostic tool for epidemiological studies and for the evaluation of the efficacy of control measures for this parasitosis.

Martin, P. A. (2003). Reproductive patterns of alpacas and llamas, with reference to the vicuña and guanaco. Ames, Iowa State Press: 523-546.

This chapter discusses the anatomical characteristics of reproductive organs in males and females, puberty and sexual maturity in males and females, breeding season, the oestrous cycle, the ovaries and tubular reproductive tract, fertilization, pregnancy, and control of reproductive efficiency of alpacas and llamas, with reference to vicunas and Lama guanicoe.

Martinez, Z., et al. (1997). "Influence of effects on quality traits and relationships between traits of the llama fleece." Small Ruminant Research 24(3): 203-212.

Fibre samples were obtained from the wither, shoulder, rib, loin-rump and thigh regions of 143 llama fleeces. The fleece composition was heterogeneous and consisted of 20.2% unmedullated, 36.7% partially medullated, 39.4% continuously medullated and 3.7% kemp fibres. Average fibre diameter was 31.6 µm; diameter of coarse fibres, 40.8 µm; diameter of fine fibres, 25.5 µm; medullation percentage, 43.1%; average fibre length, 5.01 cm; undercoat length, 8.34 cm; guard hair length, 6.67 cm; clean fleece yield, 82.3%; crimps per 2.54 cm, 6.1. Medullation percentage and average diameter increased (P&lt;0.05) with the age of the animal. The fleece of 2-year-old llamas was the finest, averaging a similar diameter and medullation (25.5 µm and 27.5%) to that of medium adult alpaca fibre. Average diameter was positively correlated with medullation percentage (0.78) and increased by 0.195 µm per percentage unit increase of medullation (P&lt;0.01). Diameter of fine unmedullated and partially medullated fibres was highly correlated with diameter of coarse continuously medullated fibres (0.60 and 0.74, respectively). Fibre lengths and crimps per 2.54 cm decreased with age (P&lt;0.01). Females had lower fleece yields than males and had finer fibres (P&lt;0.05); there were also sex differences in undercoat length, medullation percentage, clean fleece yields and crimps per 2.54 cm (P&lt;0.01). Coloured fleeces were less medullated than white fleeces (36 and 47%, respectively). Of the 5 sampled regions, samples from withers and ribs were more representative of the whole fleece because of their lower variation coefficients and higher degree of association with the mean of all sampled regions.

Masoliver, J. R. (1986). "Cuando el gran Meaulnes se llama Cris." El Ciervo 35(426/427): 27-28.

Masoliver, L. (1961). Barcelona en llama. [A novel.], Barcelona.

Mattoon, J. S., et al. (2001). "Thoracic radiographic appearance in the normal llama." Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 42(1): 28-37.

The goal of this study was to collect quantitative and qualitative radiographic information of the normal adult llama thorax. Standing right-left lateral radiographs of the thorax of 16 normal llamas were made. Normal ratios of cardiac height, width, height plus width to thoracic vertebrae 3-5 and thoracic height were calculated. Normal values determined for tracheal angle of divergence from the thoracic spine, cardiophrenic and cardiosternal contact are additional potential indicators of cardiac enlargement. Ratios of normal pulmonary artery and vein, caudal vena cava and trachea to the height of the fourth thoracic vertebra should allow identification of pathology of these structures. Observations regarding pulmonary vessels and airways, thoracic spine, sternebrae and portions of the gastrointestinal tract observed on thoracic radiographs are also included. It is proposed that these normal values and observations can be used to better evaluate diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of adult llamas.

Mattoon, J. S., et al. (1997). "Upper airway obstruction in a llama caused by aberrant nasopharyngeal bots (Cephenemyia sp.)." Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 38(5): 384-386.

A 9-month-old female llama was presented with inspiratory dyspnoea. Radiographically, there was a large soft tissue mass nearly occluding the nasopharynx. During endoscopic examination 3 nasopharyngeal bots were identified embedded in the mass. The larvae were removed and the patient treated with ivermectin. The patient was discharged one week later free of clinical respiratory disease. In follow-up radiographs made 6 weeks later, only residual radiopacity in the area of the mass remained.

Mattson, D. E. (1994). "Viral diseases [llama]." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 345-351.

Maw, J. (2011). Llamascape based on an interpretive cast : the inhabitanta llama the spatial analysta geographer the common humana phantom within the social imagination. Ottawa.

Mayer, H. and H. Gehring (1975). Listeriosis in llamas. Berlin, Akademie-Verlag.: 307-312.

Mayr, B., et al. (1985). "Nucleolus organizer regions in the chromosomes of the llama." Journal of Heredity 76(3): 222-223.

Silver nitrate staining was applied to chromosome preparations from the llama (Lama glama). Nucleolus organising regions were detected on the secondary constrictions of the short arms or the stalks of 5 small acrocentric chromosome pairs.

McCarthy, M. C. e. o. c. (2012). Unexplored territory : poetry and fiction from Cultured Llama. Teynham, Sittingbourne, Cultured Llama Publishing.

McCauley, C. T., et al. (2000). "Ossifying fibroma in a llama." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 12(5): 473-476.

McCoy, L. E., et al. (2014). "Neutralisation of HIV-1 cell-cell spread by human and llama antibodies." Retrovirology 11: 83.

Direct cell-cell spread of HIV-1 is a very efficient mode of viral dissemination, with increasing evidence suggesting that it may pose a considerable challenge to controlling viral replication in vivo. Much current vaccine research involves the study of broadly neutralising antibodies (bNabs) that arise during natural infection with the aims of eliciting such antibodies by vaccination or incorporating them into novel therapeutics. However, whether cell-cell spread of HIV-1 can be effectively targeted by bNabs remains unclear, and there is much interest in identifying antibodies capable of efficiently neutralising virus transmitted by cell-cell contact.|In this study we have tested a panel of bNAbs for inhibition of cell-cell spread, including some not previously evaluated for inhibition of this mode of HIV-1 transmission. We found that three CD4 binding site antibodies, one from an immunised llama (J3) and two isolated from HIV-1-positive patients (VRC01 and HJ16) neutralised cell-cell spread between T cells, while antibodies specific for glycan moieties (2G12, PG9, PG16) and the MPER (2F5) displayed variable efficacy. Notably, while J3 displayed a high level of potency during cell-cell spread we found that the small size of the llama heavy chain-only variable region (VHH) J3 is not required for efficient neutralisation since recombinant J3 containing a full-length human heavy chain Fc domain was significantly more potent. J3 and J3-Fc also neutralised cell-cell spread of HIV-1 from primary macrophages to CD4+ T cells.|In conclusion, while bNabs display variable efficacy at preventing cell-cell spread of HIV-1, we find that some CD4 binding site antibodies can inhibit this mode of HIV-1 dissemination and identify the recently described llama antibody J3 as a particularly potent inhibitor. Effective neutralisation of cell-cell spread between physiologically relevant cell types by J3 and J3-Fc supports the development of VHH J3 nanobodies for therapeutic or prophylactic applications. AN - 25700025

McGee, M. (1994). "Llama handling and training." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 10(2): 421-434.

A review of methods of handling and training llamas including restraint, llama-human interaction, and use of TTEAM (Tellington Touch) method which was originally developed for horses.

McIntosh, W. C.-M. a. (1930). Notes on a female llama. Cambridge.

McKenzie, E. C., et al. (2010). "Esophageal dysfunction in four alpaca crias and a llama cria with vascular ring anomalies." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 237(3): 311-316.

Case Description - 3 alpaca crias and cadavers of an alpaca cria and a llama cria were evaluated for evidence of esophageal dysfunction. Clinical Findings - All 5 crias were between 3 and 5 months of age when clinical signs developed, and all had a thin body condition when examined. Clinical signs included coughing, regurgitation, and grossly visible esophageal peristaltic waves. A barium esophagram was used to diagnose esophageal obstruction, megaesophagus, and a vascular ring anomaly (VRA). Fluoroscopy was used to evaluate deglutition, esophageal peristalsis, and the extent of esophageal dilation in 1 alpaca cria. A persistent right aortic arch was identified in 1 alpaca cria, and a left aortic arch with right ductus arteriosus or ligamentum arteriosum and an aberrant right subclavian artery were identified in the 4 remaining crias. Treatment and Outcome - Surgical correction of the VRA was attempted in the 3 live alpaca crias. It was complicated by the conformation and location of each VRA and inaccurate anatomic diagnosis of the VRAs before surgery. Treatment was universally unsuccessful because of intraoperative complications and the persistence of clinical signs after surgery. Clinical Relevance - Megaesophagus is typically an idiopathic condition in camelids. However, these findings suggested that camelids with esophageal dysfunction during the neonatal period may have a VRA. The prognosis is grave for camelids with VRA, and accurate anatomic diagnosis of the VRA via the use of advanced imaging techniques (eg, angiography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging) may improve the success of surgical intervention.

McLaughlin, B. G., et al. (1993). "Serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations in neonatal llamas." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 5(2): 208-211.

Total serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were assayed in llamas from birth to 90 days of age. T3 concentrations were high at birth and increased from birth for approximately 6 days, then gradually decreased. T4 concentrations were highest at time of birth and decreased gradually over the 90-day period.

McLaughlin, B. G., et al. (1990). "An Eperythrozoon-like parasite in llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 197(9): 1170-1175.

An Eperythrozoon-like erythrocyte parasite was found in a herd of llamas in western Kentucky. The light microscopic and electron microscopic features of the organism were similar to those of E. suis. Indirect haemagglutination tests gave positive results from llamas with or without parasitaemia. Llamas with parasitaemia were usually less than a year old and had more severe clinical signs of disease than did older llamas. Poor weight gain and growth, anorexia, and prolonged recumbency were the main signs of disease. Anaemia was usually mild and not accompanied by icterus. Hypoglycaemia was associated with parasitaemia. Some response to oral or parenteral treatment with tetracycline was noticed, but recrudescence of the infection in some treated llamas was observed.

McLaughlin, B. G. and N. C. Evans (1989). "Urethral obstruction in a male llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 195(11): 1601-1602.

McLaughlin, B. G., et al. (1993). "Listerial abortion in a llama." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 5(1): 105-106.

The first documented case of abortion in a llama caused by Listeria monocytogenes.

McLaughlin, B. G., et al. (1991). "An Eperythrozoon-like parasite of llamas: attempted transmission to swine, sheep, and cats." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 3(4): 352-353.

Parasitaemic blood from three 1-year-old female llamas containing a moderate to severe parasitaemia of the eperythrozoon-like parasite was collected by jugular venepuncture. The blood was either transported on ice for immediate use or prepared for storage at -70°C. All the animals were monitored for 2 weeks prior to the experiment. The animals were monitored for a period of 28 days following inoculation. Five 8 week old Landrace-type pigs were used. Three pigs were inoculated i.v. with 5 ml of fresh parasitaemic llama blood, one of these pigs was splenectomized at day 28 and monitored for a further 28 days. Two pigs were splenectomized and 4 days later inoculated i.v. with 2 ml of fresh blood and i.m. with 6 ml of stored blood. Two 4-month-old Suffolk lambs were inoculated subcutaneously with 10 ml of stored blood. Three 1-year-old spayed female domestic shorthaired cats were splenectomised and given 7 ml of stored blood subcutaneously 7 days later. No parasitaemia, anaemia or clinical signs of disease were observed in any of the animals. None of the animals developed a positive titre with the indirect haemagglutination test for Eperythrozoon suis. It is suggested that the llama parasite may be a species other than Haemobartonella felis. E. suis or E. ovis.

Meadows, L. E. and F. F. Knowlton (2000). "Efficacy of guard llamas to reduce canine predation on domestic sheep." Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(3): 614-622.

Coyotes (Canis latrans) can pose serious economic threats to sheep producers throughout the western USA. At the same time, important segments of the public prefer environmentally benign means to resolve conflicts with wild species. We evaluated the effectiveness of guard llamas to reduce canine predation on domestic sheep by placing 20 llamas with Utah sheep producers and comparing data collected from these flocks over 20 months (May 1996 through December 1997) with similar data collected from flocks without llamas. Comparisons included proportion of flocks with losses to predators and mean predation rates on ewes and lambs. We also conducted surveys to assess producer opinions about including llamas in their sheep management programmes. In all comparisons of lamb losses between treatments and controls, losses sustained by control flocks in the first summer grazing season (SGS1) were significantly greater than in flocks with llamas. Among treatment flocks, losses were similar for SGS1 and the second summer grazing season (SGS2). Among controls, losses were greater in SGS1 and dropped to levels similar to treatment flocks in SGS2. The results suggest that predation may have to reach a threshold before guard llamas have noticeable effects on losses. Surveys of producers with llamas indicated strong support for using llamas as guard animals for sheep.

Meadows, L. E. and F. F. C. Knowlton (2000). "Efficacy of Guard Ilamas to Reduce Canine Predation on Domestic Sheep." Wildlife Society Bulletin (1973-2006) 28(3): 614-622.

Coyotes (Canis latrans) can pose serious economic threats to sheep producers throughout the western United States. At the same time, important segments of the public prefer environmentally benign means to resolve conflicts with wild species. We evaluated the effectiveness of guard Ilamas to reduce canine predation on domestic sheep by placing 20 Ilamas with Utah sheep producers and comparing data collected from these flocks over 20 months with similar data collected from flocks without Ilamas. Comparisons included proportion of flocks with losses to predators and mean predation rates on ewes and lambs. We also conducted surveys to assess producer opinions about including Ilamas in their sheep management programs. In all comparisons of lamb losses between treatments and controls, losses sustained by control flocks in the first summer grazing season (SGS1) were significantly greater than in flocks with Ilamas. Among treatment flocks, losses were similar for SGS1 and the second summer grazing season (SGS2). Among controls, losses were greater in SGS1 and dropped to levels similar to treatment flocks in SGS2. The results suggest that predation may have to reach a threshold before guard Ilamas have noticeable effects on losses. Surveys of producers with Ilamas indicated strong support for using Ilamas as guard animals for sheep.

Means, P. A. (1918). "The Domestication of the Llama." Science 47(1211): 268-269.

Melendez, J. (2000). Serological analysis of llama immunoglobulins.

Memon, M. A. and D. K. Stevens (1997). "Termination of unwanted pregnancy in a llama with cloprostenol and subsequent pregnancy: a case report." Theriogenology 47(3): 615-618.

A 5-year-old llama that had been accidentally mated by an unknown, and possibly related, male about 2.5 months earlier was presented for elective abortion. After confirmation of pregnancy by ultrasonography, 150 µg cloprostenol was given intramuscularly. Blood serum progesterone concentration decreased from 5.7 ng/ml at the time of cloprostenol injection to &lt;0.2 ng/ml 60 h after injection. The fetus was expelled approximately 108 h after the injection. The animal was mated 20 days after abortion; pregnancy was confirmed by serum progesterone concentration and ultrasonography. A male offspring was born after a 355-day gestation period.

Mendoza, P. A. (1984). La llama y el hielo. Barcelona, Planeta.

Mendoza T, G., et al. (2012). "Macroscopic and microscopic characterization of the reproductive glands of the male llama (Lama glama)." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 23(1): 27-42.

The macroscopic and microscopic structure of the sexual glands of the reproductive tract of the male llama was characterized using eight adult animals. The macroscopic study was done in situ and using extracted organs and samples collected for histological evaluation. The macroscopic examination revealed the presence of two ampoules originating from the vas deferens, the absence of seminal vesicles, and a prostate gland with lobed body, isthmus and a disseminated portion, and two bulbourethral glands. Dilation of the final portion of the vas deferens suggests the presence of ampoules with glandular characteristics. The prostate body has lobular-like shape but without clear delimitations and shows extensions to the urethra in the form of stalks clearly defined in the disseminated portion. The weight and size of the prostatic lobes indicate that there is more glandular mass in the left lobe. The prostatic acini are surrounded by abundant trabeculae connective tissue infiltrated from the capsule tissue. Prostatic ducts have different presentations at their mouths. The two bulbourethral glands are symmetric in size and weight, and are surrounded by abundant skeletal muscle and little connective infiltration tissue. The ducts of the bulbourethral glands drain into a diverticulum that is directed toward the free portion of the penis. It is concluded that the male lama presents certain macroscopic and microscopic particularities in relation to the distribution and mouths of the sexual glands.

Mendoza-Serrano, C. (2004). Land, family, and memory : a comparative approach to Go Down Moses and El Llano en Llamas [The Burning Plain].

Mene\ndez, R. (1997). La 'seguridad' siempre llama dos veces-- : y los orichas tambie\0301n. Miami, Fla., Ediciones Universal.

Meneses, V. (1975). Llama guardada. Managua, [s.n.].

Meneses, V. (1991). Llama en el aire. Managua, Nueva Nicaragua.

Mercado, E., et al. (2004). "Isolation of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from a South American camelid (Lama guanicoe) with diarrhea." Journal of clinical microbiology 42(10): 4809-4811.

