See here and below

Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 613
Author: Sivasankar, M.
Year: 1999
Title: Immunodeficiency syndrome in a 3-year-old llama
Journal: Can Vet J
Volume: 40
Issue: 4
Pages: 271-2
Date: Apr
Accession Number: 10200887
Abstract: An adult, castrated male llama was presented for evaluation of a chronic respiratory problem. Complete blood analyses indicated a leukopenia and hypoproteinemia. Radial immunodiffusion, bone marrow core, and lymph node biopsies supported a tentative diagnosis of juvenile llama immunodeficiency syndrome. This diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem findings.
Notes: Sivasankar, M

Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 53
Year: 2016
Title: A Whole Farm Approach to Parasite Management
Abstract: By Karen Nicholson of Stepping Stone Farm Alpacas Internal parasites are a part of most every livestock producer's farm. Regardless of wh...

Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 54
Author: Ch; xe; vez, Vel; squez, A.; xc; lvarez, Garc; xed; a, G.; Collantes, Fern; ndez, E.; Casas-Astos, E.; Rosadio, Alc; ntara, R.; Serrano, Mart; nez, E.; Ortega-Mora, L. M.
Year: 2004
Title: First Report of Neospora caninum Infection in Adult Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and Llamas (Lama glama)
Journal: The Journal of Parasitology
Volume: 90
Issue: 4
Pages: 864-866
Abstract: Neospora caninum is a cyst-forming coccidian that mainly affects bovines, although Neospora infection has also been described in other domestic and wild ruminant species. Serum samples from 78 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and 73 llamas (Lama glama) at a unique dilution of 1:50 tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) were further analyzed serologically by IFAT and Western blot in both ruminant species to avoid cross-reactions with closely related coccidian parasites and to confirm the existence of N. caninum-specific antibodies. IFAT titers ranging between 1:50 and 1:800 were found. When using Western blot, N. caninum tachyzoite-specific immunodominant antigens with apparent molecular weights of 17-18, 34-35, 37, and 60-62 kDa were also recognized, although some sera with 1:50 IFAT titers proved not to have N. caninum-specific antibodies. As expected, higher IFAT titers were associated with higher anti-N. caninum reactivity in Western blot. This report documents for the first time the presence of N. canicum infection in adult alpacas and llmas from Peru.

Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 55
Author: Fagiolini, Mariarita; Lia, Riccardo P.; Laricchiuta, Piero; Cavicchio, Paolo; Mannella, Riccardo; Cafarchia, Claudia; Otranto, Domenico; Finotello, Riccardo; Perrucci, Stefania
Year: 2010
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 41
Issue: 4
Pages: 662-670
Abstract: The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was investigated in mammals housed in two of the main Italian zoological gardens: the Zoo Safari of Fasano (province of Bindisi, Apulia, Italy) and the Giardino Zoologico of Pistoia (Tuscany, Italy). In November 2007, fecal samples were collected at the Zoo Safari of Fasano (n = 96) and at the Giardino Zoologico of Pistoia (n = 60), from primates, carnivores, perissodactyls, artiodactyls and proboscideans. In most of the cases, the same animal species or genera were considered in both the zoos. One or more intestinal parasites were detected in 61.5% of the examined samples. However, very different percentages of protozoa- and helminth-positive samples were obtained in the animals from the two zoos, with an overall gastrointestinal parasitic infection of 77.1% in the Zoo Safari of Fasano and 36.7% in the Giardino Zoologico of Pistoia. Overall, 10% (Cryptosporidium sp.) and 43.3% (Toxocara cati, Strongyloides stercoralis, Toxascaris leonina, and hookworms) of carnivores, 66.7% (Cryptosporidium spp.) and 100% (Trichuris spp. and Strongyloides fülleborni) of primates, 25.0% (Eimeria spp., Cryptosporidium spp.), and 57.1% (Trichuris sp., Toxocara [Neoascaris] vitulorum, gastrointestinal strongyles, and Paramphistomidae) of artiodactyls were infected with protozoa and helminthes parasites, respectively. Only gastrointestinal strongyles were diagnosed in 16.7% of proboscideans and in 50.0% of perissodactyls examined. The results of this study suggest that zoonotic protozoans and gastrointestinal helminths are common in zoo mammals and that these animals may serve as a potential reservoir and transmit these parasites to humans. The different animal management in the two zoos indicates that the regular monitoring of parasitic diseases and the use of selective treatments can represent effective measures for the control of several gastrointestinal infections in zoological gardens.

Reference Type: Journal Article
Record Number: 56
Author: Karesh, William B.; Uhart, Marcela M.; Dierenfeld, Ellen S.; Braselton, W. Emmett; Torres, Alfonso; House, Carol; Puche, Helena; Cook, Robert A.
Year: 1998
Title: Health Evaluation of Free-Ranging Guanaco (Lama guanicoe)
Journal: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume: 29
Issue: 2
Pages: 134-141
Abstract: Twenty free-ranging guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in Chubut Province, Argentina, were immobilized for health evaluations. All but two animals appeared to be in good condition. Hematology, serum chemistry, and vitamin and mineral levels were measured, and feces were evaluated for parasites. Serology tests included bluetongue, brucellosis, bovine respiratory syncitial virus, bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease, equine herpesvirus 1, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Johne's disease (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis), foot and mouth disease, leptospirosis (17 serovars), parainfluenza-3, and vesicular stomatitis. Blood samples from 20 domestic sheep (Ovis aries) maintained in the same reserve with the guanaco were also collected at the same time for serology tests. No guanaco had positive serologic tests. Sheep were found to have antibody titers to bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Johne's disease, leptospirosis, and parainfluenza-3. There was no apparent difference in external appearance or condition, or statistical difference in blood test values, between the animals that were positive or negative for parasite ova.

Reference Type: Book
Record Number: 57
Author: Lusat, Jacqueline
Year: 2011
Title: Importance and management of mange mites and gastrontestinal parasites in Alpaca and Llama populations in the UK [electronic resource]
Publisher: University of Bristol
Call Number: British Library DSC DRT 549443
Notes: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Bristol, 2011. Includes bibliographical references. University of Bristol.

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SCOPS Publications:

All of the following (including this publication) can be found at in pdf format: Ectoparasite Control in Sheep. Proceedings of a Workshop February 2005.

Proceedings of the Technical Review of SCOPS Recommendations January 2009


• 10 things You Should Know (if you want to keep farming sheep)

• New Worm Control Strategies for Sheep. Taking the First Steps

• Correct Drenching Technique

• Quarantine treatments

• Sheep Scab Diagnosis and Control

• Blowfly Control

• Know Your Anthelmintics (2009)