Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 58
Year: 1990
Title: From the Centers for Disease Control. Rabies in a Llama--Oklahoma
Journal: JAMA
Volume: 263
Issue: 16
Pages: 2166
Date: Apr
Accession Number: 2319679
Keywords: Animals Artiodactyla Camelids, New World Dog Diseases Dogs Goat Diseases Goats Male Oklahoma Quarantine Rabies
Notes: eng
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2319679


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 59
Author: APPLEBY, E. C.; HEAD, K. W.
Year: 1954
Title: A case of suspected Johne's disease in a llama (L. glama)
Journal: J Comp Pathol
Volume: 64
Issue: 1
Pages: 52-3
Date: Jan
Accession Number: 13130719
Keywords: Animals Bacillus Camelids, New World Cattle Dysentery Dysentery, Bacillary Paratuberculosis
Notes: eng
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13130719


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 60
Author: Lubroth, J.; Yedloutschnig, R. J.; Culhane, V. K.; Mikiciuk, P. E.
Year: 1990
Title: Foot-and-mouth disease virus in the llama (Lama glama): diagnosis, transmission, and susceptibility
Journal: J Vet Diagn Invest
Volume: 2
Issue: 3
Pages: 197-203
Date: Jul
Accession Number: 1965585
Keywords: Animals Antibodies, Viral Antigens, Viral Aphthovirus Camelids, New World Cattle Cattle Diseases Complement Fixation Tests Disease Susceptibility Foot-and-Mouth Disease Male Neutralization Tests Swine Swine Diseases
Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was shown to be transmitted from either cattle to llamas, llamas to swine (interspecies), or llamas to llamas (intraspecies). Response to FMDV varied greatly in the 6 llamas studied; 3 llamas developed generalized clinical disease with mild pyrexia, 2 after intradermolingual inoculation, and 1 after exposure to a calf infected with FMDV serotype A24. Another contact llama developed vesicular lesions on all 4 extremities but no oral lesions. Two contact llamas, in separate study groups, did not seroconvert or develop clinical signs of FMDV infection. All 4 llamas showing clinical disease developed virus-neutralizing antibodies against FMDV A24 and antibodies against the virus-infection-associated antigen. Virus-neutralizing antibody titers remained elevated for over 200 days postinoculation or exposure. Antibodies to virus-infection-associated antigen were detected several days after virus-neutralizing antibody appeared and became weaker 100-125 days post-FMDV exposure in 3 of the 4 clinically affected llamas. One inoculated llama was still positive for virus-infection-associated antigen at 360 days after inoculation. Foot-and-mouth disease virus A24 was not detected from esophageal-pharyngeal fluid specimens beyond 8 days postexposure using in vitro techniques.
Notes: eng
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1965585


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 61
Author: Middleton, J. R.; Chigerwe, M.; Fine, D. M.; Turk, J. R.; Lattimer, J. C.
Year: 2006
Title: Pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure in an adult llama with hepatic disease
10.2460/javma.228.5.756
Journal: J Am Vet Med Assoc
Volume: 228
Issue: 5
Pages: 756-9
Date: Mar
Accession Number: 16506943
Keywords: Animals Camelids, New World Diagnosis, Differential Electrocardiography Fatal Outcome Female Heart Failure Hypertension, Pulmonary Liver Diseases
Abstract: A 13-year-old llama was examined because of lethargy, inappetence, and syncope.|Physical examination revealed muffled heart and lung sounds and peripheral edema. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included lymphopenia, hyperglycemia, prerenal azotemia, mild hyponatremia, mild hypoalbuminemia, and high gamma-glutamyltransferase and creatine kinase activities. On ultrasonography, the liver appeared hyperechoic and ascites and pleural effusion were seen. Echocardiography revealed severe dilatation of the right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary artery; severe tricuspid regurgitation; and high right ventricular systolic pressure consistent with right-sided heart failure secondary to pulmonary hypertension.|Treatment with furosemide was attempted, but because of failing health, the llama was euthanized 4 weeks later. Macronodular cirrhosis of the liver, glomerulonephritis, and intimal fibrosis and medial hypertrophy of muscular pulmonary arteries were seen on histologic examination of postmortem specimens.|Findings in this case were similar to those reported for human patients with portopulmonary hypertension secondary to hepatic cirrhosis. Pulmonary hypertension secondary to hepatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right-sided heart failure.
Notes: eng
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16506943


Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 62
Author: Sutmoller, P.
Year: 1999
Title: Risk of disease transmission by llama embryos
Journal: Rev Sci Tech
Volume: 18
Issue: 3
Pages: 719-28
Date: Dec
Accession Number: 10588016
Keywords: Animals Bluetongue Brucellosis Camelids, New World Computer Simulation Embryo Transfer Foot-and-Mouth Disease International Cooperation Models, Biological Probability Rhabdoviridae Infections Risk Assessment Risk Factors Tuberculosis Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus
Abstract: An assessment was made of the risk of transmission of foot and mouth disease (FMD), vesicular stomatitis, bluetongue, tuberculosis and brucellosis by llama embryos. The study suggests that embryo transfer is a safe method for the international movement of llama embryos despite the special characteristics of these embryos, such as the absence of a zona pellucida, and despite the lack of data on pathogen-embryo interactions. For acute viral diseases such as FMD, vesicular stomatitis or bluetongue, embryo transfer reduces the risk of international embryo movement by a factor of 10(4). Therefore, if favourable epidemiological or ecological conditions exist in the region of origin of the embryos, the risk of contamination of a batch of llama embryos with the above agents is close to zero. The risk of contamination with Mycobacterium or Brucella depends on the incidence of these diseases, but under the most unfavourable prevalence levels, the risk does not exceed 10(-3.3), given that the results of diagnostic tests of the herd and of donor animals are negative before and after collection of the embryos. This study demonstrates that risk assessment can be a valuable tool to facilitate international movement of embryos, particularly for those species for which little or no data are available regarding embryo-pathogen interactions.
Notes: eng
URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10588016

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 397

Author: Wernery, Ulrich; Kaaden, Oskar Ruger

Year: 2002

Title: Infectious diseases in camelids

Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag

ISBN: 3826333047

 

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 398

Author: Thedford, Thomas R; Johnson, LaRue W

Year: 1989

Title: Infectious diseases of New-World camelids (NWC)

Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice

Volume: 5

Issue: 1

Pages: 145-157

Alternate Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice

 

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 399

Author: Tibary, A; Fite, C; Anouassi, A; Sghiri, A

Year: 2006

Title: Infectious causes of reproductive loss in camelids

Journal: Theriogenology

Volume: 66

Issue: 3

Pages: 633-647

Alternate Journal: Theriogenology

 

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 400

Author: Wernery, U; Kaaden, O-R

Year: 2004

Title: Foot-and-mouth disease in camelids: a review

Journal: The Veterinary Journal

Volume: 168

Issue: 2

Pages: 134-142

Alternate Journal: The Veterinary Journal

 

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 401

Author: Lyashchenko, KP; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Meylan, M; Burri, I Hengrave; Zanolari, P

Year: 2007

Title: Antibody responses in New World camelids with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti

Journal: Veterinary microbiology

Volume: 125

Issue: 3

Pages: 265-273

Alternate Journal: Veterinary microbiology

 

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 402

Author: Kapil, Sanjay; Yeary, Teresa; Evermann, James F

Year: 2009

Title: Viral diseases of new world camelids

Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice

Volume: 25

Issue: 2

Pages: 323-337

Alternate Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice

 

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 403

Author: Conraths, FJ; Peters, M; Beer, M

Year: 2013

Title: Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus infection in ruminants in Europe: potential global impact and preventive measures

Journal: New Zealand Veterinary Journal

Volume: 61

Issue: 2

Pages: 63-67

Alternate Journal: New Zealand Veterinary Journal

 

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 404

Author: D Alterio, GL; Knowles, TG; Eknaes, EI; Loevland, IE; Foster, AP

Year: 2006

Title: Postal survey of the population of South American camelids in the United Kingdom in 2000/01

Journal: Veterinary record

Volume: 158

Issue: 3

Pages: 86

Alternate Journal: Veterinary record

 

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 405

Author: Zanolari, Patrik; Robert, N; Lyashchenko, KP; Pfyffer, GE; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Meylan, Mireille

Year: 2009

Title: Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti in South American camelids

Journal: Journal of veterinary internal medicine

Volume: 23

Issue: 6

Pages: 1266-1272

Alternate Journal: Journal of veterinary internal medicine

 

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 406

Author: Fowler, Murray E

Year: 2011

Title: Medicine and surgery of camelids

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470961694

 

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 407

Author: Mercado, EC; Rodríguez, SM; Elizondo, AM; Marcoppido, G; Parreño, V

Year: 2004

Title: Isolation of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from a South American camelid (Lama guanicoe) with diarrhea

Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology

Volume: 42

Issue: 10

Pages: 4809-4811

Alternate Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology

 

 

Reference Type: Book

Record Number: 408

Author: Wernery, Ulrich; Kinne, Jörg; Schuster, Rolf Karl

Year: 2014

Title: Camelid infectious disorders.

Publisher: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health)

ISBN: 9290449543

 

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 409

Author: Meyer, Gilles; Lacroux, Caroline; Leger, Sebastien; Top, Sokunthea; Goyeau, Katel; Deplanche, Martine; Lemaire, Mylene

Year: 2009

Title: Lethal bluetongue virus serotype 1 infection in llamas

Journal: Emerging infectious diseases

Volume: 15

Issue: 4

Pages: 608-611

Alternate Journal: Emerging infectious diseases

 

 

Reference Type: Journal Article

Record Number: 410

Author: Foster, AP; Houlihan, MG; Holmes, JP; Watt, EJ; Higgins, RJ; Errington, J; Ibata, G; Wakeley, PR

Year: 2007

Title: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection of alpacas (Vicugnapacos) in the UK.

Journal: Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association

Volume: 161

Issue: 3

Alternate Journal: Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association