Merlian, C. P., et al. (1979). "Comparative characteristics of spermatozoa and semen from a bactrian camel, dromedary camel and llama." Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 10(1): 22-25.

Merlian, C. P., et al. (1979). "Comparative Characteristics of Spermatozoa and Semen from a Bactrian Camel, Dromedary Camel and Llama." The Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine 10(1): 22-25.

Mesquita, F. S., et al. (2015). "The Receptive Endometrial Transcriptomic Signature Indicates an Earlier Shift from Proliferation to Metabolism at Early Diestrus in the Cow." Biol Reprod 93(2): 52 ST - The Receptive Endometrial Transcriptomic Signature Indicates an Earlier Shift from Proliferation to Metabolism at Early Diestrus in the Cow.

This study aimed to characterize the endometrial transcriptome and functional pathways overrepresented in the endometrium of cows treated to ovulate larger (≥13 mm) versus smaller (≤12 mm) follicles. Nelore cows were presynchronized prior to receiving cloprostenol (large follicle [LF] group) or not (small follicle [SF] group), along with a progesterone (P4) device on Day (D) -10. Devices were withdrawn and cloprostenol administered 42-60 h (LF) or 30-36 h (SF) before GnRH agonist treatment (D0). Tissues were collected on D4 (experiment [Exp.] 1; n = 24) or D7 (Exp. 2; n = 60). Endometrial transcriptome was obtained by RNA-Seq, whereas proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Overall, LF cows developed larger follicles and corpora lutea, and produced greater amounts of estradiol (D-1, Exp. 1, SF: 0.7 ± 0.2; LF: 2.4 ± 0.2 pg/ml; D-1, Exp. 2, SF: 0.5 ± 0.1; LF: 2.3 ± 0.6 pg/ml) and P4 (D4, Exp. 1, SF: 0.8 ± 0.1; LF: 1.4 ± 0.2 ng/ml; D7, Exp. 2, SF: 2.5 ± 0.4; LF: 3.7 ± 0.4 ng/ml). Functional enrichment indicated that biosynthetic and metabolic processes were enriched in LF endometrium, whereas SF endometrium transcriptome was biased toward cell proliferation. Data also suggested reorganization of the extracellular matrix toward a proliferation-permissive phenotype in SF endometrium. LF endometrium showed an earlier onset of proliferative activity, whereas SF endometrium expressed a delayed increase in glandular epithelium proliferation. In conclusion, the periovulatory endocrine milieu regulates bovine endometrial transcriptome and seems to determine the transition from a proliferation-permissive to a biosynthetic and metabolically active endometrial phenotype, which may be associated with the preparation of an optimally receptive uterine environment. AN - 26178716

Methvin, H. M. (2002). Me and my llama.

Metre, D. C. v., et al. (1991). "Otitis media/interna and suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis associated with Listeria monocytogenes infection in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 199(2): 236-240.

Meyer, G., et al. (2009). "Lethal bluetongue virus serotype 1 infection in llamas." Emerging infectious diseases 15(4): 608-611.

Meyer, G., et al. (2009). "Lethal bluetongue virus serotype 1 infection in llamas." Emerging infectious diseases 15(4): 608-610.

Two of the outbreaks of bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) infection were reported, which indicated that BTV-1 can infect llamas and induce a lethal disease. The first outbreak occurred in September 2008 on a sheep breeding farm in Crampagna, France. After bluetongue disease was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, all sheep and all 9 healthy llamas on the farm were tested for BTV by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Of the 9 llamas, 7 had positive results; cycle threshold values ranged from 28.1 to 36.2, indicating that these animals were sensitive to BTV infection. Serotype 1 was confirmed by a specific qRT-PCR. After 6 weeks, all infected llamas showed serological response to BTV and one llama remained positive by qRT-PCR, which suggests that viraemia lasted at least 42 days in this animal. None of the 9 llamas showed clinical signs during the outbreak. The second outbreak, also during September 2008, was identified on a llama breeding farm in Auzat, France. Two days before the onset of the disease, one female had aborted a 10-month-old fetus; she had no additional clinical signs. Of the 20 llamas on the farm, clinical signs were observed for one female and one male. The signs were anorexia and lethargy followed by acute respiratory distress with polypnoea, dyspnoea, hiccup-like breathing, and oedema. The legs of the male became rigid with moderate paresis. Both animals died &gt; 24 h after the onset of respiratory signs. Postmortem examination of each of the dead llamas 6-16 h after death showed similar results: acute and severe hydrothorax, severe congestion and oedema of the lungs, and fibrinous pericarditis. Virus detection was positive for all post-mortem tissue samples (spleen, lungs, kidneys, heart).

Mialot, J. P. and L. Villemain (1994). "Ultrasonic diagnosis of pregnancy in llamas and alpacas." Recueil de Médecine Vétérinaire 170(1): 23-27.

Middleton, J. R., et al. (2006). "Pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure in an adult llama with hepatic disease." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 228(5): 756-759.

Case Description - A 13-year-old llama was examined because of lethargy, inappetence, and syncope. Clinical Findings - Physical examination revealed muffled heart and lung sounds and peripheral edema. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included lymphopenia, hyperglycemia, prerenal azotemia, mild hyponatremia, mild hypoalbuminemia, and high γ-glutamyltransferase and creatine kinase activities. On ultrasonography, the liver appeared hyperechoic and ascites and pleural effusion were seen. Echocardiography revealed severe dilatation of the right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary artery; severe tricuspid regurgitation; and high right ventricular systolic pressure consistent with right-sided heart failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension. Treatment and Outcome - Treatment with furosemide was attempted, but because of failing health, the llama was euthanized 4 weeks later. Macronodular cirrhosis of the liver, glomerulonephritis, and intimal fibrosis and medial hypertrophy of muscular pulmonary arteries were seen on histologic examination of postmortem specimens. Clinical Relevance - Findings in this case were similar to those reported for human patients with portopulmonary hypertension secondary to hepatic cirrhosis. Pulmonary hypertension secondary to hepatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right-sided heart failure.

Middleton, J. R., et al. (2006). "Pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure in an adult llama with hepatic disease

10.2460/javma.228.5.756." J Am Vet Med Assoc 228(5): 756-759.

A 13-year-old llama was examined because of lethargy, inappetence, and syncope.|Physical examination revealed muffled heart and lung sounds and peripheral edema. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included lymphopenia, hyperglycemia, prerenal azotemia, mild hyponatremia, mild hypoalbuminemia, and high gamma-glutamyltransferase and creatine kinase activities. On ultrasonography, the liver appeared hyperechoic and ascites and pleural effusion were seen. Echocardiography revealed severe dilatation of the right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary artery; severe tricuspid regurgitation; and high right ventricular systolic pressure consistent with right-sided heart failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension.|Treatment with furosemide was attempted, but because of failing health, the llama was euthanized 4 weeks later. Macronodular cirrhosis of the liver, glomerulonephritis, and intimal fibrosis and medial hypertrophy of muscular pulmonary arteries were seen on histologic examination of postmortem specimens.|Findings in this case were similar to those reported for human patients with portopulmonary hypertension secondary to hepatic cirrhosis. Pulmonary hypertension secondary to hepatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right-sided heart failure.

Middleton, J. R., et al. (2006). "Dysautonomia and salmonellosis in an 11-year-old female llama (Lama glama)." Journal of veterinary internal medicine 20(1): 213-216.

Middleton, J. R. and S. M. Parish (1999). "Heat stress in a llama (Lama glama): a case report and review of the syndrome." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 6(2): 265-269.

Miglino, M., et al. (2005). "137 IRON TRANSFER ACROSS THE LLAMA PLACENTA (LAMA GUANICOE GLAMA)." Reproduction, Fertility and Development 18(2): 177-177.

Miles, P. D. N., et al. (1984). "Analysis of sodium in milk by flame photometry as an indicator of somatic cell count." Revista Argentina de Producción Animal 4(8): 861-865.

The CMT was carried out on 335 samples of milk by 3 veterinarians; overall there was complete agreement among all 3 testers on the grading of 67% of samples and agreement between 2 testers on the grading of a further 31%. In CMT-negative milk samples, the Na content was 18.5-30.5 m-equiv./l in 80% of samples, whereas in CMT ++ or +++ milks the Na content was higher (30.5 to &gt;42.5 m-equiv./l in 84% of samples).

Miller, D. S., et al. (2000). "Specificity of four serologic assays for Mycobacterium avium ss paratuberculosis in llamas and alpacas: a single herd study." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 12(4): 345-353.

An investigation was conducted for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infections in the Oregon State University research herd of llamas and alpacas. Herd culture-negative status was established over a 23-month period by screening any individuals with any signs compatible with paratuberculosis (n=1), high serology values (n=8), or other health and research related reasons (n=24). There were no M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from radiometric cultures of multiple tissue and faecal samples from these individuals and no known sources of exposure. Paratuberculosis is uncommon in North American llamas and alpacas: only 5 cases were identified after an extensive search of the Veterinary Medical Data Base, diagnostic laboratory records, publication databases, and personal communications. Therefore, serum samples from llamas (n=84) and alpacas (n=16) in the culture-negative herd were used to obtain preliminary estimates of test specificity for 3 ELISAs and an agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assay kit for detecting serum antibodies to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in South American camelids. The ELISAs were modifications of established bovine assays for antibody detection. With provisional cutoffs, ELISA-A had 52 false positives (specificity 48%), ELISA-B had 8 false positives (specificity 92%), ELISA-C had 2 false positives (specificity 98%), and the AGID had 0 false positives (specificity 100%). The range of ELISA values for culture-positive llamas and alpacas (n=10) from other herds overlapped the range of values for culture-negative llamas and alpacas. The accuracy of the ELISAs may be improved by using age- and sex-specific cutoffs because uninfected male llamas and alpacas that were older than 1 year had higher values for some tests. These tests can be used for either llamas or alpacas; the protein-G conjugate ELISA (ELISA-B) may be useful for multispecies applications. These assays are best used for rapid presumptive diagnoses of llamas and alpacas with diarrhoea and weight loss and as a screening tool for herds known to be exposed to infection. All seropositive results should be confirmed with culture.

Miller, D. S., et al. (1999). "Paratuberculosis in llamas and alpacas." Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 21(Supplement 9): S220-S229.

Miller, G. R. and R. L. Burger (1995). "Our Father the Cayman, Our Dinner the Llama: Animal Utilization at Chavin de Huantar, Peru." American Antiquity 60(3): 421-458.

Analysis of the animal bones recovered from the excavations of residential contexts at Chavin de Huantar reveals a mixed economy that included the herding and hunting of camelids (llama and vicuna) at Chavin de Huantar as early as the Urabarriu Phase (900-500 B.C.). It also suggests that a pattern of trade in dried llama meat (ch 'arki) from high altitude environments (punas) to lower ones had developed by the Chakinani phase (500-400 B.C.), while the consumption of hunted animals (especially deer) sharply declined in importance. During the apogee of Chavin de Huantar (400-200 B.C.), socioeconomic stratification is reflected in differential access to tender meat from younger animals. The role of Chavin de Huantar in the spread of camelid pastoralism and the importance of highland vs. tropical rain forest animals in Chavin ideology is discussed as well.

Miller, P. (1991). "An introduction to llamas." Veterinary Technician 12(1): 44-48.

Miller, P. D., et al. (1972). "Iatrogenic myocardial infarction and mitral valve insufficiency in a llama (Lama glama)." American Journal of Veterinary Research 33(No.3): 639-647.

Miller, R. M. (1981). "Azalea poisoning in a llama: a case report." Veterinary Medicine & Small Animal Clinician 76(1): 104.

Miller, W. H., et al. (1991). "Pemphigus vulgaris in a llama." Veterinary Dermatology 2(2): 97-101.

Milton, M., et al. (1990). "Rabies in a llama - Oklahoma." JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association 263(16): 2166.

In November, 1989, the first reported case of rabies in a llama in the USA occurred in a 10-year-old llama, brought to Oklahoma from Texas about 4 weeks previously. Monoclonal antibody tests showed that the virus was identical to the antigenically distinct group of viruses found in skunks in south-central USA. Of 3163 animal specimens submitted for rabies testing to the Oklahoma State Department of Health in 1989, 102 (3%) were positive for rabies, including specimens from 74 skunks, 7 cattle, 6 bats, 6 cats, 4 dogs, 3 horses, 1 raccoon and 1 llama.

Milz, C. (2000). Comparison of the behaviour of llamas and sheep at pasture. Giessen, Justus-Liebig-Universität, Fachbereich Veterinarmedizin: 219 pp.

Milz, C., et al. (2001). Basic activities in llamas (Lama glama). Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 278-280.

Mitchell, S., et al. (2016). "Nematodirus lamae identified in an alpaca in the UK." Vet Rec 178(11): 271-272.

Miyazaki, N., et al. (2015). "Isolation and characterization of antigen-specific alpaca (Lama pacos) VHH antibodies by biopanning followed by high-throughput sequencing." J Biochem 158(3): 205-215.

The antigen-binding domain of camelid dimeric heavy chain antibodies, known as VHH or Nanobody, has much potential in pharmaceutical and industrial applications. To establish the isolation process of antigen-specific VHH, a VHH phage library was constructed with a diversity of 8.4 × 10(7) from cDNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an alpaca (Lama pacos) immunized with a fragment of IZUMO1 (IZUMO1PFF) as a model antigen. By conventional biopanning, 13 antigen-specific VHHs were isolated. The amino acid sequences of these VHHs, designated as N-group VHHs, were very similar to each other (>93% identity). To find more diverse antibodies, we performed high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of VHH genes. By comparing the frequencies of each sequence between before and after biopanning, we found the sequences whose frequencies were increased by biopanning. The top 100 sequences of them were supplied for phylogenic tree analysis. In total 75% of them belonged to N-group VHHs, but the other were phylogenically apart from N-group VHHs (Non N-group). Two of three VHHs selected from non N-group VHHs showed sufficient antigen binding ability. These results suggested that biopanning followed by HTS provided a useful method for finding minor and diverse antigen-specific clones that could not be identified by conventional biopanning. AN - 25888581

Moir, C. E., et al. (1990). "Plasma progesterone concentrations in llamas." Veterinary record 126(22): 561.

Blood known to have elevated progesterone concentrations was taken from 4 pregnant llamas and 2 pregnant cows. The samples were divided into aliquots from each animal for centrifugation immediately or following incubation at 4°C or 37°C for intervals of between one and 48 hours. Plasma progesterone values were determined by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of mean plasma progesterone concentrations by Students t test showed that levels in bovine plasma from incubated whole blood decreased significantly between 0 and 24 hours at 37°C and between 0 and 48 hours at 4°C. There was, however, no significant reduction in the concentration of progesterone in llama plasma after incubation of whole blood for up to 48 hours at either temperature.

Moll, H. D., et al. (1992). "Entomophthoramycosis conidiobolae in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 200(7): 969-970.

A 9-year-old female llama was evaluated for chronic dermatosis involving the external nares. The condition had been diagnosed as a fungal infection. Examination of punch biopsy specimens confirmed the diagnosis of Conidiobolus coronatus. Because of the chronicity of the disease and history of ineffective drug treatment (iodides and unspecified fungicides), excision of infected tissue was attempted. Permanent nasal openings were created by suturing the nasal mucosa to the skin after debulking of infected tissue. Excision of most of the infected tissue enabled the llama to breathe easily for 3 years. Because C. coronatus does not usually induce deep infections, it is suggested that it may continue to remain dormant in this llama.

Montes de Oca, M. A. (1974). Se llama como quieras. Mexico, Universidad Nacional Auto\0301noma de Me\0301xico.

Moonens, K., et al. (2015). "Structural insight in the inhibition of adherence of F4 fimbriae producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by llama single domain antibodies." Veterinary research 46(14): (24 February 2015).

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in piglets express F4 fimbriae to mediate attachment towards host receptors. Recently we described how llama single domain antibodies (VHHs) fused to IgA, produced in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds and fed to piglets resulted in a progressive decline in shedding of F4 positive ETEC bacteria. Here we present the structures of these inhibiting VHHs in complex with the major adhesive subunit FaeG. A conserved surface, distant from the lactose binding pocket, is targeted by these VHHs, highlighting the possibility of targeting epitopes on single-domain adhesins that are non-involved in receptor binding.

Moonens, K., et al. (2016). "Structural insight in the inhibition of adherence of F4 fimbriae producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli by llama single domain antibodies." Veterinary research.

MORÉ, G. N., et al. (2016). "Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)." Parasitology 143(5).

SUMMARYThere is considerable confusion concerning the species ofSarcocystisin South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst formingSarcocystis aucheniaeand describe and propose a new name,Sarcocystis masonifor the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts ofS. masoniwere up to 800µm long and 35–95µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5–3·5µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95–96% identity with otherSarcocystisspp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts ofS. aucheniaewere macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98–99% of sequence homology with otherS. aucheniaesequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly differentSarcocystisspecies,S. masoni(microscopic cysts) andS. aucheniae(macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru.

Moraga, F., et al. (1996). "Fetal and maternal blood oxygen affinity: a comparative study in llamas and sheep." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. A, Physiology 115(2): 111-115.

Blood oxygen affinity (P50) and haemoglobin concentration fetal and maternal llamas and sheep were compared. These animals were chosen as examples of species native to high and low altitudes. P50, haemoglobin concentration and blood oxygen content were measured at sea level in 16 pregnant llamas, 6 pregnant ewes and their fetuses. P50 was similar in fetal llamas and sheep, but maternal llamas had higher blood oxygen affinity than ewes. As a consequence, the P50 difference between mother and fetus was less in llamas than in sheep. Fetal llamas had higher haemoglobin concentrations than fetal sheep. In contrast, the maternal haemoglobin concentrations were similar. The blood oxygen content was higher in fetal and maternal llamas than in fetal sheep and ewes. It is concluded that the llama, a species native to the altiplano, has a higher blood oxygen content than the sheep, as determined in the fetus by a high haemoglobin concentration and in the mother by a low P50.

Moré, G., et al. (2008). "Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis sp. in llamas (Lama glama) from Jujuy, Argentina." Veterinary Parasitology 155(1/2): 158-160.

Llamas (Lama glama) are South American camelids described as intermediate hosts of Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis aucheniae. Due to the potential role of these protozoan infections as a cause of economic losses, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence for T. gondii, N. caninum and Sarcocystis sp. in llamas from Argentina. Serum samples from 308 llamas (&gt;2 years old) were collected between 2005 and 2007. A total of 55 farms located in six departments of Jujuy province, Argentina were sampled. Presence of antibodies to N. caninum, T. gondii and Sarcocystis sp. was determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). For Sarcocystis, 2 different bradyzoites-based antigens were prepared using S. aucheniae and S. cruzi. Sera were tested at dilutions 1:25 and 1:50. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 4.6% serum samples. Fifty percent of departments and 14.5% of farms had positive animals. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 30% of samples, distributed in 66% of departments and 43.6% of farms. Antibodies to Sarcocystis sp. were detected in 96% of samples and all departments and farms had positive animals, suggesting frequent contact between llamas and canids. Co-infection with N. caninum, T. gondii and Sarcocystis sp. was also recorded. Low seroprevalence of N. caninum in llamas detected in this study could be related to climatic and geographical conditions that limit cattle breeding activity, reducing the source of infection for definitive hosts. Seroprevalence of T. gondii and the positive animal distribution suggest frequent contamination of grass with felid faeces. In conclusion, this is the first report of combined seroprevalence for N. caninum, T. gondii and Sarcocystis sp. in llamas. Further studies are needed to determine the potential role of these protozoan infections as cause of abortion in Argentina as well as presence of these protozoans in llama meat used for human consumption.

Moré, G., et al. (2016). "Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)." Parasitology 143(5): 617-626.

There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts of S. masoni were up to 800 µm long and 35-95 µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2.5-3.5 µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95-96% identity with other Sarcocystis spp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts of S. aucheniae were macroscopic, up to 1.2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50 µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10 µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98-99% of sequence homology with other S. aucheniae sequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S. masoni (microscopic cysts) and S. aucheniae (macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru.

Morin, D. E., et al. (1993). "Hematologic responses in llamas with experimentally-induced iron deficiency anemia." Veterinary Clinical Pathology 22(3): 81-86.

Haematological abnormalities consistent with iron deficiency anaemia were experimentally induced in two healthy llamas by repeated phlebotomy. Abnormalities included erythrocyte microcytosis and hypochromia, decreased haemoglobin concentration, hypoferraemia, and decreased transferrin saturation. Erythrocyte volume distribution histograms were more sensitive than mean corpuscular volume values for detection of microcytosis. Hypochromia, which was often eccentric, was seen morphologically on Wright-Giemsa-stained blood films. Frequent folded erythrocytes and dacryocytes were also noted on the blood films. Abnormalities resolved rapidly after cessation of blood removal, without parenteral iron supplementation.

Morin, D. E., et al. (1992). "Hematological features of iron deficiency anaemia in llamas." Veterinary Pathology 29(5): 400-404.

Iron deficiency anaemia was identified and characterized in three 4 to 29-month-old male llamas from separate herds in Colorado. The identification of iron deficiency anaemia was based on hypoferraemia (serum iron = 20-60 µg/dl), erythrocytic features, and haematological response to iron therapy. The anaemia was moderate and nonregenerative and characterized by erythrocyte hypochromia, microcytosis (mean cell volume = 15-18 fl), and decreased mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (36.-41.0 g/dl). Morphological features unique to llamas with iron deficiency anaemia included irregular distribution of hypochromia within erythrocytes and increased folded cells and dacryocytes. The cause of iron deficiency was not determined. The llamas were treated with various doses and schedules of parenteral iron dextran. Two llamas were monitored for up to 14 months after the start of iron therapy and showed increases in haematocrit and mean cell volume. In one, progressive replacement of microcytic cells with normal cells was visualized on sequential erythrocyte volume distribution histograms following iron therapy.

Morin, D. E., et al. (1995). "Comparative study of proteins, peroxidase activity and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity in llama milk." Small Ruminant Research 17(3): 255-261.

The protein composition of llama, cow, ewe and human milk samples was determined using SDS-PAGE and Coomassie blue. Caseins were the predominant proteins in llama, cow and ewe milks; a considerably lower proportion of casein was identified in human milk. α-Lactalbumin was present in similar amounts in llama, ewe and cow milks, with proportionately more α-lactalbumin in human milk. β-Lactoglobulin, the major whey protein of cow and ewe milk, was not detected in llama or human milk. Gel profiles of llama milk showed that it contained a higher proportion of a protein band co-migrating with lactoferrin than cow or ewe milk, but not as much as in human milk. Peroxidase activity in llama milk was lower than that in cow or ewe milk (8.36 vs. 77.25 and 136.27 ΔA/ml per min, respectively). The activity of N-acetyl-β-smallcap˜D-glucosaminidase was higher in llama and human milk (81.07 and 91.75 nmol PNP/ml per min, respectively) than in cow and ewe milk (4.06 and 1.14 nmol PNP/ml per min, respectively).

Morin, D. E., et al. (1995). "Composition of milk from llamas in the United States." Journal of Dairy Science 78(8): 1713-1720.

Milk from 83 llamas on 8 farms in Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan and Colorado was collected, and milk composition was analysed. Llamas had no history or signs of mastitis, and major mastitis pathogens were not isolated from the milk. TS were determined gravimetrically. A colorimetric method, a dye-binding assay and the modified Mojonnier method were used to measure lactose, protein and fat contents, respectively. Concentrations of 7 minerals and 17 trace elements were obtained by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; chlorine was quantified by anion chromatography. Llama milk was higher in lactose (6.5%) and lower in fat (2.7%) and energy content (70.0 kcal/100 g) than cow (4.8%, 3.7% and 85.16 kcal/100 g, respectively), ewe (4.8%, 7.4% and 155.56 kcal/100 g) and goat milk (4.1%, 4.5% and 103.57 kcal/100 g). Llama milk contained more calcium (1701 mg/kg) and less sodium (272 mg/kg), potassium (1201 mg/kg), and chlorine (732 mg/kg) than milk from domestic ruminants. In general, milk composition was not affected by stage of lactation, lactation number or body condition score of the llama, but several milk constituents varied among farms.

Morin, D. E., et al. (1994). "Degenerative myeloencephalopathy in two llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 204(6): 938-943.

Morin, D. E. U. o. I., Urbana.), et al. (2016). "Composition of milk from llamas in the United States." Journal of dairy science (USA).

Morrow, C. K., et al. (1998). "How to perform laparoscopic ovariectomy in llamas and alpacas." Veterinary Medicine 93(3): 295...296.

Moseley, M. L. (1982). Anion transport in llama, dog, and human red blood cells.

Motha, M. X. J. and K. M. Tham (1992). "Pestivirus infection in a llama (Lama glama)." New Zealand Veterinary Journal 40(3): 126.

Moutel, S., et al. (2016). "NaLi-H1: A universal synthetic library of humanized nanobodies providing highly functional antibodies and intrabodies." Elife 5.

In vitro selection of antibodies allows to obtain highly functional binders, rapidly and at lower cost. Here, we describe the first fully synthetic phage display library of humanized llama single domain antibody (NaLi-H1: Nanobody Library Humanized 1). Based on a humanized synthetic single domain antibody (hs2dAb) scaffold optimized for intracellular stability, the highly diverse library provides high affinity binders without animal immunization. NaLi-H1 was screened following several selection schemes against various targets (Fluorescent proteins, actin, tubulin, p53, HP1). Conformation antibodies against active RHO GTPase were also obtained. Selected hs2dAb were used in various immunoassays and were often found to be functional intrabodies, enabling tracking or inhibition of endogenous targets. Functionalization of intrabodies allowed specific protein knockdown in living cells. Finally, direct selection against the surface of tumor cells produced hs2dAb directed against tumor-specific antigens further highlighting the potential use of this library for therapeutic applications. AN - 27434673

Moya, S. L. (2005). Effects of husbandry and low-dose lipopolysaccharide challenge on the acute phase reponse of young pigs : y Sara Llamas Moya.

Muir, S. and D. Pappagianis (1982). "Coccidioidomycosis in the llama: case report and epidemiologic survey." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 181(11): 1334-1337.

A case is reported in an 8-yr-old female llama with a 1-month history of progressive posterior paresis. Neurological examination revealed loss of conscious proprioception and slightly depressed bilateral patelar reflexes. Possible fragmentation and mottling of the 10th thoracic vertebral body were noted radiographically. The llama was euthanatized. Postmortem and histologial evaluation revealed, in addition to disseminated visceral granulomas, an extradural pyogranulomatous mass compressing the cord laterally at the level of T-10. Coccidioides immitis was cultured from lung, liver, lymph node, spleen and salivary gland tissue. Complement fixation tests in 11 other herd members showed evidence of C. immitis infection in 3.

Mulrooney, D. M., et al. (1989). "Clinical reference values for serum protein electrophoresis for the llama (Lama glama)." American Journal of Veterinary Research 50(11): 1889-1892.

Serum protein electrophoresis was performed on 71 clinically healthy juvenile and adult llamas (6 juvenile males, 7 juvenile females, 25 adult males, 13 adult females, and 20 pregnant females) to determine normal serum protein concentrations. Values were reported for each of the 5 groups because the groups were not homogeneous in all 8 peaks. Although the values reported may serve as reference values for adults, they represent only a guideline for the juveniles because of the limited number of animals in each of these groups.

Murdande, S. B. (1994). The disposition of four therapeutically important antimicrobial agents in llamas.

The disposition of four therapeutically important antimicrobial agents was studied in llamas following intravenous bolus administration. Six llamas were each given ampicillin, tobramycin, trimethoprim and enrofloxacin at a dose of 12 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg of body weight with a wash out period of 3 days between each treatment. Plasma concentrations of these antimicrobial agents over 12 hours following IV bolus dosing were determined by reverse phase HPLC. Dispositions of these four antimicrobial agents were described by two compartment open model with elimination from the central compartment, and also by non-compartmental methods. From compartmental analysis, the elimination rate constant, half-life, and apparent volume of distribution in the central compartment were determined. Statistical moment theory was used to determine non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters of mean residence time, clearance, and volume of distribution at steady-state. Based on the disposition parameters determined, a dose and dosing interval for each of the four antimicrobial agents was suggested for llamas. Steady state peak and trough plasma levels were also predicted for the drugs in this study for llamas.

Nagy, D. W., et al. (2002). "A note on colostral immunoglobulin G concentrations vs. subsequent serum concentrations in naturally suckled llama (Llama glama) and alpaca (Llama pacos) crias." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 9(2): 171-172.

Fourteen llamas, 4 alpacas and their offspring were included in this study wherein colostrum samples from the dams and serum from the offspring (between 45 and 51 h after birth and after suckling) were collected to measure IgG levels. It was shown that the mean standard deviation for colostral and serum IgG concentrations were 20.06±9.05 and 2.15±1.07, respectively. Mean colostral and serum IgG concentrations did not vary significantly for both llamas and alpacas. There was a low correlation between colostral and subsequent serum IgG in the young of both species. It is suggested that other factors are involved in the passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins in New World camelids.

Nagy, D. W., et al. (2002). "The treatment of suspected cerebrospinal nematodiasis with moxidectin in 3 llamas (Llama glama)." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 9(2): 145-149.

Three llamas in Illinois, USA with suspected cerebrospinal nematodiasis were treated with moxidectin [date not given]. Complete blood count, serum chemistry panel and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were done. It was shown that these parameters were within normal limits in llama 1 but CSF examination showed increased total protein concentration and leukocyte concentration. Llama 2 revealed leukocytosis characterized by a mature neutrophilia and lymphopenia. Hypokaliaemia and hyperglycaemia were evident. CSF analysis included increased total protein concentration, leukocyte concentration and turbidity. Llama 3 revealed normal blood count and serum chemistry. Abnormalities present on the CSF examination were increased total protein concentration and leukocyte concentration. The progression of clinical signs in 3 llamas diagnosed with cerebrospinal nematodiasis was arrested following treatment with moxidectin.

Nancy, Z. (1999). "Stealing the Llama Farm." The Kenyon Review 21(2): 55-61.

Napolitano, L., et al. (1991). "Separation of whey proteins from llama (Lama glama L.) milk. Identification of a protein immunologically related to β-lactoglobulins." Milchwissenschaft 46(1): 27-30.

Separation of llama whey proteins by size-exclusion HPLC followed by purification through preparative isoelectric focusing and reversed-phase HPLC led to the isolation of a protein reacting with polyclonal antibody anti-bovine β-lactoglobulin in an immune double-diffusion experiment. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this llama whey protein showed some homology with internal parts of human κ-casein and human lactotransferrin, as well as an interesting identity with recognized β-lactoglobulins in positions Pro 4 and Leu 10.

Nasta, J. D. (1993). Sin tocayos : historias reales de co\0301mo se llama la gente. Asuncio\0301n, N\0303anduti\0301 Vive.

Navarre, C. B., et al. (1999). "Analysis of first gastric compartment fluid collected via percutaneous paracentesis from healthy llamas." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 214(6): 812-815.

The safety and efficacy of percutaneous paracentesis for fluid collection from the first gastric compartment was evaluated in 10 healthy llamas. Physical examinations were performed before sample collection and for 14 days afterwards. A 16-gauge, 7.5-cm stainless steel needle, positioned approximately 20 cm caudal to the costochondral junction of the last rib, was pointed in a dorsocraniomedial direction and pushed through the abdominal wall into the lumen of the first gastric compartment. Fluid was aspirated and analysed immediately for colour, odour, consistency, pH, methylene blue reduction (MBR) time, protozoa and bacteria. Fluid samples were obtained from 9 of 10 llamas. Mean volume was 4.1 ml, mean pH was 6.67 and mean MBR time was 173 s. Odour was slightly acidic, colour was light brown-green to light yellow-green and consistency was moderate. Small protozoa with variable iodine staining and Gram-negative bacteria were commonly detected. It is concluded that fluid samples from the first gastric compartment can be successfully obtained by percutaneous paracentesis and that fluid characteristics are similar to those of fluid collected via orogastric tube in llamas and cattle.

Navarre, C. B., et al. (2001). "Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen in llamas following intravenous administration." Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 24(3): 223-226.

Five healthy, adult, male llamas at the Auburn University, Alabama, USA, were administered an intravenous dose of ketoprofen in a racemic mixture (4.4 mg/kg), to determine the pharmacokinetics of both the R- and S-stereoisomers of the drug [date not given]. The half-life of S-ketoprofen and R-ketoprofen were similar, 5.49±1.27 hours and 5.41±0.94 hours, respectively. The plasma concentration profiles for both isomers were also similar, with area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) values of 168.9±22.4 µg h ml- for S-isomer and 176.4±25.5 µg h ml- for the R-isomer. The ratio of AUCs (S/R) was 0.964±0.020. The total body clearance of the S- and R-isomers were 13.20±1.68 and 12.67±1.68 ml h- kg-. The volumes of distribution were similar for the stereoisomers with values of 100.1±10.6 and 94.7±10.9 ml/kg for S-ketoprofen and R-ketoprofen, respectively. Due to the similarities in the pharmacokinetic parameters, the mean residence time of the stereoisomers were nearly the same, 7.72±1.56 h for S-ketoprofen and 7.56±1.13 h for R-ketoprofen. In conclusion, when ketoprofen was administered as a racemic mixture of R- and S-ketoprofen to llamas, the half life was longer, the clearance lower and the volume of distribution smaller than in other large domestic species (horses and cattle).

Navarre, C. B., et al. (2001). "Pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in llamas following a single intravenous dose." Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 24(5): 361-364.

The pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in llamas was determined in order to determine the therapeutic dose for this species. Six healthy, adult castrated male llamas (between 114 and 145 kg in weight) were intravenously given 2.2 mg/kg flunixin meglumine (Banamine). Flunixin plasma t1/2 was 1.47±0.61 h; total body clearance was 46.5±9.5 ml/h/kg; steadystate volume of distribution was 29.7±6.1 ml/kg; and mean residence time was 0.648±0.124 h. Half life of flunixin meglumine in the llamas was 1.47±0.61 h, relatively shorter than that in other large animal species. The findings indicate that the pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in llamas following an intravenous dose of 2.2 mg/kg are characterized by a short elimination half life, low clearance, and low volume of distribution. The therapeutic window of flunixin meglumine in llamas is not known, and there is increasing evidence that plasma concentrations do not necessarily correlate with clinical efficacy. Thus, further study of this drug in this species is needed.

Navarre, C. B., et al. (2001). "Pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone in llamas following single intravenous and oral doses." Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 24(3): 227-231.

Six healthy adult llamas in the USA, were given an intravenous (i.v.) and oral dose (p.o.) of 5 mg/kg phenylbutazone to study the pharmacokinetics of this drug in the animals [date not given]. All animals received the i.v. dose first, through a catheter in the jugular vein; 2 weeks later, the animals were administered the p.o. dose, through an orogastric tube. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 240, 360, 480 minutes and 24 h following i.v. bolus injection, and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 240, 360, 480 minutes and 24 and 48 h following p.o. bolus dosage. Following an i.v. dose, the phenylbutazone plasma concentrations showed a terminal half-life of 2.03±0.83 h and total body clearance of 66.8±17.0 ml h- kg-; the steady-state volume of distribution was 154±35.2 ml/kg and the mean residence time (MRT) was 2.46±1.03 h. Phenylbutazone plasma concentrations were highly variable following p.o. dose to the same llamas. The mean maximum plasma concentrations was 4.39±3.13 µg/ml, and the peak times were from 2 to 6 h. The extent of p.o. absorption (F) was variable with a value of 69.1±41.2%; the mean residence time for absorption (MAT) was determined to be 9.57±4.44 h. The results showed that the pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone following i.v. administration is characterized by a high clearance and short half-life, and that the drug is slowly and erratically absorbed following p.o. administration in llamas, as suggested by its slow and variable MAT and F values.

Navia, R. (1969). De lo profundo. Poemas. Santiago, Chile, Talleres de Arancibia Hnos.

Neiger-Aeschbacher, G. (1999). "Llama - sedation and anaesthesia (review article)." Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 141(7): 307-318.

Neill, J. D., et al. (2015). "Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation." Vet Microbiol 179(3-4): 299-303.

Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV are often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected. The complete nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of eleven alpaca-adapted BVDV isolates and the region encoding the envelope glycoproteins of an additional three isolates were determined. With the exception of one, all alpaca isolates were >99.2% similar at the nucleotide level. The Hercules isolate was more divergent, with 95.7% sequence identity to the other viruses. Sequence similarity of the 14 viruses indicated they were isolates of a single BVDV strain that had adapted to and were circulating through alpaca herds. Hercules was a more distantly related strain that has been isolated only once in Canada and represented a separate adaptation event that possessed the same adaptive changes. Comparison of amino acid sequences of alpaca and bovine-derived BVDV strains revealed three regions with amino acid sequences unique to all alpaca isolates. The first contained two small in-frame deletions near the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein. The second was found near the C-terminus of the E2 protein where four altered amino acids were located within a 30 amino acid domain that participates in E2 homodimerization. The third region contained three variable amino acids in the C-terminus of the E(rns) within the amphipathic helix membrane anchor. These changes were found in the polar side of the amphipathic helix and resulted in an increased charge within the polar face. Titration of bovine and alpaca viruses in both bovine and alpaca cells indicated that with increased charge in the amphipathic helix, the ability to infect alpaca cells also increased. AN - 26072370

Neruda, P. (1964). Tentativa del hombre infinito, Santiago.

Nes, E. v. and M. C. Pieterse (2007). "Reproduction in the llama and alpaca." Veehouder en Dierenarts 21(2): 20-22.

Nevoltris, D., et al. (2014). Développement des ligands pour l' étude des récepteurs GPCR, Tyrosine Kinase, basée sur l' utilisation de simple domaine d' anticorps de lamas. . Marseille.

La recherche de nouvelles molécules à visée thérapeutique ou diagnostic ciblant les récepteurs membranaires incluant les RCPGs, les récepteurs à tyrosine kinase et les canaux ioniques sont au coeur des recherches investies par les entreprises pharmaceutiques. Dans ce projet nous avons étudié et caractérisé des domaines variables de chaîne lourde d'anticorps de lamas (sdAbs) qui peuvent contourner certaines limites liées à l'utilisation des anticorps monoclonaux ou des petites molécules. En effet, de par leurs particularités structurales qui les rendent particulièrement intéressants en termes de stabilité, d'affinité et de reconnaissance d'antigène, les sdAbs représentent etre une alternative prométeuse. Dans ce manuscrit sont exposés les travaux effectués sur les récepteurs aux tyrosines kinases appartenant à la famille des ErbBs et les récepteurs au glutamate mGluRs (RCPG). En plus d'avoir sélectionné des sdAbs hautement spécifiques de ces différents antigènes, ces molécules ont également montré des caractéristiques très étonnantes et inattendues. En effet, la majeure partie des sdAbs sélectionnés présentent une spécificité pour une conformation du récepteur particulière (forme active ou inactive). Cette particularité très pertinente nous ouvre un spectre d'application très diversifié, car elle permet de cibler et d'analyser les récepteurs dans ces différents états d'activation. Ajouté à cela, certains sdAbs possèdent une activité de modulateur allostérique, voir même présentent un effet agoniste. Ces résultats très encourageants nous ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives, et ces molécules représentent une nouvelle approche pour la modulation et l'étude des ces récepteurs. The research for new therapeutic or diagnostic molecules targeting membrane receptors, including GPCRs, tyrosine kinase receptors and ion channels are the heart of the research invested by pharmaceutical companies. In this project we used the variable domain of llama antibody heavy chain also called single domain antibodies (sdAbs) that can bypass some limitations to the use of monoclonal antibodies or small molecules. Indeed, because of their structural features that make them particularly interesting in terms of stability, affinity and antigen recognition, sdAbs represent a very promising candidates that can be used in various fiels of application: as fluorescent probes , screening tools , or therapeutic molecules. In this manuscript are exposed the work performed on the tyrosine kinases receptor belonging to the ErbBs family and metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluRs (GPCRs).We selected very highly specific sdAbs directed against antigen of interest, but these molecules have also shown very surprising and unexpected particularities. Indeed, most of the selected sdAbs exhibit specificity for a particular conformation of the receptor (active or inactive form). This very relevant feature opens an highly diversified application spectrum, because it allows to identify and analyze these receptors in different states of activation. Added to this, some sdAbs present an allosteric modulator activity, or even present an agonist effect. These encouraging results open up new perspectives, and these molecules represent a new approach for modulation and study of these membrane receptors.

Newman, K. D. and D. E. Anderson (2006). "Fracture management in llamas and alpacas." Small Ruminant Research 61(2/3): 241-258.

Fracture management in llamas and alpacas present a unique and interesting challenge to the veterinary surgeon compared to other species. Camelids are considered to be excellent patients for the treatment of orthopedic injuries because they have a relative low body weight, tolerate external coaptation devices, are able to ambulate on three legs post-operatively, and can tolerate prolonged periods of recumbency for recuperation after surgery. Reports in the literature on camelid fractures (28 cases) and the authors' experiences with an additional 38 fractures are reviewed. There are a number of repair techniques that can be employed, depending primarily on fracture configuration and the surgeon's experience. Complications to fracture repair include mal-union, delayed union, non-union, osteomyelitis, sequestrum formation, and implant failure. Complications are associated with damage to the neurovascular bundle, damage to adjacent soft tissue at the fracture site, and compound fractures. Complications may be managed through the use antibiotics, surgical debridement, and staged destabilization of the fixation device. When irreversible damage to the neurovascular bundle has occurred, limb amputation with or without a prosthetic device may be alternatives to euthanatizing the patient.

Newman, K. D. and D. E. Anderson (2007). "Humerus fractures in llamas and alpacas: seven cases (1998-2004)." Veterinary Surgery 36(1): 68-73.

Objective - To describe treatment and outcome of humerus fractures in llamas and alpacas. Study Design - Retrospective study. Animals - Llamas (n=4) and alpacas (3) with humerus fracture. Methods - Medical records (January 1, 1998-August 1, 2004) were reviewed for small camelids with a humeral fracture. Retrieved data were signalment, history, physical examination and radiographic findings, surgical and medical treatment, and outcome. Results - Humeral fracture occurred in 7 of 38 (18%) camelids admitted with fractures. Affected animals were aged from 1 month to 3 years old. Fracture configuration included long-oblique (n=4), short-oblique (2), and Salter-Harris Type II fracture of the proximal physis (1). One adult llama was managed by stall confinement and surgical repair was attempted in the other camelids: fixation by screws inserted in lag fashion (n=3), intramedullary pinning and fixation by screws inserted in lag fashion (1), rush pinning (1), and bone plating (1). A Velpeau sling was used for additional support in 3 animals. All fractures healed but temporary radial nerve paresis occurred in 3 animals. Limb shortening and permanent lameness occurred in the llama managed conservatively. Conclusions - Humerus fractures in small camelids are amenable to surgical repair which may offer better long-term outcome than medical treatment alone. Clinical Relevance - Surgical treatment of humerus fractures should have a good prognosis in llamas and alpacas. In select cases, minimally invasive techniques, such as rush pinning or fixation by screws inserted in lag fashion are sufficient for fracture healing.

Newman, K. D. and D. E. Anderson (2009). "Fracture management in alpacas and llamas." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 25(2): 507-522.

Camelids are considered to be excellent patients for the treatment of orthopedic injuries. Clients will usually opt for treatment because of the relative high commercial value of most camelids. For these reasons, the veterinary surgeon has a full repertoire of internal and external fixation techniques to choose from when determining the ideal repair option. Complications to fracture repair are frequent and include lameness, osteomyelitis, malunion, delayed union, nonunion, sequestrum formation, and implant failure. When irreversible damage to the neurovascular bundle has occurred, limb amputation, with or without a prosthetic device, may be an alternative to euthanizing the patient.

Newman, K. D. and D. E. Anderson (2009). "Gastrointestinal surgery in alpacas and llamas." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 25(2): 495-506.

The clinical signs associated with acute abdominal pain in South American camelids tend to be subtle and less frequent (similar to ruminants) as compared with that of horses. Abdominocentesis and transabdominal ultrasound are useful tools in determining the necessity of an exploratory laparotomy. Preoperative anticipation of the lesion location helps determine the surgical approach to the abdomen. Perioperative management is vital to improve chances for survival. Timely surgical intervention for correctable gastrointestinal lesions is expected to minimize postoperative complications and improve outcomes.

Nguyen, V. S., et al. (2015). "Inhibition of type VI secretion by an anti-TssM llama nanobody." PLoS One 10(3): e0122187.

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a secretion pathway widespread in Gram-negative bacteria that targets toxins in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Although most T6SSs identified so far are involved in inter-bacterial competition, a few are directly required for full virulence of pathogens. The T6SS comprises 13 core proteins that assemble a large complex structurally and functionally similar to a phage contractile tail structure anchored to the cell envelope by a trans-membrane spanning stator. The central part of this stator, TssM, is a 1129-amino-acid protein anchored in the inner membrane that binds to the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein. In this study, we have raised camelid antibodies against the purified TssM periplasmic domain. We report the crystal structure of two specific nanobodies that bind to TssM in the nanomolar range. Interestingly, the most potent nanobody, nb25, competes with the TssJ lipoprotein for TssM binding in vitro suggesting that TssJ and the nb25 CDR3 loop share the same TssM binding site or causes a steric hindrance preventing TssM-TssJ complex formation. Indeed, periplasmic production of the nanobodies displacing the TssM-TssJ interaction inhibits the T6SS function in vivo. This study illustrates the power of nanobodies to specifically target and inhibit bacterial secretion systems. AN - 25811612

Nguyen, V. S., et al. (2015). "Production, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of a complex between a fragment of the TssM T6SS protein and a camelid nanobody." Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 71(Pt 3): 266-271.

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a machine evolved by Gram-negative bacteria to deliver toxin effectors into target bacterial or eukaryotic cells. The T6SS is functionally and structurally similar to the contractile tail of the Myoviridae family of bacteriophages and can be viewed as a syringe anchored to the bacterial membrane by a transenvelope complex. The membrane complex is composed of three proteins: the TssM and TssL inner membrane components and the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein. The TssM protein is central as it interacts with both TssL and TssJ, therefore linking the membranes. Using controlled trypsinolysis, a 32.4 kDa C-terminal fragment of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli TssM (TssM32Ct) was purified. A nanobody obtained from llama immunization, nb25, exhibited subnanomolar affinity for TssM32Ct. Crystals of the TssM32Ct-nb25 complex were obtained and diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P64, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.23, c = 172.95 Å. Molecular replacement with a model nanobody indicated the presence of a dimer of TssM32Ct-nb25 in the asymmetric unit. AN - 25760699

Nichols, S., et al. (2007). "Subtotal pericardiectomy for treatment of constrictive effusive pericarditis in a llama cria." Journal of Camel Practice and Research 14(1): 33-37.

A 2-month-old llama cria in Ohio, USA, was evaluated for lethargy and intermittent fever [date not given]. A physical examination revealed a holosystolic murmur (3/6) over the tricuspid valve area and an enlarged umbilicus suggestive of an abscess. Echocardiography revealed severe enlargement of the atria, ventricular hyperkinesia and mild increase of the pericardial fluid mainly organized as fibrin. A diagnosis of constrictive effusive pericarditis was made. To increase the ventricular segmental fraction, a subtotal pericardiectomy was suggested. After resection of the 5th rib, a left thoracotomy was performed to expose the heart. 60% of the pericardium was then removed. The cria recovered uneventfully from the surgery. Seven days after the surgery, a control echocardiography was performed. No more effusion was surrounding the heart. However, the cria showed signs of cardiac failure (enlarge vessels, abdominal effusion). Two weeks after the pericardiectomy, the cria gained weight and was clinically normal and was discharged from the hospital. A laparotomy was performed to remove umbilical abscess. At follow up, the owner reported that the cria died suddenly without showing any signs of lethargy. Necropsy was not performed. In conclusion, this case demonstrates that a pericardiectomy can be performed in llama cria from a left thoracotomy.

Nickolmann, S., et al. (2001). Effects of castration on the behaviour, and testosterone and serum thyroid hormone levels of male llamas (Lama glama). Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 75-78.

Six sexually mature (3-8 years old) and six sexually immature (10-22 months old) male llamas were used in the study. Social, aggressive and sexual behaviour of the animals were recorded before and after castration. The time and number of matings within 5 min were recorded, while blood testosterone, T3 and T4 levels were recorded weekly. Prior to castration the sexually mature males showed greater individual distances, a distinct territorial and sexual behaviour, compared to immature males. After castration there was a significant reduction in the individual distances in both groups. There was a decrease in the territorial behaviour and a significant reduction in the sexual behaviour of the mature group. In both groups, the order of rank changed after castration. The indices of rank before and after castration in the sexually mature group ranged from -0.5 to +0.7 and -0.7 to +0.9, respectively. In the sexually immature group, the indices before and after castration ranged from -0.6 to +0.9 and -0.7 and +1.0, respectively. Prior to castration, the mature males mated the females for 300 seconds without interruption. After castration, the average time of mating was reduced to 180 seconds. Mature and immature males had an average plasma testosterone level of 4 and 1 ng/ml. There were no correlations between the testosterone level, agonistic behaviour and order of rank. The level of thyroid hormones in the mature males was significantly higher (P&lt;0.01) than in the sexually immature males. The level of T4 did not decrease in both groups after castration (P&lt;0.05) whereas the level of T3 did not change significantly.

Nickolmann, S., et al. (2008). "Effects of castration on the behaviour of male llamas (Lama glama)." Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere 36(5): 319-323.

The aim of the study is to prove the effects of castration on behaviour and hormone levels in sexually mature and immature Llama males. Material and methods: The study comprised six sexually mature and six sexually immature llama males. Their social and sexual behaviour was observed before and after castration. Testosterone levels were analysed regularly. Results: The percentage of low social distances was significantly lower in mature males and increased in both groups after castration as well as the number of direct body contacts. Short agonistic interactions and the percentage of fights with clear result (one male was the winner or looser) decreased after castration in mature males. In both groups order of rank changed after castration. Before castration all mature males mated the female without breaks. After castration they interrupted copulations several times and total time of mating was decreased. Immature males showed short mating times with many interruptions before castration. The testosterone level changed between the months of observation in the mature male group. In the mature male group blood testosterone level was 4.1 ng/ml, and in the immature group it was 1.1 ng/ml. There were no correlations between testosterone level and order of rank. Conclusion and clinical relevance: Mature and immature males differed significantly in behaviour and hormone levels. Castration did improve social behaviour as the number and intensity of agonistic interactions decreased. Sexual behaviour was also significantly affected by castration in mature males. It can be concluded that keeping and handling of geldings is less problematic. Therefore, castration can be recommended as a management tool after 12 months of age, but before sexual maturity.

Niedbalska, J. (2010). Severe hepatic necrosis and thromboembolic disease in a llama.

A 6 year old llama was evaluated for an acute onset of neurological behavior. Upon presentation, the llama was obtunded, in lateral recumbency, displaying opisthotonus, and intermittently paddling the hindlimbs. Physical examination revealed cranial nerve deficits, areflexia in all four limbs, increased hindlimb muscle tone and grade III/VI apical heart murmur on the left. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included a mildly elevated lactate, moderate azotemia, marked hyperammonemia and marked elevation of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). On ultrasound, approximately 60-80% of the liver parenchyma was effaced by variably sized, encapsulated, irregular masses. Treatment with intravenous isotonic fluids, mannitol, flunixin meglumine and thiamine hydrochloride was attempted, but due to lack of response, the llama was euthanized. Massive hepatocellular necrosis and thromboembolic disease were evident on gross necropsy and confirmed by histopathology. A pure culture of E. coli was isolated from the liver and vascular thrombi. Based on the pattern of lesions, the presumptive pathogenesis of disease was coliform ascension into the portal vein or bile duct, seeding the liver, and causing multifocal septic thrombi throughout hepatobiliary circulatory tree. (Abstract.).

Niehaus, A. (2009). "Dental disease in llamas and alpacas." Veterinary Clinics of North America, Food Animal Practice 25(2): 281-293.

Dental disease is common in llamas and alpacas. Many different disease conditions exist but tooth root abscesses, malocclusion, and normal aging changes are among the most common seen in the author's practice. Diagnosis is usually based on a good through history, physical examination, and radiographic examination. Although the etiology of dental infections has not been established, it is probably a combination of genetic predisposition, diet, and other management factors. Treatment is largely successful. A good prognosis depends on early diagnosis and treatment. Other conditions, such as overgrown teeth, can be easily controlled with routine management.

Niehaus, A. J. and D. E. Anderson (2007). "Tooth root abscesses in llamas and alpacas: 123 cases (1994-2005)." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 231(2): 284-289.

Objective - To determine features, outcome, and complications of surgical treatment of camelid tooth root abscesses. Design - Retrospective case series. Animals - 123 camelids with tooth root abscesses. Procedures - Signalment, history, teeth involved, surgery performed, ancillary diagnostic tests, and short-term complications were recorded from each medical record. An owner questionnaire was used to obtain long-term (&gt;1 year) follow-up information. Results - The most common surgical treatments included tooth extraction (n=106) and apicoectomy (13). Owners provided follow-up information on 84 animals. Postoperative complications were reported in 42 of 84 animals. The most common complications included reinfection (n=15), chronic draining tract (14), and osteomyelitis (14). Significantly more camelids that were in good or obese body condition at the time of surgery were alive at the time of follow-up, compared with those with thin body condition at the time of surgery. Camelids with 2 teeth extracted had significantly more complications than those with 1 tooth extracted. Thirty-four of 47 owners reported that they were completely satisfied with the outcome. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Owners of camelids in poor body condition should be forewarned that such animals are at greater risk for complications following dental surgery. Clinicians should recognize that the number of teeth affected was not associated with a poorer outcome.

Nielsen, M. O., et al. (2014). "Energy metabolism and methane production in llamas, sheep and goats fed high- and low-quality grass-based diets." Archives of Animal Nutrition 68(3): 171-185.

This study aimed to test whether the digestive and metabolic characteristics of pseudo ruminants provide superior ability to utilise low-quality diets compared to true ruminants. A total of 18 mature, non-pregnant, non-lactating female animals, including six llamas (Lama glama), six Danish Landrace goats and six Shropshire sheep, were used in a crossover design study. The experiment lasted for two periods of three weeks. Half of the animals were fed either high-quality grass hay (HP) or low-quality grass seed straw (LP) during each period. Animals were placed in metabolic cages during the last 5 d, and gaseous exchange was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for 22 h. Metabolisable energy for maintenance (MEm) and fasting energy expenditure (FEExp) were estimated by regression approach. Dry matter (DM) intake per kg0.75 was substantially reduced in llamas and sheep, but not in goats, on the LP compared to HP diet. Llamas had lower daily energy expenditure (324 kJ . kg-0.75) than sheep (416 kJ . kg-0.75) and goats (404 kJ . kg-0.75) on the LP diet. Llamas in comparison with sheep and goats had lower methane emission (0.83 vs 1.34 and 1.24 l . d-1 . kg-0.75, p&lt;0.05), lower MEm (328 vs 438 and 394 kJ . d-1 . kg-0.75, p&lt;0.05) and lower FEExp (246 vs 333 and 414 kJ . d-1 . kg-0.75, p&lt;0.05), respectively. In conclusion, llamas had lower basal metabolic rate and hence maintenance requirements for energy.

Nielsen, M. O., et al. (2010). Adaptive metabolic responses in sheep, goats and llama when fed grass based diets differing in protein content. Wageningen, Wageningen Academic Publishers: 507-508.

The aim of this study was to investigate if the evolutionary adaptation of the llamas to low protein diets also involved metabolic adaptation of the glucose-insulin homeostasis. Six non-pregnant adult female animals of sheep, goat and llama were used in this experiment in a change over design with 2 different diets. The diets consisted of a high protein artificially dried hay (HP; crude protein content (CP)=17.7%0) and a low protein grass seed hay (LP; CP=6.5%). Llamas had significantly higher glucose and insulin levels on the HP diet compared to the true ruminants. Plasma glucose in llamas on the HP diet was high even for monogastric animals, although only little glucose should be absorbed in the llama due to forestomach fermentation and despite substantially higher insulin levels compared to sheep and goats. This showed that the llama could be considered to have an intrinsic insulin insensitivity. Insulin but not glucose levels decreased in response to a LP diet, but the differences between the true ruminants and the pseudoruminant llama persisted. Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) levels in llamas were remarkably low for a foregut fermenter on the HP diet but increased on the LP relative to the HP diet presumably reflecting increased ketogenesis, whereas BOHB levels in the sheep decreased on the LP diet due to lowered dry matter (DM) intake.

Nielsen, M. O., et al. (2010). Digestive efficiency, metabolism of nitrogen and methane emission in sheep, goats and llamas fed grass based diets differing in protein content. Wageningen, Wageningen Academic Publishers: 497-498.

The aim of this study was to investigate if the superiority of the llamas in their ability to digest and utilize low protein feeds could be ascribed to an altered strategy for nitrogen metabolism and excretion from the body and whether the anatomical distinctive features of the llama foregut was associated with less synthesis and emission of methane from fermentation than in true ruminants. Six non-pregnant adult female animals of sheep, goats and llamas were used in this experiment in a change over design with 2 different diets: HP - high protein artificially dried hay (crude protein content CP=17.7%); and LP - low protein grass seed hay (CP=6.5%). The results lent support to theories about more efficient recycling of nitrogen (N) to the foregut in the llama compared to the small ruminants, explaining the superior feed utilization on poor quality diets except that sheep were even more efficient than the llama in reducing N excretion in urine on the low protein diet. The finding that llamas had much higher creatinine levels in plasma per se and responded with much higher increases in creatinine when shifted to a low protein diet indicated that llamas through evolution might have evolved a capacity to adapt also intermediary nitrogen metabolism to cope with protein deficiency. Methane emission/kg DMI was of the same magnitude (29 litre/kg DMI) in sheep and goats irrespective of the diet, and the methane emission from llamas on the LP diet was in the same range. However, the llama emitted significantly less methane (19.6 1/kg DMI) on the HP diet. This indicated that anatomical features of the foregut might impact methanogenesis.

Nieva, F. (1995). La llama vestida de negro : novela de misterios y sobrecogimientos. Barcelona, Seix Barral.

Nilsen, B., et al. (2015). "Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay." J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 99(5): 873-879.

This study was conducted to determine the compartment 1 (C1) characteristics of alpacas (fistulated male, 7 ± 1.5 years old, 61 ± 5 kg BW) fed grass hay (GH) supplemented with amaranth (AM), quinoa (Q) and barley (B) grains. Alpacas were provided water ad libitum while housed in metabolism crates. The GH and GH plus treatments were fed at 0700 every day. Treatment periods were for 14 days in which GH or GH plus one of the grain treatments were randomly allocated. On day 14, volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. C1 degradation of each feed component was also determined with the alpacas being fed GH only and the samples incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h. Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were determined and were divided into three categories: a = immediately soluble; b = the non-soluble but degradable; and u = non-degradable/unavailable, potential extent of degradation (PE), degradation rate (c) and effective degradation (ED). C1 passage rate was determined using acid detergent insoluble ash as a marker and was calculated to be 5.5%∙h-1. Total DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for B and resulted in a higher (p < 0.05) CP intake. GH and AM were different in mean pH (6.81 and 6.66, respectively). B NH3 -N was greater (p < 0.05) than the other treatments. Total VFA was greatest (p < 0.05) for AM, with the greatest composition differences being a shift form acetate percentage to butyrate. DM, NDF and CP degradation was different across the treatments, where PE and ED were higher (p < 0.05) for the grain treatments. The pseudo-grains AM and Q had similar C1 degradation characteristics to B. AN - 25683297

Norambuena, M. C., et al. (2013). "Relationship between systemic leptin concentration and reproductive state in llamas (Lama glama) from southern Chile." Small Ruminant Research 113(2/3): 402-404.

Reproductive efficiency of domestic camelids belonging to the Peruvian High Andes is affected by high rates of early embryonic mortality. Leptin is a protein hormone synthesized mainly by the adipocyte and its plasma concentration responds to the energy balance and affects implantation and embryo development. The objective of the study was to determine plasma leptin concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant well-nourished llamas. Eighteen mature, non-lactating llamas from a breeding farm in southern Chile were classified according to their physiological status in: pregnant, in the last third of gestation (n=9) or non-pregnant (n=9). Morphometric measurement, body condition score, and blood samples for the determination of a biochemical profile including total plasma proteins concentration, NEFA, triglycerides, cholesterol, and leptin were obtained from each group. Morphological measurements, body condition score, biochemical profile and plasma leptin concentration did not differ between groups (P&gt;0.1). BCS and the metabolic profile indicated that both groups were in a well-nourished and energy balanced state. Plasma leptin concentration of pregnant llamas showed a strong correlation (r=0.8; P=0.001) with BCS. We concluded that gestation did not affect plasma leptin concentrations in non-lactating, well nourished, energy balanced llamas during the last third of gestation and the BCS have a strong influence on their leptin levels.

Nuhsbaum, M. T., et al. (2000). "Intraocular pressure in normal llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos)." Veterinary Ophthalmology 3(1): 31-34.

Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in 10 llamas and 10 alpacas using applanation tonometry (Tono-PenTM XL). Three values, with 5% variance, were recorded for each eye. Least-squares means were determined for IOP for each eye of llamas and alpacas. Controlling for age, differences between left and right eye were analysed using ANOVA. Two age groups were established, less than 5 years and greater than 5 years. The effect of age on IOP within each group was analysed by linear regression. Probability values of less than 0.05 were considered significant. Comparison of mean IOP between right (n=20) and left eyes (n=20), independent of species type, showed no differences in IOPs for llamas and alpacas. Mean IOP declined with increasing age in llamas and alpacas. Mean IOPs for 20 eyes in 10 Ilamas was 16.96±3.51 mmHg. Mean IOP for 20 eyes in 10 alpacas was 16.14±3.74 mmHg. Mean IOP for all eyes (n=40), independent of species, was 16.55±3.55 mmHg. The range of IOP in normal llamas and alpacas within 2 s.d. (95% of the population) was 14.89±18.21 mmHg. There was no significant difference in IOP between alpacas and llamas. Mean IOP in both species decreased with increased age.

Oatley, M. J., et al. (2016). "Conditions for Long-Term Culture of Cattle Undifferentiated Spermatogonia." Biol Reprod 95(1 LA - eng): 14.

Continual and robust spermatogenesis relies on the actions of an undifferentiated spermatogonial population that contains stem cells. A remarkable feature of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is the capacity to regenerate spermatogenesis following isolation from a donor testis and transplantation into a permissive recipient testis. This capacity has enormous potential as a tool for enhancing the reproductive capacity of livestock, which can improve production efficiency. Because SSCs are a rare subset of the undifferentiated spermatogonial population, a period of in vitro amplification in number following isolation from donor testicular tissue is essential. Here, we describe methodology for isolation of a cell fraction from prepubertal bull testes that is enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia and long-term maintenance of the cells in both the feeder cell coculture and the feeder-free format. To achieve this method, we derived bovine fetal fibroblasts (BFF) to serve as feeders for optimizing medium conditions that promote maintenance of bovine undifferentiated spermatogonia for at least 2 mo. In addition, we devised a feeder-free system with BFF-conditioned medium that sustained bovine undifferentiated spermatogonia for at least 1 mo in vitro. The methodologies described could be optimized to provide platforms for exponential expansion of bovine SSCs that will provide the numbers needed for transplantation into recipient testes. AN - 27251094

Ober, R. H. (1988). Mute llama.

O'Brien, J. (1989). El uno se llama Diego. Santiago, Logos.

O'Brien, R. T. (1996). "Intraoral dental radiography: experimental study and clinical use in two horses and a llama." Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 37(6): 412-416.

A technique for intraoral radiography of the maxillary cheek teeth in large animals using strips of non-screen and commercial dental x-ray film was initially tested using horse cadaver heads and subsequently on 2 horses and a llama with signs of dental disease. Limitations of the described technique include necessity for general anaesthesia, special x-ray film and manual developing. Additionally, the need for very accurate adjustment of incident beam angle, beam centring point and depth in the oral cavity provide a major technical challenge. After becoming familiar with the technique, the major limitation was increased time for manual film developing. The images provided by non-screen technique were subjectively superior. The anatomic detail of the apical and periodontal regions of the teeth was better than on survey radiographs. Non-screen intraoral technique should be considered for anaesthetized large animal patients with signs of dental disease.

Odbileg, R., et al. (2005). "Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of inflammatory cytokines of Camelidae (llama and camel)." Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 67(9): 921-925.

We cloned, sequenced and analysed the complementary DNAs encoding Camelidae inflammatory cytokines, including llama (Lama glama) interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and camel (Camelus bactrianus) IL-6 and TNF-α. The similarity levels of the deduced amino acid sequences of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α from llama (camel) to those from other mammalian species, ranged from 60.7-87.7%, 52.8-75.3%, 41.4-98.6 and 72.9-99.6%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on nucleic acid sequences showed that llama IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were more closely related to those of camel, pig, cattle, sheep and horse than to those of human, dog, cat, mouse and rat.

Odbileg, R., et al. (2005). "Quantification of llama inflammatory cytokine mRNAs by real-time RT-PCR." Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 67(2): 195-198.

We have developed a method by which llama cytokine mRNAs can be quantified using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Total RNA was extracted from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of llama, reverse transcribed to cDNA, and cytokine profiles for interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α were quantified by real-time PCR. The expressions of mRNAs of inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα were upregulated upon stimulation with LPS in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Incubation of PBMCs with 100 and 1,000 pg/ml of LPS for 3 to 6 hr resulted in the acceleration of the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines. Here, we describe a highly sensitive and reproducible method to quantify the transcription of llama cytokine mRNAs by real-time RT-PCR with the double-stranded DNA-binding dye SYBR Green I.

Odbileg, R., et al. (2005). "Cloning and sequence analysis of llama (lama glama): Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) cytokines." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 104(3/4): 145-153.

This paper describes the cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNAs encoding the T helper (Th) 2 cytokines of llama including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10 and IL-13. The cDNAs encoding for IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were amplified using specific primers designed from reported sequences of bovine cytokine genes. The cDNAs for llama IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were found to be 402, 537 and 411 bp in length, with open reading frames encoding 133, 178 or 136 amino acids, respectively. Homology analyses of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of llama IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 and phylogenetic analysis based on their nucleotide sequences indicated the close relationship in these cytokine genes between llama and eutherian mammalian order Artiodactyla (pig, cattle) and Perissodactyla (horse).

Odbileg, R., et al. (2004). "Cloning and sequence analysis of llama cytokines related to cell-mediated immunity." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 99(1/2): 1-10.

In order to characterize the T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines of llama, we have cloned several llama cytokine genes and compared them to those of other mammalian species. The cDNAs encoding for interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)γ, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 were amplified using specific primers designed from reported sequences of bovine cytokine genes. The cDNAs for llama IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12 p35 and IL-12p40 were found to be 465, 501, 669 or 993 bp in length, with open reading frames encoding 154, 166, 222 or 330 amino acids, respectively. Homology analyses of nucleotide and deduced amino sequences of llama IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 and phylogenetic analysis based on their nucleotide sequences indicated the close relationship in these cytokine genes between llama and eutherian mammalian order Artiodactyla, which includes pig and cattle.

Oevermann, A., et al. (2004). "Generalized tuberculosis in llamas (Lama glama) due to Mycobacterium microti." Journal of clinical microbiology 42(4): 1818-1821.

Necropsy of two llamas revealed numerous caseous nodules containing abundant acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in various organs. The AFB were identified by spoligotyping as Mycobacterium microti, vole type. Infection caused by M. microti should be considered in the differential diagnosis of debilitating diseases in New World camelids.

Oevermann, A., et al. (2003). "Mycobacterium microti infection in two llamas (Lama guanicoe f. glama)." Erkrankungen der Zootiere: Verhandlungsbericht des 41. Internationalen Symposiums über die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere, Rome, Italy, 28 May - 1 June, 2003: 217-220.

Olson, M. A., et al. (2015). "Can template-based protein models guide the design of sequence fitness for enhanced thermal stability of single domain antibodies?" Protein Eng Des Sel 28(10): 395-402.

We investigate the practical use of comparative (template-based) protein models in replica-exchange simulations of single-domain antibody (sdAb) chains to evaluate if the models can correctly predict in rank order the thermal susceptibility to unfold relative to experimental melting temperatures. The baseline model system is the recently determined crystallographic structure of a llama sdAb (denoted as A3), which exhibits an unusually high thermal stability. An evaluation of the simulation results for the A3 comparative model and crystal structure shows that, despite the overall low Cα root-mean-square deviation between the two structures, the model contains misfolded regions that yields a thermal profile of unraveling at a lower temperature. Yet comparison of the simulations of four different comparative models for sdAb A3, C8, A3C8 and E9, where A3C8 is a design of swapping the sequence of the complementarity determining regions of C8 onto the A3 framework, discriminated among the sequences to detect the highest and lowest experimental melting transition temperatures. Further structural analysis of A3 for selected alanine substitutions by a combined computational and experimental study found unexpectedly that the comparative model performed admirably in recognizing substitution 'hot spots' when using a support-vector machine algorithm. AN - 26374895

Oplinger, H. (1996). Kinesthesia : University of Pennsylvania graduate school of veterinary studies and large animal research : in conjunction with Berry Acres Llamas, Roger Williams University.

Ordoñez, T. H. (1994). "Llamas, llama production and llama nutrition in the Ecuador highlands." Journal of arid environments 26(1): 67-71.

Orlove, B. S. (1992). American Ethnologist 19(2): 375-376.

Osmundson, S. D. (2011). Abdominal serosal cysts in an adult male llama (Lama glama).

A 4-year-old male intact llama presented for a two-month history of scrotal swelling and a one month history of abdominal distension. On physical exam the abdomen was taut and distended, and the animal was in poor body condition. Abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple large fluid-filled structures, displacing the gastrointestinal tract dorsally. Abdominal fluid was drained via an indwelling thoracocentesis tube, and later the cysts were surgically excised. The cysts were serosal in origin, though etiology was unknown as there was no indication of neoplasia or infection. Four months post-excision the animal has an adequate appetite, is in good body condition and had no signs of abdominal distension or scrotal swelling. Abdominal serosal cysts have not been previously described in llamas, and are a possible differential for animals with abdominal distension. (Abstract.).

Pérez, F. (1994). Ese libro se llama-- : relatos. Santo Domingo, República Dominicana, Alfa y Omega.

Pacheco, J., et al. (2016). "Evaluation of the efficiency of interspecies embryo transfer between alpacas and llamas obtained through single ovulation." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 27(1): 64-69.

This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of embryo recovery in single ovulation, the quality of the embryos and the interspecies fertility through embryo transfer. Nine donor alpacas and 40 recipient llamas were used. Ultrasonography of the ovaries was done to determine the presence of an ovulatory follicle. Donors were naturally mated and washing of uterine horns was performed at 7 days post-breeding. After collecting the embryos, cloprostenol was injected to donors to induce luteolisis and reinitiate a new follicular wave. Four washes were performed with intervals of 15 days. The transfer of fresh embryos was done on day 7 (group 1) or 6 (group 2) after the induction of ovulation with buserelin to the recipients. The results showed that 58.3% of embryos were collected. Among them, 57.2, 23.8 and 19.0% were of grade 1, 2 and 3 respectively. None embryos were of grade 4. Fertility on day 21 after the transfer of embryos was 33.3 and 11.1% for groups 1 and 2 respectively (mean: 20%), without recording embryo mortality in controls at 90 and 150 days post-transfer.

Padula, A. M. and K. D. Winkel (2016). "Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog." Toxicon 114: 59-64.

This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (<0.015 ng/mL), consistent with complete binding of venom antigens by the alpaca antivenom. Coagulation parameters had begun to improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective. AN - 26930223

Paggi, J. (1993). Factors in a female birth of a llama cria.

Palacios, A. M. a. and C. Reasoner (1993). The llama's secret : a Peruvian legend. [s.l], Troll Associates.

Palmer, A. C., et al. (1980). "Ataxia and spinal cord degeneration in llama, wildebeeste and camel." Veterinary record 107(1): 10-11.

Clinical and pathological findings from instances of ataxia in a group of wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two llamas (Llama glama) and a dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) are presented. Clinically, all the affected animals showed a non-febrile, progressive ataxia. Neuropathologically, Wallerian degeneration was diffuse in the spinal cord and the dromedary and llamas but was focal in the wildebeeste. Degeneration was present in the cervical dorsal roots in the wildebeeste and in the ventral nerve roots at all levels of the cord in the llamas. Peripheral nerves were affected in all species. The possible roles of copper deficiency and plant poisons in the aetiology of the condition are discussed.

Palomino, A. (1978). La luna se llama Pe\0301rez : poesi\0301a de humor. Barcelona, Planeta.

Pant, N., et al. (2006). "Lactobacilli Expressing Variable Domain of Llama Heavy-Chain Antibody Fragments (Lactobodies) Confer Protection against Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea." The Journal of Infectious Diseases 194(11): 1580-1588.

Background. Rotavirus-induced diarrhea poses a worldwide medical problem in causing substantial morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. We therefore developed a system for passive immunotherapy in which recombinant lactobacilli constitutively express neutralizing variable domain of llama heavy-chain (VHH) antibody fragments against rotavirus. Methods. VHH were expressed in Lactobacillus paracasei, in both secreted and cell surface-anchored forms. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the binding efficacy of VHH-expressing lactobacilli. To investigate the in vivo function of VHH-expressing lactobacilli, a mouse pup model of rotavirus infection was used. Results. Efficient binding of the VHH antibody fragments to rotavirus was shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and scanning electron microscopy. VHH fragments expressed by lactobacilli conferred a significant reduction in infection in cell cultures. When administered orally, lactobacilli-producing surface-expressed VHH markedly shortened disease duration, severity, and viral load in a mouse model of rotavirus-induced diarrhea when administered both fresh and in a freeze-dried form. Conclusions. Transformed lactobacilli may form the basis of a novel form of prophylactic treatment against rotavirus infections and other diarrheal diseases.

Pant, N., et al. (2006). "Lactobacilli expressing variable domain of llama heavy-chain antibody fragments (lactobodies) confer protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea." Journal of Infectious Diseases 194(11): 1580-1588.

Background. Rotavirus-induced diarrhea poses a worldwide medical problem in causing substantial morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. We therefore developed a system for passive immunotherapy in which recombinant lactobacilli constitutively express neutralizing variable domain of llama heavy-chain (VHH) antibody fragments against rotavirus. Methods. VHH were expressed in Lactobacillus paracasei, in both secreted and cell surface-anchored forms. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the binding efficacy of VHH-expressing lactobacilli. To investigate the in vivo function of VHH-expressing lactobacilli, a mouse pup model of rotavirus infection was used. Results. Efficient binding of the VHH antibody fragments to rotavirus was shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and scanning electron microscopy. VHH fragments expressed by lactobacilli conferred a significant reduction in infection in cell cultures. When administered orally, lactobacilli-producing surface-expressed VHH markedly shortened disease duration, severity, and viral load in a mouse model of rotavirus-induced diarrhea when administered both fresh and in a freeze-dried form. Conclusions. Transformed lactobacilli may form the basis of a novel form of prophylactic treatment against rotavirus infections and other diarrheal diseases.

Panuska, C., et al. (2006). "Isotype-specific serum IgG responses of llamas (Lama glama) to experimental liver fluke infection." Small Ruminant Research 61(2/3): 195-199.

The humoral immune system of South American camelids is unusual in that a large component of the IgG comprises heavy chains only. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of these and conventional four chain IgG antibodies to the immune response of llamas in the course of primary infections with the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Isotypes of IgG were isolated by affinity chromatography and the production of various isotypes determined by ELISA. Both conventional and heavy-chain only isotypes of F. hepatica-specific IgG were detected in the course of the infection. The conventional four-chain antibody, IgG1, predominated but a marked increase was also detected in the heavy-chain only isotype IgG3. IgG2, another heavy-chain only isotype, was a minor component of the fluke specific response.

Pardo Garci\a, G. n. (1954). U. Z. llama al espacio. Me\0301xico, Cuadernos Americanos.

Parisien, A. (2009). Over-expression in Escherichia coli of the ToxA5.1 llama single domain antibody targeting Clostridium difficile enterotoxin A.

Parisien, A. (2010). Surexpression chez Escherichia coli de l'anticorps à domaine simple ToxA5.1 provenant du lama et ayant pour cible l'entérotoxine A produite par Clostridium difficile = Over-expression in Escherichia coli of the ToxA5.1 llama single domain antibody targeting Clostridium difficile enterotoxin A. Ottawa.

Parisien, A. (2013). Large-Scale Production in 'Escherichia coli' TG1 and Purification of Llama Single Domain Antibody ToxA5.1 Against 'Clostridium difficile' Toxin A, University of, Ottawa.

Drug resistant strains of Clostridium difficile are a major health concern with over 3 million cases costing over 1 billion $ per year in the United-States. The diseases associated with these bacteria (CDAD) are toxin-mediated which offers a mean of treating and lessening the severity of CDAD symptoms. Toxin inactivation via antibodies therapy can drastically reduce CDAD morbidity and this project was aiming at investigating the large-scale production and recovery of a novel llama single domain antibody (pSJF2H-ToxA5.1) in recombinant Escherichia coli TG1 targeting C. difficile enterotoxin A (TcdA). In order to achieve these objectives, the project was divided into four segments: 1) ToxA5.1 being an intracellular recombinant protein, obtaining a high biomass production was the first step towards large-scale production. To achieve HCDC, effects of initial glucose concentration and pH-stat feeding strategy were studied; 2) Upon achieving HCDC, effects of parameters such as temperature, induction timing and media supplementation with complex nitrogen sources were investigated; 3) Once large-scale production of ToxA5.1 was obtained, the recombinant protein needed to be recovered and a selective cell lysis scheme where synergistic lysis effects of Triton X-100 and temperature were studied. And finally 4) Single-step purification using nickel nanoparticles (NNP) synthesized via a modified polyol method was studied. Combining the HCDC strategy with a temperature shift and yeast extract addition at the time of induction, ToxA5.1 concentration of 127 mg/L was obtained. Synergistic and selective cell lysis using Triton X-100 and temperature was achieved where 95% of the available ToxA5.1 was recovered and still functional while ToxA5.1 fraction in the resulting lysate increased to 27% in the cell lysate. Single-step purification was achieved using the synthesized NNP which proved to be highly selective and could be used up to five times. Diameter of the NNP synthesized was controlled by using various concentration of ranging from 131 ± 80 nm to 47 ± 20 nm. Using experimental data from binding isotherm, the ToxA5.1-NNP system was modeled.

Parker, L. (1972). Llama's almanac. Gloucester, Mass, Llama's Allmanac.

Parraguez, V. H., et al. (1997). "Early pregnancy diagnosis in alpaca (Lama pacos) and llama (Lama glama) by ultrasound." Animal Reproduction Science 47(1/2): 113-121.

This study examined pregnancy diagnosis using ultrasonography in 19 alpacas and 12 llamas after controlled mating. The results showed that pregnancy diagnosis may be carried out as early as 9 and 7 days after mating in alpacas and llamas respectively. The formulae that best described the relationship between gestational sac diameter (GSD, cm) and gestational age (GA, days) were: GA = log GSD + 1.2339÷0.0585 for alpacas, and GA = log GSD + 1.2649÷0.0546 for llamas. The results showed that ultrasonography is a reliable technique for early pregnancy diagnosis in both species.

Pasquel H, S., et al. (2011). "Determination of the presence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in alpacas and llamas in the Puno region." Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Perú (RIVEP) 22(3): 278-282.

The presence of Camplylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis in South American camelides was evaluated. The animals were from the INIA-Quimsachata Research Centre located in the department of Puno. Vaginal and preputial swabs were collected from 244 alpacas and llamas between February and March 2007. Samples were analyzed by the direct immunofluorescence test using a commercial conjugate. None of the samples resulted positive. The probable mean prevalences using the @Risk software were 0.069 and 0.096% in alpacas and llamas respectively.

Patel, J. H., et al. (2004). "Renal teratoma in a llama." Canadian Veterinary Journal 45(11): 938-940.

Teratomas are neoplasms of embryonal origin in domestic animals and are generally associated with reproductive organs. We report a case of teratoma involving the right kidney in a young llama that presented clinically with signs of mild colic and constipation.

Patil, S. B., et al. (2015). "Decoupling competing surface binding kinetics and reconfiguration of receptor footprint for ultrasensitive stress assays." Nat Nanotechnol 10(10): 899-907.

Cantilever arrays have been used to monitor biochemical interactions and their associated stress. However, it is often necessary to passivate the underside of the cantilever to prevent unwanted ligand adsorption, and this process requires tedious optimization. Here, we show a way to immobilize membrane receptors on nanomechanical cantilevers so that they can function without passivating the underlying surface. Using equilibrium theory, we quantitatively describe the mechanical responses of vancomycin, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antigens and coagulation factor VIII captured on the cantilever in the presence of competing stresses from the top and bottom cantilever surfaces. We show that the area per receptor molecule on the cantilever surface influences ligand-receptor binding and plays an important role on stress. Our results offer a new way to sense biomolecules and will aid in the creation of ultrasensitive biosensors. AN - 26280409

Patitucci, A. N., et al. (2006). "Serum antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in llamas and alpacas from Chile." Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 38(2): 179-182.

Serum samples from 113 llamas (Lama glama) and 127 alpacas (Lama pacos) from the IX and V Regions, respectively, of Chile were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The modified agglutination test (MAT) was used in both species and titres of 1:25 were considered diagnostically significant. Sera from 49 llamas (43.3%) and 15 alpacas (11.8%) were positive for T. gondii. Percentage seropositivity in serum dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, 1:500 and 1:5000 was 17.6, 7.9, 14.1 and 3.5% in llamas and 0, 2.3, 0.7 and 8.6% in alpacas. The rather low prevalence in alpacas may be associated with geographical conditions, management practices or contact with cats rather than different species susceptibility. As expected, older animals showed higher T. gondii reactivity than young animals.

Patterson, W. A. (1996). Influence of llama, horse, and foot traffic on soil erosion from established recreation trails in western Montana.

Pauciullo, A. and G. Erhardt (2015). "Molecular Characterization of the Llamas (Lama glama) Casein Cluster Genes Transcripts (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3) and Regulatory Regions." PLoS One 10(4): e0124963.

In the present paper, we report for the first time the characterization of llama (Lama glama) caseins at transcriptomic and genetic level. A total of 288 casein clones transcripts were analysed from two lactating llamas. The most represented mRNA populations were those correctly assembled (85.07%) and they encoded for mature proteins of 215, 217, 187 and 162 amino acids respectively for the CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3 genes. The exonic subdivision evidenced a structure made of 21, 9, 17 and 6 exons for the αs1-, β-, αs2- and κ-casein genes respectively. Exon skipping and duplication events were evidenced. Two variants A and B were identified in the αs1-casein gene as result of the alternative out-splicing of the exon 18. An additional exon coding for a novel esapeptide was found to be cryptic in the κ-casein gene, whereas one extra exon was found in the αs2-casein gene by the comparison with the Camelus dromedaries sequence. A total of 28 putative phosphorylated motifs highlighted a complex heterogeneity and a potential variable degree of post-translational modifications. Ninety-six polymorphic sites were found through the comparison of the lama casein cDNAs with the homologous camel sequences, whereas the first description and characterization of the 5'- and 3'-regulatory regions allowed to identify the main putative consensus sequences involved in the casein genes expression, thus opening the way to new investigations -so far- never achieved in this species. AN - 25923814

Pauciullo, A. and G. Erhardt (2015). "Molecular characterization of the llamas (Lama glama) casein cluster genes transcripts (CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, CSN3) and regulatory regions." PLoS One 10(4): e0124963.

In the present paper, we report for the first time the characterization of llama (Lama glama) caseins at transcriptomic and genetic level. A total of 288 casein clones transcripts were analysed from two lactating llamas. The most represented mRNA populations were those correctly assembled (85.07%) and they encoded for mature proteins of 215, 217, 187 and 162 amino acids respectively for the CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2 and CSN3 genes. The exonic subdivision evidenced a structure made of 21, 9, 17 and 6 exons for the αs1-, β-, αs2- and κ-casein genes respectively. Exon skipping and duplication events were evidenced. Two variants A and B were identified in the αs1-casein gene as result of the alternative out-splicing of the exon 18. An additional exon coding for a novel esapeptide was found to be cryptic in the κ-casein gene, whereas one extra exon was found in the αs2-casein gene by the comparison with the Camelus dromedaries sequence. A total of 28 putative phosphorylated motifs highlighted a complex heterogeneity and a potential variable degree of post-translational modifications. Ninety-six polymorphic sites were found through the comparison of the lama casein cDNAs with the homologous camel sequences, whereas the first description and characterization of the 5'- and 3'-regulatory regions allowed to identify the main putative consensus sequences involved in the casein genes expression, thus opening the way to new investigations -so far- never achieved in this species.

Pauciullo, A., et al. (2016). "Lama glama αS1-casein: Identification of new polymorphisms at the CSN1S1 gene." J Dairy Sci.

South American camelids have been poorly genetically investigated and little information is available in llamas (Lama glama) regarding the diversity of the caseins at the protein and gene level. Exon skipping and duplication events previously reported in the αS1-casein gene (CSN1S1) led us to investigate the genetic variability at this locus. Seventy-two positive clones for the αS1-casein transcripts were analyzed and randomly sequenced. The comparative analysis of the sequences revealed 2 transitions, c.366A>G and c.690T>C, at the 10th nucleotide of exon 12 and 94 bp of exon 19, respectively. These SNP are responsible for 2 amino acid changes, Ile→Val in position 86 and Tyr→His in position 194 of the mature protein. Both polymorphisms clarify the genetic events behind the protein variants A and B. This result was confirmed by isoelectric focusing analysis of llama milk samples. Quick methods based on PCR-RFLP and allele-specific PCR were set up for allelic discrimination in a population of 128 animals. Based on genotyping results, 4 haplotypes were observed and the estimated frequencies indicated B as the most common haplotype (0.629) in the investigated population. These data add knowledge to the genetic variability of a species little investigated, and open opportunity for new investigation in the field of milk protein for South American camelids, including the possibility, in the future, to select alleles with favorable characteristics. AN - 27939542

Paul-Murphy, J., et al. (1989). "Immune response of the llama (Lama glama) to tetanus toxoid vaccination." American Journal of Veterinary Research 50(8): 1279-1281.

An ELISA was developed to measure serum concentrations of tetanus toxoid-specific immunoglobulins. The titres obtained with this assay were compatible with those obtained by the standard mouse toxin-neutralization test. Serum samples from 123 llamas were analysed for ELISA titres to tetanus toxoid. Of the 82 vaccinated adults, 75 (91%) had titres ≥ 1:50. The vaccination status and titres of weanlings and juveniles (3 to 12 months old) varied; of the 21 vaccinated, 17 (81%) had titres ≥ 1:50 and 7 of 9 (78%) unvaccinated llamas had titres &lt; 1:50. The ELISA titres of unvaccinated llamas &lt; 8 weeks old (crias) were matched with the maternal titres. All crias with titres &lt; 1:50 had dams with titres ≥ 1:50.

Paul-Murphy, J., et al. (1991). "Urinary steroid evaluations to monitor ovarian function in exotic ungulates: VIII. Correspondence of urinary and plasma steroids in the Llama (Lama glama) during nonconceptive and conceptive cycles." Zoo Biology 10(3): 225-236.

Plasma oestradiol and progesterone concentrations, and urinary concentrations of oestrogen conjugates and 2 progesterone metabolites (pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) and immunoreactive PdG (iPdG)) were studied in 2 mature ♀ llamas during 2 ovarian cycles in which conception occurred and 5 in which it did not. Ovulation was induced by administration of GnRH or copulation with a vasectomised or intact ♂. Oestrogen concentrations in urine corresponded to oestradiol levels in plasma, and accurately reflected changes in follicular activity when evaluated over several daily samples. Plasma progesterone and urinary iPdG were reliable indicators of luteal function. The results show that either blood or urinary hormone measurement can be used to assess changes in ovarian activity.

Paul-Murphy, J. R., et al. (1991). "Radiographic findings in young llamas with forelimb valgus deformities: 28 cases (1980-1988)." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 198(12): 2107-2111.

Twenty-eight llamas with a mean age of 6.2 months had bilateral forelimb valgus deformities. The range of valgus deformity, as measured on a craniocaudal radiographic view, was 6 to 25 degrees, with a similar degree of deviation in each limb. Morphological abnormalities in the distal portion of the radius and ulna were more prominent in the ulna and included metaphyseal and epiphyseal flaring, physeal ectasia, and metaphyseal sclerosis. Distal radial epiphyseal wedging was believed to be secondary to the ulnar deformity. Radial bowing with lateral and caudal concavity and unequal cortical thickness was evident. Epiphyseal and metaphyseal flaring with physeal ectasia was noticed in the distal portion of the third and fourth metacarpal bones. Carpal bones were unaffected.

Paulsen, M. E., et al. (1989). "Bilateral chorioretinitis, centropetal optic neuritis, and encephalitis in a llama." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 194(9): 1305-1308.

Pausch, I. (2015). "Slaughter of the animal species llama and animal welfare - a progress report." Fleischwirtschaft 95(8): 98-106.

The wish of llama holders to produce high-quality meat of their own animals also in Germany appears increase for some years. The missing training possibility according to regulation on the protection of animals in connection with slaughter and killing of the animal species llama turned out obstacle for the otherwise expert butchers by the responsible authority. The consideration of the anatomical speciality with the llama and the conversion of the captive bolt device stunning analogously of the procedure with sheep - with slightly changes - proved a sufficient stunning effect. The following blood removal certainly led to the death before reentry of the sensibility. However, no statistically secure statement results from the assessment (evaluation) of four killed llamas. Therefore, further research are indicated to be able to set up a training with check for the prospective customers in the llama butchering. The captive bolt device stunning with medium strong to strong cargo has turned out procedure optimum currently vertically on the centre of the line between basis of the ears. A rostrale movement around to 1.5 cm of it appears to be possible without interference of the stunning effect.

Pavlović, I., et al. (1992). "Helminth fauna of bison, camels, llamas, Barbary, Somali and domestic sheep, and goats in Belgrade zoo in 1990." Veterinarski Glasnik 46(5): 271-275.

Faecal examinations detected Neoascaris vitulorum, Cooperia, and Haemonchus contortus in 8 bison, Strongyloides, Camelostrongylus mentalis, and Moniezia expansa in a Bactrian camel, the latter 3 species and Oesophagostum columbianum in 6 dromedaries, and Fasciola gigantica, Trichostrongylus axei, and Strongyloides in llamas. The species found in the sheep and goats included Chabertia ovina, Trichostrongylus axei, T. capricola, Marshallagia marshalli; Trichuris ovis, Nematodirus spathiger, Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumincta, and Dicrocoelium dendriticum.

Pawlinski, S. (2014). Neonatal septicemia in a llama cria.

Paz, O. (1994). La llama doble : amor y erotismo. Barcelona, Seix Barral.

Pearson, E. G., et al. (1986). "Suspected chlorpyrifos toxicosis in a llama, and plasma pseudocholinesterase activity in llamas given chlorpyrifos." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 189(9): 1062-1064.

Five days after treatment with chlorpyrifos, a 1.5 year-old male llama was unable to stand, had saliva flowing from its mouth, and had constricted pupils, hyperglycaemia, a metabolic acidosis, and a plasma pseudocholinesterase activity of 111 IU/L. Mean (± 1 SD) plasma pseudocholinesterase activity of 29 healthy llamas was 233.76 ± 51.55 IU/L. Five to 8 days after topical application of chlorpyrifos (25 mg/kg of body weight) to 3 healthy llamas, the pseudocholinesterase activity decreased to 38-62% of pretreatment (base-line) activity and returned to within 90% of base-line activity by the 36th to 48th day after treatment.

Peauroi, J. R., et al. (1995). "Anemia, Hematuria, and Multicentric Urinary Neoplasia in a Llama (Lama glama) Exposed to Bracken Fern." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 26(2): 315-320.

An adult male llama (Lama glama) was euthanized because of severe chronic hematuria and accompanying anemia. Pathology was limited to the urinary system and consisted of multicentric bilateral transitional cell carcinoma of the renal calyces, ureteral transitional cell papilloma, and diffuse urothelial hyperplasia. This animal had been pastured for years in an area contaminated with the carcinogen-containing plant bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). The lesions in this animal resembled those seen in cattle consuming bracken fern, and it appears that llamas may be susceptible to the urinary carcinogenic effects of bracken fern.

Peauroi, J. R., et al. (1995). "Anemia, hematuria, and multicentric urinary neoplasia in a llama (Lama glama) exposed to bracken fern." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 26(2): 315-320.

An adult male llama was killed because of severe chronic haematuria and accompanying anaemia. Pathology was limited to the urinary system and consisted of multicentric bilateral transitional cell carcinoma of the renal calyces, ureteral transitional cell papilloma and diffuse urothelial hyperplasia. The llama had been pastured for years in an area contaminated with the carcinogen-containing plant bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). The lesions in this animal resembled those seen in cattle consuming bracken fern and it appears that llamas may be susceptible to the urinary carcinogenic effects of bracken fern.

Peduzzi, F. (2008). "The rearing of llamas in southern Potosí, Bolivia. An analysis of the experience of the AZCCAs (Zonal Associations of Llama Breeders)." Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development 102(1/2): 161-181.

ARCCA (Asociación Regional de Craidores de Camélidos - Regional Association of Camelid Breeders) and the AZCCAs are Bolivian organizations that aim to promote the value of products from llamas. These include llama fibres (wool), meat and hide, and are the principal source of family income in the southern provinces of Potosí Department. The paper gives an account of the activities of the FORCAMELIDOS Project, which is being financed by the EU and executed by ACRA (Asociación Cooperación Rural en África y América Latino, an Italian non-governmental organization) and the local AZCCA. The project aims to improve the living conditions and economics of the livestock-raising families of the region, and its activities are oriented towards evaluating the development experience already gained by ARCCA in strengthening organizational and administrative capacities, improving knowledge of the commercial aspects of llama products, implementing an appropriate communication system, and making local and sectoral policy proposals. An analysis is also being made of the principal production systems (farming systems and artisanal production) of the southern Potosí region, with attention to population dynamics and socioeconomic strategies.

Pembro, C. a. (2013). Ollie : the diary of a llama farmer. Bath, Llama-rama Publishing.

Penedo, M. C. T., et al. (1988). "Genetic variation in the blood of llamas, Lama glama, and alpacas, Lama pacos." Animal Genetics 19(3): 267-276.

Blood samples of llamas and alpacas were typed using haemolytic, electrophoretic and isoelectric focusing procedures to assay polymorphism at 13 loci. Blood group variation was assessed using 6 antibody specificities produced by alloimmunization and heteroimmunization. Two erythrocyte factors (A and B) behaved as autosomal, codominant alleles at a closed locus, designated A. The other 4 factors (C, D, E and F) behaved as autosomal, dominant traits. Variation was found for the erythrocyte enzymes catalase, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose phosphate isomerase, and for Tf and postalbumin. No variants were found for Hb, phosphoglucomutase and albumin. Estimates of probability of exclusion were 0.88 for llamas and 0.68 for alpacas, which are adequate initial levels of efficacy for parentage verification. A preliminary estimate of Nei's genetic distance (D) suggested that llamas and alpacas are more likely to be related as subspecies than as separate species.

Penedo, M. C. T. and R. K. Juneja (1989). "Polymorphic plasma postalbumin (Po) of llamas and alpacas." Animal Genetics 20(2): 221-223.

Immunoblotting with antiserum specific to human Gc protein (vitamin D binding protein) was used to identify Gc protein as the previously reported polymorphic plasma postalbumin (Po) of llamas and alpacas. One Gc variant appeared to be identical in llamas, alpacas, dromedaries and bactrian camels.

Pentecost, R. L., et al. (2015). "Absorption and disposition of florfenicol after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous dosing in alpacas." Res Vet Sci 99: 199-203.

The objectives of this study were to define disposition and systemic availability of florfenicol in alpacas. Administration of 20 mg/kg doses to 8 male alpacas by i.v., i.m. and s.c. routes was performed by randomized, 3-way crossover design. Clearance and steady state volumes (Vdss) after i.v. injection were 5 ml/min/kg and 775 ml/kg respectively. Mean residence time (MRT) and terminal phase half-life (T1/2λz) were 2.8 h and 2 h respectively. Maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) after i.m. were higher than s.c. administration (p = 0.034). After s.c. dosing, T1/2λz and MRT were greater than after i.m. injection (p < 0.001; p = 0.006 respectively). Mean absorption time (MAT) after s.c. dosing was also prolonged (p = 0.006). Fractional absorption of florfenicol after i.m. and s.c. was not different (p > 0.05). Serum florfenicol concentrations remained >1.0 µg/ml for 20 h after i.m. dosing. Differences in rate and extent of florfenicol absorption after extravascular dosing could influence therapeutic outcomes. AN - 25744433

Peralta, J. L., et al. (1994). "Isolation of Amblyomma parvitarsum in llamas in Catamarca, Argentina. First communication." Veterinaria Argentina 11(105): 327-331.

Fourteen (2 male and 12 female) ticks collected from llamas in La Ovejería area, were identified as A. parvitarsum. This appears to be the first report of the tick from this part of the country.

Perez, A. R. and P. Walker (2012, 2012///). "La sangre llama." from http://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/etd/8/.

Author's abstract: LA SANGRE LLAMA is an exhibition of paintings featuring works by Alicia Perez. The series of paintings are acrylic on canvas all 24" x 36", and explore the contemporary Latino immigrant experience that often involves instability, acculturation, and loss of identity. The attire found on the subjects all vary in patterns and colors to represent different nationalities that fall under the umbrella of Hispanic Culture. Intentionally concealed faces in the paintings emphasize the belief that many Hispanic immigrants are frequently viewed as stereotypes, rather than individuals. LA SANGRE LLAMA, which translates to "the blood beckons," affirms the notion that regardless of geographic location, a person's roots will always remain where they began.

Pérez, P., et al. (2000). "Carcass characteristics of llamas (Lama glama) reared in Central Chile." Small Ruminant Research 37(1/2): 93-97.

Body and carcass composition were studied on 10 male and 10 female llamas (Lama glama) reared on natural pasture near Casablanca, Central Chile. Half the animals were young (9-12 months) and the other half adult (&gt;3 year). The average live weights for young and adult males were 104.4 and 100.6 kg, and for females 67.6 and 104.6 kg, respectively. Average carcass weights for the 4 groups were 58.9, 56.2, 36.8 and 56.7 kg, respectively. Carcass composition for males and females was similar, but males had slightly higher dressing percentages than females (56.1 and 55.8 vs. 54.1 and 54.2 for young and adult males and females, respectively). Carcass length and fat depth at the loin and proportions of cuts in the carcass were similar for both the sexes, except for leg and tail, which were proportionately heavier in young females compared to the other groups. The composition of meat on fresh basis was: moisture 70.2%, protein 20.5%, ether extract 8.23% and ash 1.0%. It is concluded that age and sex seemed to have no effects on the body and carcass characteristics studied nor on the chemical composition of meat.

Perkins, N. R., et al. (1996). "Endocrine diagnosis of cryptorchidism in a llama." Australian Veterinary Journal 74(4): 275-277.

Perruchini, C., et al. (2009). "Llama VHH antibody fragments against GFAP: better diffusion in fixed tissues than classical monoclonal antibodies." Acta Neuropathologica 118(5): 685-695.

Camelids produce antibodies made of homodimeric heavy chains, and the antigen-binding region being composed of a single domain called VHH. These VHHs are much smaller than complete IgG. They are also more thermostable and more soluble in water; they should, therefore, diffuse more readily in the tissues. VHHs, expressed in bacteria, are easier to produce than conventional monoclonal antibodies. Because of these special characteristics, these antibody fragments could have interesting developments in immunohistochemistry and in the development of biomarkers. To test the possibility of their use in immunohistochemistry (IHC), we selected the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a well-known marker of astrocytes. One alpaca (Lama pacos) was immunized against GFAP. Lymphocytes were isolated; the DNA was extracted; the VHH-coding sequences were selectively amplified. Three VHHs with a high affinity for GFAP and their corresponding mRNA were selected by ribosome display. Large quantities of the recombinant VHHs coupled with different tags were harvested from transfected bacteria. One of them was shown to immunolabel strongly and specifically to GFAP of human astrocytes in tissue sections. The quality of the IHC was comparable or, in some aspects, superior to the quality obtained with conventional IgG. The VHH was shown to diffuse on a longer distance than conventional monoclonal antibodies in fixed cortical tissue: a property that may be useful in immunolabeling of thick sections.

Pessatti, M. V., et al. (2001). "Clinical examination of llamas." Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari 22(4): 63-66.

Normal values for blood cells, haemoglobin, 8 other blood constituents, rectal temperature, heart rate, breathing rate and urine properties were derived from 20 male or female llamas aged 3-12 years.

Peters, K. M. and V. Meneses (1993). Practice in the translation of poetic discourse : a translation of selected poems from Llama en el Aire by Vidaluz Meneses.

Petsalaki, E., et al. (2015). "SELPHI: correlation-based identification of kinase-associated networks from global phospho-proteomics data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 43(W1): W276-282.

While phospho-proteomics studies have shed light on the dynamics of cellular signaling, they mainly describe global effects and rarely explore mechanistic details, such as kinase/substrate relationships. Tools and databases, such as NetworKIN and PhosphoSitePlus, provide valuable regulatory details on signaling networks but rely on prior knowledge. They therefore provide limited information on less studied kinases and fewer unexpected relationships given that better studied signaling events can mask condition- or cell-specific 'network wiring'. SELPHI is a web-based tool providing in-depth analysis of phospho-proteomics data that is intuitive and accessible to non-bioinformatics experts. It uses correlation analysis of phospho-sites to extract kinase/phosphatase and phospho-peptide associations, and highlights the potential flow of signaling in the system under study. We illustrate SELPHI via analysis of phospho-proteomics data acquired in the presence of erlotinib-a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-in cancer cells expressing TKI-resistant and -sensitive variants of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor. In this data set, SELPHI revealed information overlooked by the reporting study, including the known role of MET and EPHA2 kinases in conferring resistance to erlotinib in TKI sensitive strains. SELPHI can significantly enhance the analysis of phospho-proteomics data contributing to improved understanding of sample-specific signaling networks. SELPHI is freely available via http://llama.mshri.on.ca/SELPHI. AN - 25948583

Peyrassol, X., et al. (2016). "Development by Genetic Immunization of Monovalent Antibodies (Nanobodies) Behaving as Antagonists of the Human ChemR23 Receptor." J Immunol 196(6): 2893-2901.

The generation of Abs that recognize the native conformation of G protein-coupled receptors can be a challenging task because, like most multimembrane-spanning proteins, they are extremely difficult to purify as native protein. By combining genetic immunization, phage display, and biopanning, we identified two functional monovalent Abs (nanobodies) targeting ChemR23. The two nanobodies (CA4910 and CA5183) were highly specific for the human receptor and bind ChemR23 with moderate affinity. Binding studies also showed that they share a common binding site that overlaps with that of chemerin, the natural ligand of ChemR23. Consistent with these results, we found that the nanobodies were able to antagonize chemerin-induced intracellular calcium increase. The inhibition was partial when chemerin was used as agonist and complete when the chemerin(149-157) nonapeptide was used as agonist. Engineering of a bivalent CA4910 nanobody resulted in a relatively modest increase in affinity but a marked enhancement of efficacy as an antagonist of chemerin induced intracellular calcium mobilization and a much higher potency against the chemerin(149-157) nonapeptide-induced response. We also demonstrated that the fluorescently labeled nanobodies detect ChemR23 on the surface of human primary cell populations as efficiently as a reference mouse mAb and that the bivalent CA4910 nanobody behaves as an efficient antagonist of chemerin-induced chemotaxis of human primary cells. Thus, these nanobodies constitute new tools to study the role of the chemerin/ChemR23 system in physiological and pathological conditions. AN - 26864035

Pfister, J. A., et al. (1989). "Grazing behaviour of llamas, alpacas and sheep in the Andes of Peru." Applied Animal Behaviour Science 23(3): 237-246.

Llamas, alpacas and sheep graze jointly in many herds in the Andes. As foraging behaviour may be an important aspect of resource partitioning among camelids and sheep, activity budgets and feeding patterns during one wet and one dry season were quantified. Llamas generally spent more time at each feeding station than did alpacas and sheep. Bite rate differed among animal species with alpacas &gt; llamas &gt; sheep. Llamas and alpacas had greater total grazing times than sheep. However, llamas divided their grazing time evenly among tall coarse bunchgrasses (Festuca dolichophylla, Calamagrostis vicunarum) and low-growing grasses (Muhlenbergia fastigiata, Poa candamoana), while alpacas and sheep spent the majority of their grazing time consuming low-growing grasses and forbs. Camelids and sheep appeared to occupy different foraging niches in the Andes. Llamas may be better adapted than alpacas and sheep to subsist on coarse forage in drier Andean regions as a consequence of their foraging behaviour.

Piñera, M., et al. (2015). "Detecting patients at risk of malnutrition. Can we improve?]." Aten Primaria 47(10 LA - spa): 675-676 ST - [Detecting patients at risk of malnutrition. Can we improve?].

Picton, R. A. (1993). Serologic survey of llamas in Oregon for antibodies to viral diseases of livestock.

Serums from 270 llamas representing 21 farms throughout Oregon were obtained and assayed for antibody levels against viruses of livestock. These viral diseases included: bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 (PI-3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine adenovirus species 3 (BA3), equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), equine adenovirus (EA), equine influenza, subtypes 1 and 2 (EI-1, EI-2), equine viral arteritis (EVA), ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP), bluetongue (BT), vesicular stomatitis, New Jersey strain and Indiana strain (VSV-NJ, VSV-IN), and llama adenovirus strain 7649 (LA7649). Antibodies to Ehrlichia risticii (ER), the rickettsia) organism causing Potomac horse fever (PHF), were also assayed. Of the 270 llamas, 252 had antibodies to LA7649. A total of 60 llamas possessed antibodies to various viruses associated with livestock disease. Seven of these llamas had antibodies to more than one virus (excluding LA7649). Forty three exhibited antibodies to EA, 12 to BVD, and 12 to PI-3. Four had antibodies to BTV, 2 to BHV-1, and 2 to EI-1. One had antibodies to EI-2, one to EHV-1, and one to BRSV. All 270 llamas lacked antibodies to EVA, BA3, VSV-NJ, VSV-IN, OPP and ER. Presence and type of livestock were noted on each farm. Whether a llama was born on the farm or purchased and the length of time the llama had been on the farm was also noted.

Pipas, M. J. (1992). Epizootiology of Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in Pennsylvania and implications of transmission from white-tailed deer to llamas.

Pirie, C. G., et al. (2008). "Corneal epithelial inclusion cyst in a Llama." Veterinary Ophthalmology 11(2): 111-113.

A 13-year-old, female Llama presented for evaluation of a limbal based corneal mass involving the OD of 4 months duration. The mass was excised en bloc by a nonpenetrating keratectomy, followed by placement of a conjunctival advancement flap covering the keratectomy site. The mass was submitted for histological evaluation. Histopathology identified the mass to be a corneal epithelial inclusion cyst filled with necrotic squamous and neutrophilic debris. Surgical excision was complete and considered curative with no signs of recurrence 3 months postoperatively. There was no known prior ocular trauma; however, a previously performed corneal biopsy for evaluation of recurrent epithelial erosions may have been an initiating cause.

Pla, J. (1987). La llama y la arena. [Asuncio\0301n, Paraguay], Alca\0301ndara.

Plant, J. D., et al. (2007). "Efficacy of topical eprinomectin in the treatment of Chorioptes sp. infestation in alpacas and llamas." Veterinary Dermatology 18(1): 59-62.

Chorioptes sp. mite infestation is increasingly recognized as a cause of skin disease in New World camelids and there is a need for an effective treatment protocol to eliminate herd infestation. In this field trial, eprinomectin applied topically at the rate of 0.5 mg kg-1 weekly for 10 weeks was found to be ineffective in a herd of 12 llamas and 16 alpacas.

Poggio, T. V., et al. (2016). "Serology and longevity of immunity against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep and llama induced by an oil-based EG95 vaccine." Parasite Immunol 38(8 LA - eng): 496-502.

An oil-based formulation of the EG95 vaccine to protect grazing animals against infection with Echinococcus granulosus was formulated in Argentina. The efficacy of the vaccine was monitored by serology in sheep and llama (Lama glama) and was compared to the serology in sheep previously published using a QuilA-adjuvanted vaccine. Long-term efficacy was also tested in sheep by challenging with E. granulosus eggs of the G1 strain 4 years after the beginning of the trial. The serological results for both sheep and llama were similar to those described previously, except that there was a more rapid response after the first vaccination. A third vaccination given after 1 year resulted in a transient boost in serology that lasted for about 12 months, which was similar to results previously described. Sheep challenged after 4 years with three vaccinations presented 84·2% reduction of live cysts counts compared with control group, and after a fourth vaccination prior to challenge, this reduction was 94·7%. The oil-based vaccine appeared to be bio-equivalent to the QuilA vaccine. AN - 27104482

Poggio, T. V., et al. (2016). "Serology and longevity of immunity against Echinococcus granulosus in sheep and llama induced by an oil-based EG95 vaccine." Parasite Immunology 38(8): 496-502.

An oil-based formulation of the EG95 vaccine to protect grazing animals against infection with Echinococcus granulosus was formulated in Argentina. The efficacy of the vaccine was monitored by serology in sheep and llama (Lama glama) and was compared to the serology in sheep previously published using a QuilA-adjuvanted vaccine. Long-term efficacy was also tested in sheep by challenging with E. granulosus eggs of the G1 strain 4 years after the beginning of the trial. The serological results for both sheep and llama were similar to those described previously, except that there was a more rapid response after the first vaccination. A third vaccination given after 1 year resulted in a transient boost in serology that lasted for about 12 months, which was similar to results previously described. Sheep challenged after 4 years with three vaccinations presented 84.2% reduction of live cysts counts compared with control group, and after a fourth vaccination prior to challenge, this reduction was 94.7%. The oil-based vaccine appeared to be bio-equivalent to the QuilA vaccine.

Polidori, P., et al. (2007). "Tenderness evaluation and mineral levels of llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) meat." Meat science 77(4): 599-601.

Tenderness and mineral levels were determined in the Longissimus thoracis taken from 20 llama and 30 alpaca males reared in Peru and slaughtered at 25 months of age. Mineral contents were determined using an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. Tenderness evaluation was determined two and seven days post slaughter using a Warner-Bratzler shear force device. Potassium is the mineral with the highest content, with a significant difference (P&lt;0.05) between the two species of camelids. The other mineral contents were, in decreasing order, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium and calcium, in addition to smaller percentages of zinc and iron. Shear force values determined seven days post slaughter were significantly (P&lt;0.01) lower in both the species compared with the results obtained two days post slaughter.

Polidori, P., et al. (2007). "Llama meat nutritional properties." Italian Journal of Animal Science 6(Supplement 1): 857-858.

The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the muscle Longissimus thoracis taken from 20 llama males, reared in the Andean region, slaughtered at an age of 25 months and at a mean final body weight of 74 kg. Llama meat showed a low fat (3.51%) and cholesterol content (58.16 mg/100 g), a good protein content (22.42%) and an ash content of 3.06%. The Warner-Bratzler shear force values determined in llama meat was 6.56 kg/cm2. This study confirmed that llama meat is healthy and nutritious, and represents a good source of proteins for Andean population.

Polidori, P., et al. (2007). "Meat fatty acid composition of llama (Lama glama) reared in the Andean highlands." Meat science 75(2): 356-358.

This study reports the results of the chemical analysis of the Longissimus thoracis and lumborum taken from 20 llama males, reared in the Andean highlands. The animals were slaughtered at 25 months and had a mean final body weight of 63 kg. Llama meat shows a low fat (3.51%) and cholesterol content (56.29 mg/100 g). The fatty acid composition in llama meat contains 50.34% saturated fatty acids, 42.48% monounsaturated fatty acids and 7.18% polyunsaturated fatty acids. Llama meat appears to be a healthy alternative red meat choice.

Pollard, G. C. and I. M. Drew (1975). "Llama Herding and Settlement in Prehispanic Northern Chile: Application of an Analysis for Determining Domestication." American Antiquity 40(3): 296-305.

A new technique involving microscopy distinguishes wild from domestic camelids in collections from archaeological deposits in the Atacama Desert. Results of the faunal analysis provide additional critical data which allow a more complete reconstruction of the changes in economic and settlement patterns and of the cultural processes these changes may have involved.

Porcel R, R. E. (2016). "Comparative histological study of reproductive mechanism of female llama (Lama glama). Ovary and oviduct."

Potter, K. and J. L. Young (1994). "Three cases of hepatic neoplasia in llamas." Veterinary Medicine 89(9): 914-916.

Potts, L. K. (1998). Of lentils and llamas, and other stories from the Palouse & writing truthfully in fiction an essay.

Pouillon, C., et al. (2001). Suckling behaviour of llama (Lama glama). Wageningen, Wageningen Pers: 135-139.

Six llamas and their offspring, born between January and August 1997, were observed from the day of birth of the first cria (January 1997) until the last-born cria was six months old (February 1998). The suckling behaviour, frequency and duration were determined. The main suckling position observed was the reverse parallel position (79%). In most cases, the cria initiated the suckling bout (93.2%) which lasted for an average of 108±60 seconds. The was a significant correlation between the suckling frequency and the age of the crias (P&lt;0.05). In the first month of life, the crias suckled on average 18.5±5.0 times a day. At the age of 6 months, the crias suckled an average of 8.0±2.4 times a day. Crias suckled shorter during the day (107±61 seconds) than during the night (118±45 seconds) (P&lt;0.05). The suckling frequency was significantly higher at daytime (11.3±5.3) than at night (3.2±2.0). The total time spent suckling per day and the suckling frequency showed a significant decrease with the increasing age of the crias. In the first month of life, the crias suckled for 25.5±13.7 min during the day, while at 6 months of age, the crias suckled for 14.6±4.4 min.

Poulsen, K. P., et al. (2005). "Pharmacokinetics of oral omeprazole in llamas." Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 28(6): 539-543.

Gastrogard®, an oral formulation of omeprazole, was given to six llamas at a dose of 4 mg/kg once a day for 6 days. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h on days 1 and 6. Plasma omeprazole concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters calculated included the area under the curve (AUC0-∞), peak plasma concentration (Cmax), time of peak plasma concentration (Tmax), and terminal half-life (t1/2). On day 6, plasma omeprazole concentrations reached a Cmax of 0.12 µg/mL at a Tmax of 45 min. The t1/2 of omeprazole was 2.3 h and the AUC0-∞ was 0.38 h.µg/mL. Plasma concentrations remained above the minimum concentration for inhibition of gastric acid secretion projected from other studies on day 6 in all the llamas for approximately 6 h. However, the AUC0-∞ was below the concentrations associated with clinical efficacy. It was not possible to measure oral systemic bioavailability because there was no i.v. data collected from these animals. However, using data published on the i.v. pharmacokinetics of omeprazole in llamas, oral absorption was estimated to be only 2.95%. Due to low absorption the oral dose was increased to 8 and 12 mg/kg and studies were repeated. There were no significant differences in Cmax, Tmax, or AUC0-∞ for either of the increased doses. These results indicate that after 6 days of treatment with doses up to 12 mg/kg, oral omeprazole produced plasma drug concentrations which are not likely to be associated with clinical efficacy in camelids.

Powell, C. C., et al. (2002). "Aqueous misdirection and ciliary block (malignant) glaucoma after cataract removal in a llama." Veterinary Ophthalmology 5(2): 99-101.

Ciliary block (malignant) glaucoma is caused by the posterior flow of aqueous humour into or behind the vitreous. It is a rare complication of anterior segment surgery in humans. This is a report of ciliary block glaucoma occurring as a postoperative complication of cataract surgery in a llama. Medical management was ineffective in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP). Posterior capsulotomy and anterior hyaloid disruption with a 22-gauge needle, in addition to medical management maintained IOP in the normal range until anterior vitrectomy could be performed. After vitrectomy, glaucoma resolved and medical treatment was no longer necessary.

Powell, S. A. (1999). The relationship of estradiol to embryo-maternal interactions in the llama.

Powell, S. A., et al. (2007). "Estradiol production by preimplantation blastocysts and increased serum progesterone following estradiol treatment in llamas." Animal Reproduction Science 102(1/2): 66-75.

Estradiol is a potential candidate for the blastocyst signal responsible for maternal recognition of pregnancy in the llama (Lama glama). Two experiments were conducted to determine if the llama blastocyst produces estradiol during the presumed period of maternal recognition of pregnancy and if exogenou